a method of analyzing psychic phenomena
and treating emotional disorders that involves
treatment sessions during which the patient is
encouraged to talk freely about personal
experiences and especially about early
childhood and dreams
theory of psychoanalysis
was founded in the 1890’s.
Use and focus of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis was a radical new approach
to the analysis and treatment of abnormal
adult behavior that started in the 20th
It focuses on finding the purpose behind
abnormal behavioral patterns and to
understand the behavior as informative and
Pros & Cons of Psychoanalysis
“Talking cure”- it can be used as The help given does not always
therapy to redirect a person’s life provide attention to political and
Provides a significant approach social contexts in ones life
to finding motives and meanings Psychoanalysis does not focus
disguised by other meanings. on reality, more on people’s
Clarifies writing itself and the feelings. People are not brought
level of character action within to attention to issues such as
the text. racism, alienation, and exile.
It drives to symbolic and cultural
Who were its founders?
The theory of psychoanalysis has three main founders and they are:
Sigmund Freud- “The Freudian Theory” his theory was based on the
analysis and treatment of abnormal adult behavior, to provide and
understanding and meaning.
Jacques Lacan- “Lacanian Theory” Jacan’s was a reinterpretation of
Freud’s which was based on his thoughts of the 4 stages of a child’s life
where there is no clear distinction between itself and the external world.
The 4 stages are the imaginary stage, the mirror stage, the phallus: entry
into the symbolic order, and the imaginary, symbolic, and the real.
Carl Jung- “ The Jungian analysis” He called his theory analytical
psychology. The main focus was to bring conscious and unconscious
elements of psyche into balance.
Key Questions in a text
How can we as therapists use our own experiences of
difference in order to get alongside our clients, without
collapsing difference and sameness into each other?
Can we hold the tension between them?
What is our responsibility as psychotherapists and supervisors
for engaging in their issues in the context of a society that
structures our identities on the basis of color coded racial
of Cars/Machinery in Dreams: By Jean Chiriac,
President of AROPA
The car is another shared presence in our dreams. But cars are just another
machinery; the motif can therefore extend to all mechanisms or machines in
A very frequent dream is the one involving the lift (elevator). Someone once
told me about a recurring dream: "I was on an elevator and had pressed the
<ground floor> button. To my great surprise, the elevator went up and
wouldn't stop. I was seized with panic!"
Just as the excerpt also indicates, the dream topic is the dreamer's inability to
control the elevator. That always results in panic.
In both the dream about the elevator and the real life obsession related to
being brought to a halt between two floors, the central idea emerges:
perception of the fact that everything that is machinelike and should work
without fault is an awful disaster in functioning.
The dream is also an indicator of living standard. In materialistic societies
such as ours, living standard is assessed by the amount of goods gathered.
Cars, and vantage ones mostly, grant their owner a privileged place in social
Text it is used in