Assessment of Preschool and School-Aged Children with Language by YaR04Z1

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									Assessment of Preschool and
School-Aged Children with
   Language Differences
          Ch. 4
    Owens, 5th Edition

      Harold A. Johnson
   Michigan State University
                       Focus
• Language difference, vs. language impairment,
  i.e.,
  – Students who are proficient in their home
    language, i.e., language ”1”, but less proficient in
    English
• “language difference” would apply to student
  who are d/hh who are demonstrate age
  language skills in ASL, but not in English.
                        H. Johnson/MSU                     2
                         Questions
• What makes first language learning "effortless" for most
  children?
   – what helps...
   – ...context
   – ...'motherse'
   – ...adherence to Grician Principles
   – ...scaffolding
   – ...expectation of communication/success
   – ...frequency & quality & comprehensibility of
     interactional...communicative experiences
   – ...consistency, immediacy and comprehensibility of feedback
   – ...growing communication needs...opt...context...models

                               H. Johnson/MSU                      3
Questions (cont.)
• What makes second language learning more difficult
  for most of us?
• What role does culture play in determining what is
  acceptable, or appropriate language behavior?
• What makes first language learning so difficult for
  most children who are d/hh?
• What are the implications of this information for our
  language assessment and intervention work?

                        H. Johnson/MSU                    4
     Cultural Competence & Bias
• Educational professionals general lack of
  preparation, comfort, strategies, or material to
  effectively work with minority students.
• Use of interpreters to facilitate assessment
  efforts
  – P. 109 – list of suggestions
     • To what degree do such suggestions also apply to the
       use of sign/oral interpreters?
     • If interpreters are used in assessment situations, how
                            H. the test
       does this use impact Johnson/MSUresults and interpretations? 5
 Integrated Model for Assessment
• Why such an approach is needed:
  – p. 111 – “Current methodology in language
    assessment has been described as a “ discrete point
    approach” ( Acevedo, 1986; Mattes & Omark,
    1984) in which language is treated as an
    autonomous cognitive ability divided into many
    components ( Damico, 1991b). Language is not
    viewed as holistic; rather, it is separate from
    environmental variables and context.
                       H. Johnson/MSU                 6
• Essential question we must address via our
  assessment efforts:
   – p. 111 – “Is this child an effective communicator in his or
     her context?”
• Essential process we should use...
   – p. 111 – “Data could be collected in natural settings
     (Iglesias, 1986) as a child converses with his or her natural
     conversational partners, parents, teachers, and peers.”
• As teachers of students who are d/hh, we do not have
  to “screen” to find those students with language
  problems, we simply need to observe, understand,
  document, and effectively respond to the problems
  our students demonstrate.
                            H. Johnson/MSU                           7
• Once the problems are identified, the student’s
  “...language skills must be compared to
  sociolinguistic factors such as the following:
  – Age at exposure to each language
  – Extent of exposure to each language
  – Ability to use each language
  – Comparative linguistic structure of the two
    languages
  – Individual child differences (Goldstein, 2006).” (p.
    114)
  – ...we would add in the additional variables I
    identified earlier, e.g., “hearing age,” onset of early
    intervention services, etc.
                         H. Johnson/MSU                    8
         Discussion Questions
• What impact is a student's ethnicity likely to
  have upon their performance within language
  assessments?
• How can you design your instruction to
  provide an ongoing analysis of a student's
  language competence and problems?
• How can you design your instruction to
  effectively incorporate the information you
  gain from your language assessment work?
                     H. Johnson/MSU                9

								
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