Classroom PBS 2012 by dEGCSJ

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									     Tier 1 PBS
        and
Classroom Systems
    Benchmarks of Quality
   Classroom Items # 42-48
                 Objectives

Participants will be able to:
  • Identify the foundation for PBS classroom behavior
    management systems
  • Name the top six classroom behavior management
    practices
  • Identify two tools to assess behavioral needs within
    the classroom



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  Classroom RtI for Behavior

Classroom-Level PBS:
  • Tier 1 Expectations - The foundation for classroom
    behavior management systems
  • Critical component in a multi-tiered system of
    supports
     •   Helps teachers embed RtIB into classroom practices
     •   Provides tools for preventing problem behaviors
     •   Provides tools for remediation
     •   System for building in accommodations, as needed
     •   Assists teachers who need behavioral support, in addition to
         existing Tier 1 practices

                                                                   3
                       Tiers of PBS
Tier 3 – (Intensive, Individualized) Processes and procedures reflect
   Tier 1 expectations coupled with team-based strategies to address
   problematic behaviors of individual students
Tier 2 – (Targeted) Processes and procedures address behavioral
   issues of groups of students with similar behavior problems or
   behaviors that seem to occur for the same reasons (i.e. attention,
   escape)
Tier 1 & 2 – (Classroom) Processes and procedures reflect Tier 1
   expectations coupled with pre-planned strategies applied
   within classrooms
Tier 1 – (Core) Procedures and processes support behavior intended
   for all students, staff, across all settings
                                                                        4
        Classroom PBS Basics
Tier 1 expectations are the foundation for classroom
management
   • Classroom rules and procedures tied to Tier 1 expectations
      • Rules are observable, measurable, enforceable
      • Rules and procedures are identified, taught and reviewed regularly
   • Classroom reward system supports Tier 1 expectations
      • Includes high ratio of positives to negatives
      • Increases likelihood students will engage in the desired behaviors
      • Provides opportunities for at-risk students to experience success
   • Responses to problem behaviors connected to Tier 1
     expectations
      • Teacher-managed referrals support Tier 1 system
      • Used as a teaching tool for desired behavior
                                                                         5
 Classroom Behavior Management

Top 6 Behavior Management Practices:
  1. Teach Tier 1 Expectations
  2. Develop and teach classroom procedures & routines
  3. Develop and teach effective classroom rules
  4. Acknowledge appropriate behavior
  5. Actively engage learners
  6. Respond effectively to problem behavior


                                                    6
      1. Teach Tier 1 Expectations

Tier 1 Expectations:
  •   Foundation for classroom behavior systems
  •   Posted in all classrooms
  •   Directly taught through on-going lesson plans
  •   Embedded into academic lessons
  •   Differentiate lessons based on need
       • Whole class
       • Smaller groups
       • Individual Students

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Formal Lesson Plan Development

 •   Explain why the lesson is important or relevant
 •   Define concept/skill with examples & non-examples
 •   Have students apply the knowledge/skill
 •   Provide additional practice with feedback
 •   Differentiate instruction based on student need

 Expectations:                      Rules:
 Concept-Level           Specific skills students must
    lessons            rehearse in the identified setting


                                                        8
    Embedding Expectations

Social Studies:
 • Discuss how different historical events unfolded due
   to conflict. Have students brainstorm solutions on
   different way the conflict might have been resolved

Language Arts and Reading:
 • Discuss how characters in a novel did not show
   respect. Have students re-write the story with the
   character showing respect
     2. Classroom Procedures
           and Routines
Procedures and Routines:
  • Provide structure and consistency for students
    regarding all activities or events:
     •   Classroom movements (transitions)
     •   Turning in assignments or homework, getting materials
     •   Gaining adult attention or asking for help
     •   Working in groups, independent seatwork, whole group
         instruction
  • Must be taught, practiced, modeled and reinforced
  • Developed for all staff
     • Volunteers, substitutes, aides, paraprofessionals
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Classroom Procedures by Expectation
  Procedures
     by
  Expectation      Turn in Homework          Restroom




    Be Safe       Single file at cabinet   Push in chair


 Be Respectful        Wait quietly         Walk quietly


                     Return to seat
                                           Take pass and
 Be Responsible
                                            return pass
                   Begin ‘bell’ work
Teaching Classroom Procedures
         and Routines
Example: Lining Up
  • Proactively identify problem situations/areas
  • Teach the expectations (Be safe, Be Respectful)
    based on how they align with the procedure
  • Model and practice the expected behaviors
  • Reinforce appropriate behavior
  • Review (pre-correct desired behaviors)
  • Prompt
  • Reinforce


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          3. Classroom Rules
• Developed by the classroom teacher
• Aligned with the Tier 1 expectations
  • Examples:
     • Always push in your chair = Be Safe
     • Turn in all assignments = Be Responsible
• Positively stated
• Limited in number (maximum 5)
• PBS team member may review rules for
  adherence to guidelines

                                                  15
                Supporting Classroom
                  Implementation




Blank Classroom PBS Plans in the Misc. Section in the Tier 1 Training Binder
     4. Acknowledge Appropriate
              Behavior
• Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior:
   • Specific verbal praise, gestures ( e.g., high-fives, thumbs up)
   • Rewards: Points, social, activity, sensory, escape, tangible

• How to Acknowledge:
   • Provide immediate, specific praise
      • “Johnny, you were in your seat when the tardy bell rang,
         thank you for being responsible.”
      • “Bridget, thank you for being safe by walking down the
         correct side.”
   • 4:1 ratio of positives to corrective statements

• Use visual prompts in classroom as reminders to stay
  focused on the positives
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 Levels of Acknowledgement
• ‘All for One’: Interdependent Group Contingency
      • Whole group, universal approach
      • Everyone engages in the desired behavior which earns the
        entire group/class a reward
      • Example: Marbles in a jar

• ‘One for All’: Dependent Group Contingency
      • Target student or targeted group
      • Individual student earns a reward for the entire group by
        engaging in the targeted behavior; class encourages student

• ‘To each his/her own’: Independent Group Contingency
      • Each student earns reinforcement based on his/her behavior
      • Example: Behavior Report Card

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        Examples of Rewards
• Positive note/phone call home
• Lunch with preferred adult (teacher, principal, coach)
• Sit in special chair (teacher’s chair, beanbag chair)
• Keep the class mascot on desk
• Mystery “Grab Bag”
• Homework pass
• Extra computer, library time
• Pizza, popcorn, popsicle party

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     Build on the Tier 1 System

• Connect Classroom and Tier 1Reward Systems
  • Every full jar of marbles the class earns, each student
    earns a Tier 1 token
  • Add Tier 1tokens to the classroom treasure box
  • Class competitions for public praise announcement
     • Example: Class of the Week for Being Respectful
  • Teacher nominates student for positive office referral
    and a raffle ticket


                                                         22
      Other Classroom Systems

Stoplight or Flipping/Pulling Cards
  •   Focus is on inappropriate behaviors
  •   Students receive attention for not demonstrating Tier 1
      expectations
  •   Opportunities for adverse reactions by students
  •   Possibility of increased or escalation of problem behavior

Solution: Flip The System
  • All students start in the ‘Neutral’ Zone
  • Students earn the opportunity to move up to the ‘Go/Green’ Zone
    by demonstrating Tier 1 expectations


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  5. Actively Engage Learners

Active Engagement:
  •   Vary who responds (individual, groups, pairs)
  •   Provide numerous ‘opportunities to respond’
  •   Use enthusiasm and humor
  •   Observable ways to engage students
       • Auditory/visual signals (bells, buzzers, yes/no cards)
       • White board, clickers
  • Create Ownership: our room vs. my room
  • Offer choices
  • Link engagement with outcome objectives
       • If everyone has an answer, I’ll knock one question off your
         homework”


                                                                       24
      6. Responding Effectively to
           Problem Behavior
• Match severity of offense to the response
• Address the motivation (function) of the problem
  behavior
• Align responses with:
      • Tier 1 expectations
      • Clearly defined rules
      • A system for teaching & rewarding expectations & rules
• Include opportunities to learn & practice appropriate
  alternatives
• Monitor responses to ensure they are effective
                                                                 25
 Effective Classroom Responses

• Modify the Environment
  • Change seating, reduce distractions, decrease noise
• Modify the Presentation
  • Increase/decrease pace of instruction, shorten lecture
    time, increase student participation, use work groups,
    allow use of computer, short work breaks, study
    buddy
• Modify Curriculum and/or Instruction
  • High-interest topic for reading/writing assignments,
    shortened assignments, visual aids, extended time,
    frequent feedback
                                                           26
       Positive Peer Modeling
• Focus on students engaging in the appropriate behaviors
       • Identify students following the expectations
       • Name the expectation
       • Provide reinforcement (praise, token/ticket)

• Engage the class in discussion to identify problems in
  the classroom (e.g., talking out during instruction, out of
  seat)
       • Discuss rationale for focusing on a behavior
       • Identify a classroom goal that is achievable
       • Determine classroom reward for achieving the goal


                                                             27
Addressing Inappropriate Behavior

• Speak to student privately
• Remain calm, positive and objective
• Refrain from arguing with the student
   • Acknowledge concerns/feelings, then re-direct to next
     opportunity for success
   • End conversation immediately
• Avoiding Escalating Behavior and Power Struggles
   • PBS Classroom Consultation Guide, Page 128
     http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/secondary/Classroom%20Co
     nsultation%20Guide.pdf


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Teacher-Managed Referral Forms

• Problem-solving and progress monitoring tool
  • Used for ongoing/repetitive issues with a student
     • Individual problem solving, bring to problem solving team
     • Student doesn’t need to know you’re filling it out
  • Identifies Tier 1 issues (when aggregated)
     • Skills to be taught/rewarded
     • Support classroom management
  • Form should be easy to complete
  • Process for completing form should be simple
  • Staff should be taught how and when to use the form

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                Referral Review
Steps for reviewing a classroom ‘referral’ with a student:
     1.   Name the problem behavior
     2.   State the Tier 1 expectation
     3.   Model expected behavior
     4.   Ask student to demonstrate behavior
     5.   Provide acknowledgement to student
     6.   Follow discipline referral process
     7.   Use a neutral, calm tone
          • Provide feedback on a behavioral error
          • Acknowledge feelings, but don’t argue
          • Deliver in private


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Additional Classroom Support

• If a teacher is effectively using the top 6 classroom
  practices:
   •   Teaching Tier 1 expectations
   •   Teaching classroom rules, procedures, and routines
   •   Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior
   •   Actively engaging learners
   •   Responding effectively to problem behavior
• And has not successfully modified the behavior, s/he
  may seek assistance from the ‘Behavior’ team
   • Classroom Consultation Guide

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Classroom Consultation Guide

Who should use the Guide?
   • Individuals supporting classroom teachers
   • Classroom teachers
   • School-based PBS team members

Purpose of the Guide:
   • Identify, assess, & evaluate classrooms in need of additional
     support
       • Environment, Behavior System, Curriculum & Instruction
   • Problem-solve to determine appropriate interventions
   • Evaluate effectiveness of intervention strategies

http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/revision07/secondary/Classroom%20Consulta
   tion%20Guide.pdf


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   Guide has links
within the document.
To return to the Table
of Contents press alt
   + left arrow key




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    Classroom Assistance Tool
http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/pdfs/CLASSROOM%20ASSISTANCE%20TOOL%209.10.docx
Classroom Behavior Management
           Summary
Identify areas of concern within the classroom:
  • Be Proactive
     • Alter the environment to prevent behaviors from occurring
  • Teach appropriate behavior
     • Tier 1 expectation lesson plans
     • Utilize classroom rules, procedure and routines to support
       the expectations
     • Embed in academics
  • Reinforce desired behavior
     • Develop effective responses to problem behaviors
     • Acknowledge students engaging in Tier 1 expectations
     • Use peer modeling and support

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http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu




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           PBS Project Contact

Heather P. George, Ph.D.
 Co-PI and Co-Director, Florida’s Positive
 Behavior Support Project
    •   Phone: (813) 974-6440
    •   Fax: (813) 974-6115
    •   Email: flpbs@usf.edu
    •   Website: http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu



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