deviance by xiaopangnv

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									    Deviance   is any condition, belief,
    behavior that violates social norms.
 Deviance is a result of violating norms
  while crime is a result of violating laws.
 Laws = formal protections for norms we
     find most desirable -- attempts to
    encourage conformity and prohibit
       deviance and varies in intensity
Some silly Arkansas Laws
 Can’t walk your pet cow down main street
  after 1PM on sundays
 No flirting on the streets of Little Rock
 It’s illegal to yell at your kids at a drive-in
  restaurant
 Can’t beat your wife more then once a month
 It’s illegal for Arkansas river to rise above
  the main street bridge
What can be deviant?
A  radical belief system can cause you to
  be seen as deviant
 A condition can render you deviant
 A behavior can render you deviant


 Stigma   may result -- “spoiled identity”
 Why do we have deviance?
              Durkheim
“Deviance is universal and necessary.”

Enhances conformity and clarifies rules,
 norms, expectations i.e., creates moral
              boundaries
Strengthens solidarity among those who do
                  conform
Brings needed change
    Provides jobs for those in the deviance
                     “industry”
 e.g., counselors, police officers, lawyers,
  priests, prostitutes, pimps, dealers, etc....
 Provides a   safety valve for discontented
                    people
Types of Deviance and Crime
      Diversions,   e.g., nose rings



  Deviations,  e.g., subject to sanction
intoxication, cursing in public, heckling a
                  speaker
         crimes, e.g., laws against but
 Conflict
   not strong consensus -- medical
marijuana, right to protest, legal drinking
                   age
   Consensus crimes, e.g., strong
               consensus
         incest, rape, murder
     But deviance is relative. Why?

1  Varies from place to place
 2 Varies over time
 3 Varies by intensity
 4 Depends upon public consensus
     Theories of Deviance:

          Symbolic Interaction:
   Differential association (Sutherland)

       Control Theory    (Hirschi)
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION:

   Criminal behavior is learned in social interaction
    with others.

   The learning includes techniques and
    rationalizations.

   Takes place in primary groups - learn motives
    reasons for conforming to or breaking rules, and
    what is permissible.

   If situation is favorable, more factors at work than
    opposed - crime is likely.
    Interactions are frequent, long
    lasting, intense, and occur early in
    life usually.

    There's no pattern unique to
    criminals as opposed to non-
    criminals.
       CONTROL THEORY
       (social bond theory)
 Attached - primary group interaction
 with affection. Kid feels a sense of
 obligation or responsibility to
 parents to do well.
 Commitment   - having a "stake" in
 society. We believe we have
 something to lose if we screw up -
 invest time and energy into
 conventional things - job, graduating,
 buying a home etc..
 Involvement - idle hands are the
 "devil's work." -- if we stay busy
 enough with legitimate action then
 we won't have time to deviate.
       - a sense of allegiance, not just
 Belief
 obligation, to values and a moral
 code. This should probably be the
 most important. We see the rules,
 laws, and norms as morally valid.
       = Internal constraints….
       Functionalist Perspective:
 Strain   Theory (Merton) response types
          Illegitimate Opportunity Theory
                     
STRUCTURAL STRAIN THEORY:
     DEVIANCE IS A RESULT OF
     ADAPTATIONS TO THE MIXED
      MESSAGES SOCIETY SENDS.
           INNOVATION
            RITUALISM
           RETREATISM,
            REBELLION
 ARE DEVIANT ADAPTIVE RESPONSES
       Merton’s Strain Theory

Relationship between cultural goals and
legitimate, institutional means to achieve goals:

            Goals                         Means
 Conformist +                              +
 Innovator    +                             -
 Ritualist    -                            +
 Retreatist    -                           -
  Rebel      +/-                           +/-
    ILLEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY
                        THEORY:

 DEVIANT SUBCULTURES           DEVELOP
  WHEN LEGITIMATE OPPORTUNITY
STRUCTURES ARE SYSTEMATICALLY
                 BLOCKED.
 (e.g., drug running occurs in illegitimate
                  structures)

Previous gangs interracial conflict
 Today’s   gangs – more likely to sell and
  use drugs, carry lethal weapons, more
  likely to engage in intraracial conflicts –
 “Black on Black”
 “Chicano on Chicano”
 “White on white”
   54 percent of property crimes are committed by those
    between 15 – 24 yrs of age.
Status Frustration
 --role strains lead to frustration. Can’t
  get respect in mainstream culture so
  turn to delinquent subculture for status.
 Relies upon cultural capital because
  cultural attributes are devalued (e.g.,
  lower class youth) so replaces
  “success” with “status” “respect”
  “dignity” in spite of…..
     Labeling Theory (Becker)

              Reactions to Deviants
 The  punishment is the label
 Primary -- fleeting acts
 behavior that violates a social norm but
  that does not affect
     one’s sense of self
   Secondary – through labels, self-labeling and
    self-concept develops

   norm violation that is a response to the problems
    caused by the societal reaction to
       primary deviance

   Tertiary – deviance is normalized or relabeled
    non-deviant

   Institutional Punishments to accompany labels
Becker – deviance as a “master status”

Braithwaite –
“reintegrative shaming” = moral disapproval
followed by efforts to bring offender back to
the community
       (Consistent with Restorative Justice)

“disintegrative shaming” = both the offense
      and offender are labeled deviant
Sykes & Matza’s Neutralization Theory

The line between conformity and
deviance is not always clear.

      Techniques of neutralization:

            1. denial of responsibility
            2. denial of injury
            3. denial of victim
            4. condemnation
            5. appeal to higher loyalties
Crime in the United States
   There are roughly 2 million people in state
    and federal prisons and local jails.
       This number is increasing by 50,000 to 80,000 per
        year. Males – Minorities - “explosion” and
        compare rates to population
   The U.S. has more people behind bars than
    any other country on Earth.
       Over 12% more people are behind bars in the
        U.S. than in China and India combined.
       1 in 100 white males
       1 in 30 Hispanic males
       1 in 15 African American males
UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR)

THE CRIME INDEX INCLUDES 7 OFFENSES:
1. HOMICIDE – THE KILLING OF ONE PERSON BY ANOTHER.
2. FORCIBLE RAPE – ANY SEXUAL PENETRATION DIRECTED
   AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON AGAINST THAT PERSON’S WILL.
3. ROBBERY – THE TAKING OR ATTEMPTING TO TAKE
   ANYTHING OF VALUE UNDER CONFRONTATIONAL
   CIRCUMSTANCES FROM THE CONTROL, CUSTODY,
   OR CARE OF ANOTHER PERSON BY FORCE, OR
   THREAT OF FORCE, OR VIOLENCE.
4. AGGRAVATED ASSAULT – A RECKLESS ATTACK WITH
   INTENT TO SERIOUSLY INJURE ANOTHER (WITH A
   WEAPON).
5. BURGLARY – THE UNLAWFUL ENTRY INTO A
   BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURE WITH THE
   INTENT TO COMMIT A FELONY OR A THEFT.
6. LARCENY-THEFT – THE UNLAWFUL TAKING OF PROPERTY
   FROM THE POSSESSION OF ANOTHER.
7. MOTOR VECHICLE THEFT – THE THEFT OR
   ATTEMPTED THEFT OF A MOTOR VEHICLE.

        THE UCR HOME PAGE IS FOUND AT:
        http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm
Street Crime Offenders (general or typical
profile)…
    Minority males with limited economic
    opportunity
    Living in poverty
    Having fragmented links to institutions of
    informal social control (e.g., family,
    church, community)
    Socialized into criminal activities
Street Crime Victims – those who fit the
profile of the offender are also those who
are the most likely to experience
victimization (poor, unemployed, minority,
male, young)
    Conflict/Critical Theory of Deviance:

    See crime by the poor as an adaptation to life
    without resources. But argue that the criminal
    justice system does not operate impartially
    because most prisoners are from marginal
    minority working class families (often unskilled
    and unemployed). These people are more likely to
    commit street crimes which upset the social order
    and therefore are more severely punished than
    their white-collar criminal counter-parts that cost
    taxpayers much more. (e.g., social dynamite,
    social junk)
 b.  The criminal justice system does not
  focus on the capitalist class and the harm it
  does to the masses (e.g., white collar). The
  laws reflect those in power. Bankruptcy
  laws, estate taxes, white collar sentencing
 Since 1930 billions have been invested in a
  street crime database (UCR) but no funded
  established database for corporate crimes

								
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