France • Louis XIV had a great interest in the New World – King Louis was ordained at age 5 and was in power 72 years – French settle in Quebec (1608) – Samuel de Champlain teams up with the Huron Indian Tribes – Together the French and Huron defeat the Iroquois – The French dealt in beaver pelts – The French stretch from Canada to Louisiana N. American Claims in 1700 The Clash of Empires • King William’s war- 1689-1697 – War of the League of Augsburg • Queen Anne’s War- 1702-1713) – War of Spanish Succession – Treaty of 1713 • Newfoundland, Acadia (Nova Scotia), Hudson Bay area • War of Jenkin’s Ear (King George’s War)- 1744-1748 (War of Austrian succession) – Capture of Louisburg; treaty of 1748 French Claims (1713) North America in 1750 France • France began to set up trading outposts and forts in the Ohio R. Valley • Reasons 1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians The First Clash • Unlike the previous 3 French-anglo wars, the F & I war was the first to be initially fought on the N. American continent. • Economic and political security as motives • Disagreement over ownership of Ohio R. Valley land started by the colonists • VA Gov. Dinwiddie sent G. Washington to warn French settlers to move out • Fort Necessity- Forced to surrender (7/4) 1755 British Decides to Eliminate French Presence in North America Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only British Success expelled France from Louisiana. CAJUNS Fort Duquesne • Braddock’s defeat and death open up the frontier and make colonists extremely susceptible to Indian attack. • 1756- British invade Canada – Poor planning and strategy – Attacked outlying forts instead of Montreal and Quebec 1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French. Albany Plan of Union • 2-pronged plan: Indian allies and colonial unity vs. France – Handle colonial military affairs • Plan ultimately fails – Depends on who you ask; different reasons – However, all left with the feeling that there was a need for union. 1756 War Is Formally Declared! Lord Marquis Loudoun de Montcalm Native American tribes exploited both sides! British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials British Methods of • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or Fighting: tactics. bayonet charge. Military • Col. militias served • British officers wanted to Organization: under own captains. take charge of colonials. Military • No mil. deference or • Drills & tough Discipline: protocols observed. discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising • Colonists should pay taxes. for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, • Prima Donna British non-professionals. officers with servants & tea settings. 1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister He understood colonial concerns. He offered them a compromise: - colonial loyalty & military cooperation-->British would reimburse colonial assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758. 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England * By 1761, Spain has become an ally of French. The Tide Turns • Pitt focuses on Canada and not on the W. Indies • Picked young and energetic leaders • 1758- Louisburg falls (first major victory) • 1759-Quebec falls (James Wolfe’s night time raid) the most decisive battle… – Plains of Abraham: Marquis de Montcalm • 1760- Montreal 1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. North America in 1763 Before 1754/After 1763 Warm Up • Where was the first conflict of the F&I war between the French and British? • What was George Washington’s role in this conflict? • Where did the French settle? • Who did the Huron side with? Iroquois? • How many World Wars have there been? Warm Up • Who won the French and Indian War and what were some of the results? • Name three things that happened in the 1763 Treaty of Paris. • Who was William Pitt? Name two things he accomplished. • Compare and Contrast the Colonial soldiers to the British soldiers. • What happened at the Albany Congress? Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time (lessened dependence) 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify (taxes, myth of invincibility) The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Couldn’t go west Rethinking Their Empire British Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling: 1761 writs of assistance James Otis’ case Protection of a citizen’s private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. He lost parliamentary law and custom had equal weight. PM - George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765 1. Sugar Act - 1764 2. Currency Act - 1764 3. Quartering Act - 1765 4. Stamp Act - 1765 Details • Sugar Act- Indirect Tax – Raise $ for the crown – Navigation Act Enforcement • Quartering Act • Stamp Act – Raise $ for the British military – Direct tax; revenue stamps on newspapers, legal documents, advertisements. – Direct taxation without representation • Declaratory Act – Taxation and laws at any time Theories of Representation Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body?? Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – 1765 * Pushes for boycott goods Declaratory Act – 1766 – British Parliament has absolute rule over the colonies Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770 1767 William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops paying col. govt. salaries. He diverted revenue collection from internal to external tax (indirect). Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. Increase custom officials at American ports established a Board of Customs in Boston. Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties 1. John Dickinson 1768 * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. 2. 1768 2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees 3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty. * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.
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