AT our of the Cell - PowerPoint by YaR04Z1

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									A Tour of the Cell

   Chapter 2 part 2
                Objectives
• Be able to distinguish between a
  prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
• Be familiar with the regions of the cell and
  the overall role of each region
• Be familiar with the basic organelles and
  their function
• Understand how eukaryotes evolved from
  prokaryotic cells
             • All living organisms
               are made of cells
Cell Types   • Two kinds of cells
                – Prokaryotic: lacks
                  membrane bound
                  structures other than
                  plasma membrane
                   • Bacteria
                   • Archaea
                – Eukaryotic: contains
                  membrane bound
                  organelles enabling
                  compartmentalization
                  leading to
                  specialization
                   • animals, plants, protists,
                     fungi
Cell Overview


                Eukaryotic cells share many
                structures in common.
                What makes them different?
   Regions of a Eukaryotic Cell
• Plasma Membrane: contains the cell and
  regulates movement of materials into/out of
  the cell
• Nucleus: contains genetic material (DNA)
  necessary for cell regulation. Reference
  library
• Cytoplasm: consists of cytosol (cell fluid)
  and organelles (specialized structures that
  carry out metabolic activities of cell)
Plasma Membrane
   Cell Membrane
          • Separates the internal
            cell from the external
            environment
          • Regulates the
            movement of materials
            into and out of the cell
             – food/resources in
             – wastes/ manufactured
               materials out
          • Cell to cell recognition
Nucleus
    • Control center of cell
    • Dual membrane system
      that fuse to form nuclear
      pores
    • Nuclear fluid is called
      Chromatin, a
      combination of DNA and
      Protein
    • Nucleolus contains RNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

             • Smooth ER: site of
               lipid synthesis, detox,
               carbohydrate
               metabolism
             • Rough ER: site of
               protein synthesis
               (contains bound
               ribosomes)
Ribosomes
      • Areas where proteins
        are assembled
      • May be free or bound
        – Free make proteins
          typically used in the
          cell
        – Bound are attached to
          membrane (ER) and
          make proteins typically
          for export
        Golgi Apparatus
“When it absolutely, positively, has to leave the cell”

                                 • Finishes, sorts, and
                                   packages
                                   manufactured products
                                   of the cell
                                 • One end receives
                                   products from “ER”
                                 • Other end ships
                                   materials to other parts
                                   of cell (often the
                                   plasma membrane)
Lysosomes
     • Membrane bound
       structures responsible
       for the degradation of
       “spent” organelles and
       “food” items
     • Contain hydrolytic
       enzymes
                  Vacuoles
• Membrane bound
  storage areas for
  resources
• Named after the
  resource they contain
     Mitochondria, Chloroplast
• Mitochondria: site of
  most ATP synthesis
• Chloroplast: site of
  carbohydrate synthesis
    Cytoskeletal
    elements
• Provide structural
  framework for the cell
• Movement of materials
  inside and on the surface of
  the cell
• Microtubules
   – grow from centrosome
   – load bearing
• Microfilaments
   – pulling forces
• Intermediate filaments
   – load bearing
         Organelles of Motility
• Flagellum: moves the entire cell
• Cilium (cilia): moves things along the surface of
  the cell
  How did organelles evolve?
Serial Endosymbiotic Theory (SET) hypothesizes that
the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts are acquired,
not derived organelles.

								
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