The French-Indian War by HG2isAon


• Louis XIV had a great interest in
  the New World
  – King Louis was ordained at age 5
    and was in power 72 years
  – French settle in Quebec (1608)
  – Samuel de Champlain teams up
    with the Huron Indian Tribes
  – Together the French and Huron
    defeat the Iroquois
  – The French dealt in beaver pelts
  – The French stretch from Canada to
N. American Claims in 1700
       The Clash of Empires

• King William’s war- 1689-1697
  – War of the League of Augsburg
• Queen Anne’s War- 1702-1713)
  – War of Spanish Succession
  – Treaty of 1713
    • Newfoundland, Acadia (Nova Scotia), Hudson Bay
• War of Jenkin’s Ear (King George’s War)-
  1744-1748 (War of Austrian succession)
  – Capture of Louisburg; treaty of 1748
French Claims (1713)
North America in 1750

• France began to set up trading outposts
  and forts in the Ohio R. Valley

• Reasons
1754  The First Clash

Ohio Valley

 British                   French
Fort Necessity           Fort Duquesne
  * George Washington   * Delaware & Shawnee
            The First Clash

• Unlike the previous 3 French-anglo wars,
  the F & I war was the first to be initially
  fought on the N. American continent.
• Economic and political security as motives
• Disagreement over ownership of Ohio R.
  Valley land started by the colonists
• VA Gov. Dinwiddie sent G. Washington to
  warn French settlers to move out
• Fort Necessity- Forced to surrender (7/4)
 1755  British Decides to
Eliminate French Presence
     in North America
Gen. Edward Braddock  evict the
French from the OH Valley & Canada
(Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)
  Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley,
     & Acadia.
  Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne 
       by 1500 French and Indian forces.

Only British Success  expelled France
                    from Louisiana.

             Fort Duquesne

• Braddock’s defeat and death open up the
  frontier and make colonists extremely
  susceptible to Indian attack.
• 1756- British invade Canada
  – Poor planning and strategy
  – Attacked outlying forts instead of Montreal
    and Quebec
 1754  Albany Plan of
Ben Franklin  representatives from
              New England, NY, MD, PA

Albany Congress  failed Iroquois
                broke off relations with
                Britain & threatened to
                trade with the French.
        Albany Plan of Union

• 2-pronged plan: Indian allies and colonial
  unity vs. France
  – Handle colonial military affairs

• Plan ultimately fails
  – Depends on who you ask; different reasons
  – However, all left with the feeling that there
    was a need for union.
1756  War Is Formally

 Lord              Marquis
Loudoun          de Montcalm

   Native American tribes
    exploited both sides!
         Colonial Tensions
                     Colonials                British
Methods of    • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or
Fighting:       tactics.                bayonet charge.

Military      • Col. militias served   • British officers wanted to
Organization: under own captains.        take charge of colonials.

Military      • No mil. deference or   • Drills & tough
Discipline:     protocols observed.      discipline.

Finances:     • Resistance to rising   • Colonists should pay
                taxes.                   for their own defense.

Demeanor:     • Casual,                • Prima Donna British
                non-professionals.       officers with servants
                                         & tea settings.
   1757  William Pitt
Becomes Foreign Minister

He understood colonial concerns.

He offered them a compromise:

 - colonial loyalty & military
cooperation-->British would reimburse
colonial assemblies for their costs.

- Lord Loudoun would be removed.

  RESULTS?  Colonial morale
               increased by 1758.
    1758-1761  The Tide
     Turns for England

* By 1761, Spain has become an ally of French.
            The Tide Turns

• Pitt focuses on Canada and not on the W.
• Picked young and energetic leaders
• 1758- Louisburg falls (first major victory)
• 1759-Quebec falls (James Wolfe’s night
  time raid) the most decisive battle…
  – Plains of Abraham: Marquis de Montcalm
• 1760- Montreal
  1763  Treaty of Paris

France --> lost her Canadian possessions,
most of her empire in India, and claims
to lands east of the Mississippi River.

Spain --> got all French lands west of
the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but
lost Florida to England.

England --> got all French lands in
Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean
slave trade, and commercial dominance
in India.
North America in 1763
Before 1754/After 1763
            Warm Up
• Where was the first conflict of the F&I
  war between the French and British?
• What was George Washington’s role
  in this conflict?
• Where did the French settle?
• Who did the Huron side with?
• How many World Wars have there
           Warm Up
• Who won the French and Indian War
  and what were some of the results?
• Name three things that happened in
  the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
• Who was William Pitt? Name two
  things he accomplished.
• Compare and Contrast the Colonial
  soldiers to the British soldiers.
• What happened at the Albany
     Effects of the War
        on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in
   the Americas.

2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.

3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials
   created bitter feelings.

    Therefore, England felt that a
     major reorganization of her
    American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the
  American Colonials
1. It united them against a
   common enemy for the first
   time (lessened dependence)
2. It created a socializing
   experience for all the
   colonials who participated.

3. It created bitter feelings
   towards the British that
   would only intensify (taxes,
myth of invincibility)
The Aftermath: Tensions
   Along the Frontier

1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion

                      Fort Detroit

 British “gifts” of smallpox-infected
       blankets from Fort Pitt.
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
British  Proclamation
          Line of 1763.

 Colonials  Couldn’t go west
Rethinking Their Empire
British Gvt. measures to prevent
  1761  writs of assistance
       James Otis’ case
       Protection of a citizen’s
        private property must be
        held in higher regard
        than a parliamentary
       He lost  parliamentary
        law and custom had equal
    PM - George
Grenville’s Program,
1. Sugar Act - 1764

2. Currency Act - 1764

3. Quartering Act - 1765

4. Stamp Act - 1765
• Sugar Act- Indirect Tax
   – Raise $ for the crown
   – Navigation Act Enforcement
• Quartering Act
• Stamp Act
   – Raise $ for the British military
   – Direct tax; revenue stamps on newspapers, legal
     documents, advertisements.
   – Direct taxation without representation
• Declaratory Act
   – Taxation and laws at any time
       Theories of
Real Whigs

Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s
    authority over the colonies??

    Absolute?     OR       Limited?

Q-> How could the colonies give or
    withhold consent for parliamentary
    legislation when they did not have
    representation in that body??
     Stamp Act Crisis
  Loyal Nine - 1765

  Sons of Liberty – began in

  Stamp Act Congress – 1765
     * Pushes for boycott goods
Declaratory Act – 1766 – British Parliament has
absolute rule over the colonies
     Townshend Duties
     Crisis: 1767-1770
1767  William Pitt, P. M. & Charles
         Townshend, Secretary of
         the Exchequer.
 Shift from paying taxes for Br. war
   debts & quartering of troops 
   paying col. govt. salaries.
 He diverted revenue collection from
   internal to external tax (indirect).
 Tax these imports  paper, paint,
                        lead, glass, tea.
 Increase custom officials at
   American ports  established a
   Board of Customs in Boston.
  Colonial Response to
 the Townshend Duties
1. John Dickinson  1768
      * Letters from a Farmer in
2. 1768  2nd non-importation
      * “Daughters of Liberty”
      * spinning bees
3. Riots against customs agents:
      * John Hancock’s ship, the
      * 4000 British troops sent
        to Boston.

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