History and Medical Aspects of Students with Learning Disabilities

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					     History and Medical Aspects of
    Students with Learning Disabilities
• Special Education terminology
• Reauthorization of IDEIA
• Organizations and practicing theories

•   Brain functioning
•   Unknown causes
•   Attempted therapies (quick fixes)
•   Recent medical findings
               Warm-up Activity
• Is there any single cause to a LD?
• What are some examples of prenatal, perinatal,
  and postnatal causes?
• Name a few results from brain research on
  students with LD.
• What are some aspects to different disorders?
   – Spoken language; written language; perceptual/motor
• Explain the chronology of the term learning
  disabilities. Were the earlier thoughts incorrect?
• What have been the outcomes of most LD
    Special Education terminology
• IFSP; 504 plans
• EHA and ADA
• Explicit, systematic and
  direct, teacher-directed
• Others?
                       IDEA 1997
• Adding to PL 94- 142 and IDEA 1990
   – includes the general education teacher and increases the
     emphasis on the parent as a member
   – Requires an annual review
   – Emphasizes the general education curriculum first
• Transitional IEP
   – Established by age 16
   – Statement needed by age 14
            IDEA 1997 changes
• Discipline
  – Manifestation determination
     • If not manifested by the disability then removal from
       placement cannot exceed 10 days
  – Functional behavioral assessment
     • Required when a child has been removed more than 10 days
  – Positive behavior intervention plan
     • Must be based on the FBA and teach replacement behaviors
  – Interim Alternative Educational Setting
     • Up to 45 days; services and curriculum must match IEP
       needs; inappropriate behavior must be addressed
                2004 IDEiA information
• IEPs
• Who comprises an IEP team
• Assessment - from discrepancy to RtI?
• Research-based v research-supported
• Clarified 45 school days for removal in
  disciplinary situations
• and more… (see
•   CEC
•   CLD
•   DLD
•   LDA
•   ADA
•   Journals of interest: Remedial and Special Education; LD:
    Research and Practice; Exceptional Children; Journal of LD;
    Intervention in School and Clinic; Teaching Exceptional Children;
    Preventing School Failure; Phi Delta Kappan; Journal of Special
    Education Leadership; Journal of Special Education Technology
             Practicing Theories
•   Heterogeneity and Assessment
•   Preschool and Post-secondary services
•   Teaching practices
•   REI to inclusion
•   Collaboration and Professional Services
•   Technology
           Brain Research and

• MRI- magnetic resonance imaging shows size,
  shape, and location of brain structures
• fMRI- functional magnetic resonance imaging
  shows brain activity while people complete
  complex tasks
• PET- positron emission tomography measures
  metabolism with the brain thus determining
  glucose in the brain of a child with hyperactivity
   Medical Aspects: Brain functions
• Correlational data
• Wernicke’s and Broca’s
• Motor development
• Memory
• Stimulations and

• http://www.articlesforeducators
        Recent medical findings
• Poor readers share the same inactivity areas in
  the brain while reading difficult passages.
• Behavior has much to do with inputs and how
  brain processes reality.
• Neuron wiring changes with knowledge
            Results on dyslexia
• Left parietal sulci emits lower energy for low
• Planum temporale is symmetric in dyslexic readers
• Frontal regions of the brain are more symmetric
  and smaller than other people’s
• Good readers use the front and back of their brains
  for phonological processing while students with
  dyslexia use only the front
• We need to teach using strategies effective at
  developing activity essential to parts of the brain
  (ie., connect sounds and symbols)
    Beware “According to brain
     research in mathematics”
• According to the National Math Panel
  (2008), “…attempts to connect research in
  the brain sciences to classroom teaching
  and students learning in mathematics are
  premature” (p. 4-111)

• We have learned about general learning but the details
  are not specific enough to make sweeping changes.
     Medical Needs of Children
• The physical needs of children must be
  met before learning can be optimized

• Aside from brain development and wiring
  concerns, what other medical factors
  affect learning?
  – Hearing
  – Vision
  – Psychological
                 “Quick fixes”
• Pros and Cons of Ritalin; Cylert; Dexedrine   (p.228-
•   Megavitamin
•   Feingold diet
•   Tinted lenses
•   Perceptual training
•   D.O.R.E.
•   Scare and boot camp techniques
Where to go for more information..
• Brain research – Lyon; Shaywitz
• Legal changes – National Information Center for
  Children and Youth with Disabilities; LDOnline
• Technology – Evers
• Inclusion – Everington; Giangreco

• Any others???
• Why study instructional methods meant for
  students with learning disabilities?
• What do we know about the medical aspects of
  people with dyslexia?
• What behavioral aspects are explained in IDEA
  1997 and 2004?
• How do some of the contemporary practices in
  special education affect students with learning

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