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Name: __________________________ ( ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________ Elective History Rise of Authoritarian Regimes: Fascist Japan Notes / Model Essay (N Level 2008) 1 [N Level 2008] The Rise of Militarism and its Effects in Japan a. How far do you agree that the main reason for the rise of militarism in Japan was the economic disaster after the Wall Street Crash? Explain your answer. [12m] Given Factor: Economic Disaster after the Wall Street Crash o After the WSC, many Japanese became unemployed because factories shut down due to a fall in demand for goods. As a result of falling unemployment, there was great suffering. As the democratic government had been unable to solve their problems, they gave their support to the military who promised effective solutions to their problems. o Japanese farmers who had always grown fewer crops in order to concentrate on producing silk for the factories were badly hit by the drop in demand for silk. o Hit by a drought and with low production, the farmers made less money. As a result, many suffering farmers saw democracy as a failure as it could not do anything to help them. They joined the army and patriotic societies and agreed with their stand on national reconstruction, military strength and respect for authority, giving the military movement added strength in numbers. Other Factors: The Influence of the Army & Navy over the Government o Due to the limited power of the Diet, the military could wield considerable power and had considerable influence over political decisions. Having this influence allowed the military access to large budgets from the government. Furthermore, the Japanese Army had been successful in World War I and as a result, was popular and gained considerable support. The Japanese Army also made use of their influence to assassinate leaders who opposed them, gaining even more power through fear. Worsening Relations between the West and Japan: o Due to their military success before and during World War I, the Japanese believed that they should be treated on equal terms with the Western nations. However, the Japanese were disappointed with the absence of a racial equality clause in the League of Nations. o At the same time, Japan was very angry with the Washington Naval Conference because they could only build 3 warships for every 5 warships Britain and the USA could build. The Japanese were angry that they were being discriminated against and not respected for their military achievement. Name: __________________________ ( ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________ o As these agreements were presided upon by the democratic government, they were seen as weak. The democratic government was seen as having ‘betrayed’ Japan and being too ‘soft’ in handling relations with the West. This gave the military faction a cause to rally discontented Japanese who were already unhappy with the government for having been unable to solve their economic problems. b. “The effects of militarism on the Japanese people were bad.” How far do you agree? Explain your answer. [13m] Effects of Militarism on the Japanese people: Providing work Controlling the workers Controlling the opposition Controlling education Good Effects Bad Effects Providing Work Providing Work o Employed people by o Women who were expanding building working lived in special programmes generating flats so that they could much needed jobs and be monitored and helping Japan recover controlled economically from the Great Depression. Controlling Workers o While trade unions were o One year of military not banned, various service which took workers’ groups were young men off provided but they did not unemployment for one solve the workers’ year. problems, they only worked towards brain- o Women were given the washing them and opportunity to work turning them into adding much needed obedient workers willing workforce to the to work for the common economy and helping good of the country. Japan recover economically from the Controlling the Opposition Great Depression. o Peace Preservation Law allowed the government Controlling Education to arrest and imprison o Japanese children were people who were a given 6 years of danger to the compulsory free government or who were schooling allowing the critical of the Japanese nation to government suppressing Name: __________________________ ( ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________ educate children and political freedom and generate talent. allowing the military to gain more power and act unopposed. o People who were critical of the government also lost their jobs which suppressed the peoples’ freedom even more. Controlling Education o Infused military training and brainwashed the children with traditional ideas of self-sacrifice and total obedience allowing the Japanese military to have a ready supply of patriotic soldiers willing to lay their lives down and sacrifice themselves for the good of Japan and to help build the country into an empire. # Write the explanation portions to the points for question 1(b).
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