NL evel 2008 EH Japan LORM 2 by jrGFi7h


									Name: __________________________ (              ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________

                                    Elective History
                     Rise of Authoritarian Regimes: Fascist Japan
                          Notes / Model Essay (N Level 2008)

1   [N Level 2008] The Rise of Militarism and its Effects in Japan

    a.   How far do you agree that the main reason for the rise of militarism in
         Japan was the economic disaster after the Wall Street Crash? Explain
         your answer.                                                            [12m]

         Given Factor:
         Economic Disaster after the Wall Street Crash
         o After the WSC, many Japanese became unemployed because factories shut
            down due to a fall in demand for goods. As a result of falling unemployment,
            there was great suffering. As the democratic government had been unable to
            solve their problems, they gave their support to the military who promised
            effective solutions to their problems.

         o   Japanese farmers who had always grown fewer crops in order to concentrate
             on producing silk for the factories were badly hit by the drop in demand for silk.

         o   Hit by a drought and with low production, the farmers made less money. As a
             result, many suffering farmers saw democracy as a failure as it could not do
             anything to help them. They joined the army and patriotic societies and agreed
             with their stand on national reconstruction, military strength and respect for
             authority, giving the military movement added strength in numbers.

         Other Factors:
         The Influence of the Army & Navy over the Government
         o Due to the limited power of the Diet, the military could wield considerable
            power and had considerable influence over political decisions. Having this
            influence allowed the military access to large budgets from the government.
            Furthermore, the Japanese Army had been successful in World War I and as a
            result, was popular and gained considerable support. The Japanese Army also
            made use of their influence to assassinate leaders who opposed them, gaining
            even more power through fear.

         Worsening Relations between the West and Japan:
         o Due to their military success before and during World War I, the Japanese
           believed that they should be treated on equal terms with the Western nations.
           However, the Japanese were disappointed with the absence of a racial equality
           clause in the League of Nations.

         o   At the same time, Japan was very angry with the Washington Naval
             Conference because they could only build 3 warships for every 5 warships
             Britain and the USA could build. The Japanese were angry that they were
             being discriminated against and not respected for their military achievement.
Name: __________________________ (             ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________

         o   As these agreements were presided upon by the democratic government, they
             were seen as weak. The democratic government was seen as having
             ‘betrayed’ Japan and being too ‘soft’ in handling relations with the West. This
             gave the military faction a cause to rally discontented Japanese who were
             already unhappy with the government for having been unable to solve their
             economic problems.

    b.   “The effects of militarism on the Japanese people were bad.” How far do
         you agree? Explain your answer.                                         [13m]

         Effects of Militarism on the Japanese people:
          Providing work
          Controlling the workers
          Controlling the opposition
          Controlling education

         Good Effects                          Bad Effects
          Providing Work                       Providing Work
               o Employed people by                   o Women who were
                   expanding building                     working lived in special
                   programmes generating                  flats so that they could
                   much needed jobs and                   be monitored and
                   helping Japan recover                  controlled
                   economically from the
                   Great Depression.              Controlling Workers
                                                      o While trade unions were
                o   One year of military                  not banned, various
                    service which took                    workers’ groups were
                    young men off                         provided but they did not
                    unemployment for one                  solve the workers’
                    year.                                 problems, they only
                                                          worked towards brain-
                o   Women were given the                  washing them and
                    opportunity to work                   turning them into
                    adding much needed                    obedient workers willing
                    workforce to the                      to work for the common
                    economy and helping                   good of the country.
                    Japan recover
                    economically from the         Controlling the Opposition
                    Great Depression.                 o Peace Preservation Law
                                                          allowed the government
            Controlling Education                        to arrest and imprison
                o Japanese children were                  people who were a
                    given 6 years of                      danger to the
                    compulsory free                       government or who were
                    schooling allowing the                critical of the
                    Japanese nation to                    government suppressing
Name: __________________________ (             ) Class: Sec _____ Date: ____________

                  educate children and                    political freedom and
                  generate talent.                        allowing the military to
                                                          gain more power and act
                                                      o   People who were critical
                                                          of the government also
                                                          lost their jobs which
                                                          suppressed the peoples’
                                                          freedom even more.

                                                 Controlling Education
                                                     o Infused military training
                                                         and brainwashed the
                                                         children with traditional
                                                         ideas of self-sacrifice
                                                         and total obedience
                                                         allowing the Japanese
                                                         military to have a ready
                                                         supply of patriotic
                                                         soldiers willing to lay
                                                         their lives down and
                                                         sacrifice themselves for
                                                         the good of Japan and to
                                                         help build the country
                                                         into an empire.

       # Write the explanation portions to the points for question 1(b).

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