Are library hours satisfactory vs by 49OJi7



 Sampling & Data Collection
 Elicits information from patrons- might be factual,
  opinion, or both
 Provides a quantitative or numeric description of
  trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by
  studying a sample of that population
                                                  Creswell
 Consistency of format and delivery

 What is the purpose of the research? Why is a
  survey the appropriate tool?
Survey Types
 Questionnaire
   Paper-based (i.e. self-administered)
   Can be administered to groups (e.g., Class
      Allows for clarification if necessary

      Typically higher response rates

 Interviews
    Structured/ Formal
    Identical questions
    Identical delivery
    Telephone or in-person
 Active
    Mailed
    By telephone
    In-person interviewing
    Distributed on location
    Web/ Online
    E-Mail/ Listserv

 Passive                      (surveys) are like bikinis.
    Comment Cards             What they reveal is interesting,
                               but what they conceal is
                                            -Kenneth Boulding
Survey Design: Population/ Sampling
 Define/ Enumerate Population
 Literacy/ Language Issues
    For self-administered
    i.e. Children
 Sample Selection
    Who is the respondent/ unit?
    Can they be found/ contacted? How?
          i.e. unlisted numbers and random dialing
     What size sample is needed?
     What response rate is acceptable?
Surveys: Finding & Designing
 Existing Instruments           Design Templates
    LibQual                        Surveymonkey
    WOREP                          Zoomerang
    Library Research
     Services Web list


             Advantages and Disadvantages?
Survey Design: Question Types
 Dichotomous: Two possible responses (yes/no;
  true/false; male/female)
      Have you used the public library in the past year?
 Level of Measurement: Rank order or scale questions
    Rank these library services in order of importance:
      availability of new releases, ability to renew online, new
      books on audio
    Which library services do you use (check all that apply)
    The library staff is helpful: Strongly Agree…
 Filter/ Contingency Questions
    If you answered no, skip to question 10…
 Screening Questions
    Have you ever taken an online tutorial?
Survey Questions
 Types of Questions
     Factual
     Opinion/ Attitude
     Self-perception
     Information knowledge
     Standards of action
     Past or present behavior
Survey Design: Question Content
 Are all questions useful/ necessary: level of detail
 Do some questions need to be broken down further?
    Avoid double-barreled questions
    To cover all possibilities (i.e. do you use the library?
     Do you bring your children to the library?)
    To provide further context (have you ever used the
     archives? Was it for a school project or personal
    To determine level of intensity (do you believe the
     public library is an important part of the community?
     Would you support increased funding?)
Survey Design: Question Content
 Do respondents have necessary info to
  answer? (i.e. Is public funding adequate)
 Should a question be more specific?
     Difference between: did you like the book vs.
      did you recommend the book to others vs. will
      you read other books by the same author
 Should a question be more general? (listing
  all services used vs. do you use the library at
Survey Design: Question Content
 Are questions biased/ loaded?
     Would you like increased evening/ weekend
      hours? Should the library eliminate overdue
 Will respondents be able (want) to answer
Survey Design: Response Format
 Structured Responses
 Fill in the blank
 Rating scales (placing items in order)
 Check box
      Single option (i.e. strongly agree…)
      Multi-option (check all that apply)
           Make sure all alternative as covered
           Treat all as separate variables
           Uniformity of options
Survey Design: Response Format
 Unstructured Responses
     Open-ended questions
     Text-based responses
     For interviews, must decide how to transcribe
      answers (i.e. every word/ general idea)
Survey Design: Question Wording
 Can the question be misunderstood?
    What sorts of online resources do you use?
     (do you mean general web, subscription
     database, for what purposes… research,
     entertainment, etc)
 Does the question make assumptions?
    Why do you use the library (assumes you do)
 Is a time frame necessary and included
    Should the library increase hours during exam
     time this year?
Survey Design: Question Wording
 How personal?
     Are library hours satisfactory vs. Do you feel
      library hours are satisfactory vs. Are you
      personally satisfied with library hours?
 How direct?
     What is your immigration status?
Survey Design: Question Wording
 Define technical terms
 Avoid jargon
 Avoid offensive/ objectionable language
Survey Design: Question Placement
 Ordering
   Arrange by topic (do answers depend on prior
   Later questions may receive less attention/ interest

 Opening questions
   Set tone
   Capture (or lose) interest

 Sensitive questions
    Attempt to establish trust, be non-threatening. Allow
     the option to not answer
Survey Design: Question Placement
 Begin with easy, non-threatening questions
 Do not begin with open-ended questions
 Place more difficult questions later in survey
 Stick to one topic at a time
 Transition to new topics
Survey Design: Interviews
 Role of Interviewer
     Locate and enlist respondents
     Motivate respondents to participate fully
     Clarify and confusion
     Observe the quality of the responses
     Conduct a good interview
Survey Design: Interviews
 Training
     Describe study in detail (including purpose
      and objectives)
     Be clear about sponsors of research
     Instruct on survey research techniques/
      rationale for questions
     Explain interviewer bias and how to avoid it
     Run through practice interviews
Survey Design: Interviews
 Opening Remarks- gaining entry/ building
 Explanation of research, purpose, goals
      Stress confidentiality and voluntary nature
 Stick to script but don’t be too formal
      Ask questions exactly as written
      In order
      Ask every question
      Provide clarification but not elaboration
Survey Design: Interviews
 Probing: gaining adequate responses
 Silence- can encourage people to talk more
 Overt encouragement- nodding, saying okay
 Elaboration- i.e. asking “would you like to
  elaborate on that?”
 Asking for clarification
 Repetition- repeat back an answer
Survey Design: Interviews
 Recording responses
 Take notes immediately
 Include any probes/ clarifications
 Use abbreviations
Survey Design: Interviews
 Concluding the interview
     Thank respondents
     Tell them when they might expect results
     Upon leaving, write down any notes/
Survey Question Pitfalls
 Poorly worded questions (ambiguous, broad,
 Order of questions
 Order of responses
 Too many/ too few choices
 Jargon
 Differences in scale
Survey Issues
 Self-reporting
 Subjectivity
 Response Rate
 Respondent (Non-respondent) bias
 Generalizing to a population
Surveys: Respect for Respondents
 Remember respondents are doing you a
 Be polite, courteous, always remember to
  thank them for participation
 Offer to share results/ write-ups
 Be as brief as possible
 Be sensitive to respondents needs
Survey Questions: Samples
 Compare:
 Are you satisfied with our services? Y N
 Which services have adequately met your
  needs? (Check all that apply)
 How satisfied are you with xyz service?
1          2           3           4           5

Not at all       Neutral                Very
Survey Wrap-Up
 Advantages and Disadvantages?

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