The Revolutionary War & Colonial Period Study Guide Name: _______________________ Revolutionary period is known as The Age of Reason 18th century characterized as the Age of Enlightenment People valued reason over faith. This was spurred by the great thinkers and scientists- Galileo, Newton, Voltaire, Rousseau They believed reason and science could further human progress. People of this time period believed that people are, by their very nature, good. The trust in human potential was a concept that emerged and helped to form the concept of democracy. Events that led up to the revolution • 1754 – The French and Indian War- Great Britain and France had struggled for control of the eastern portion of North America. Great Britain’s national debt had doubled and it had to find ways to control the colonies. • Britain decided to pass laws to restrict freedoms and tax the colonists. TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTAION Stamp Act-newspapers, legal documents and printed materials Townsend Act-paint, paper and tea – This lead to the Boston Tea Party. Sugar Act-molasses and the right to search the premises of those who violated the tax Coercive Act-(Intolerable)closed the port of Boston Quartering Act-colonists must provide shelter & food for British troops!!! The Founding Fathers Benjamin Franklin • His Autobiography- his purpose was to gain moral perfection • He listed 13 virtues. Each virtue was listed in a way that was easiest to hardest. • He created a weekly calendar where each week would represent one virtue. • He completed his 13 week virtue calendar for 4 cycles. This adds up to 52 weeks a year. There are 52 weeks in a year. Poor Richard’s Almanac An annual magazine or publication that provides readers with facts, humors, stories, and aphorisms. An aphorism is a witty saying; or an expression that can be taken metaphorically and typically deals with life morals. Thomas Paine- Wrote “The Crisis, Number 1” Paine’s rhetoric, designed to build morale among the soldiers, promises that the severity of their situation makes triumph more glorious. He also vows that God would never desert those who fight for just causes. He denigrates the Tories, praises those who still stand, and calls upon all to put their shoulders to the wheel, focusing not on the negative of what hasn’t gone well, but on the positive of what can still be done. He labels those who step aside as evil, small-minded, cold-hearted, cowardly, and unprincipled; he concludes with a story comparing the British position to that of a thief—and the punishment they both deserve. Charged word: words with strong connotations likely to produce an emotional response. For example: Tyranny, a word meaning “oppressive power”. The word may evoke feelings of fear or outrage, as well as images of cruel political leaders. “The Crisis” 1. What does Paine mean by “the summer soldier and the sunshine patriot”? 2. What is the effect of the opening sentence, “These are the times that try men’s souls”? 3. Where do we see Paine’s argument that the Americans are in the right and that God is on their side? 4. What words do you see in this document that conveys images of light and “knowledge”? How is this a persuasive technique? 5. Identify at least five emotionally charged words in this document: Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson – wrote the Declaration of Independence. He was from Virginia, he graduated from College, studied law, and became a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. He became Secretary of State, Vice President, and eventually President of the United States. Jefferson died on July 4th 1826, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence Perhaps the most influential document in American history. Provides the philosophy of the colonial revolutionaries and outlines their experiences with what they call a “tyrannical” king, King George III. In this famous battle cry of freedom, Jefferson identifies what he calls “self-government” truths, pointing out the equality of men and the tenuous contract of government. Three “unalienable rights” listed in the 2nd paragraph are: 1. ________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________ According to Jefferson, when should a government be abolished? Give 3 examples that Jefferson offers as support to his claim that the kings’ objective is “the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. What does Jefferson claim the colonists have done at “every stage of these oppressions”? How has the king responded? How is the 18th century faith in REASON reflected in this document? On pages 170-171, each paragraph begins with a parallel statement. What is the parallel statement? What is the purpose of using these parallel statements as a means of persuasion? What responses are evoked by these words in the document? a. Liberty b. Justice c. Honor d. Barbarous How does Jefferson illustrate that “anger is weak” in this document? An important them in this document is that of “patience and action”. How is this theme illustrated in the document?
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