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A Tour of the Cell Chapter 2 part 2 Objectives • Be able to distinguish between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. • Be familiar with the regions of the cell and the overall role of each region • Be familiar with the basic organelles and their function • Understand how eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotic cells • All living organisms are made of cells Cell Types • Two kinds of cells – Prokaryotic: lacks membrane bound structures other than plasma membrane • Bacteria • Archaea – Eukaryotic: contains membrane bound organelles enabling compartmentalization leading to specialization • animals, plants, protists, fungi Cell Overview Eukaryotic cells share many structures in common. What makes them different? Regions of a Eukaryotic Cell • Plasma Membrane: contains the cell and regulates movement of materials into/out of the cell • Nucleus: contains genetic material (DNA) necessary for cell regulation. Reference library • Cytoplasm: consists of cytosol (cell fluid) and organelles (specialized structures that carry out metabolic activities of cell) Plasma Membrane Cell Membrane • Separates the internal cell from the external environment • Regulates the movement of materials into and out of the cell – food/resources in – wastes/ manufactured materials out • Cell to cell recognition Nucleus • Control center of cell • Dual membrane system that fuse to form nuclear pores • Nuclear fluid is called Chromatin, a combination of DNA and Protein • Nucleolus contains RNA Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) • Smooth ER: site of lipid synthesis, detox, carbohydrate metabolism • Rough ER: site of protein synthesis (contains bound ribosomes) Ribosomes • Areas where proteins are assembled • May be free or bound – Free make proteins typically used in the cell – Bound are attached to membrane (ER) and make proteins typically for export Golgi Apparatus “When it absolutely, positively, has to leave the cell” • Finishes, sorts, and packages manufactured products of the cell • One end receives products from “ER” • Other end ships materials to other parts of cell (often the plasma membrane) Lysosomes • Membrane bound structures responsible for the degradation of “spent” organelles and “food” items • Contain hydrolytic enzymes Vacuoles • Membrane bound storage areas for resources • Named after the resource they contain Mitochondria, Chloroplast • Mitochondria: site of most ATP synthesis • Chloroplast: site of carbohydrate synthesis Cytoskeletal elements • Provide structural framework for the cell • Movement of materials inside and on the surface of the cell • Microtubules – grow from centrosome – load bearing • Microfilaments – pulling forces • Intermediate filaments – load bearing Organelles of Motility • Flagellum: moves the entire cell • Cilium (cilia): moves things along the surface of the cell How did organelles evolve? Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (SET) hypothesizes that the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts are acquired, not derived organelles.
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