Reconstruction_chapter_22 notes_revised 2010

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					   Mr. Miller
 AP US History
Chapter 22 Notes
    Four essential /central questions:
  How to physically and socially rebuild the
 How would emancipated blacks fare as free
  men and women?
 How would the southern states be reintegrated
  into the Union?
 Who controls the process of Reconstruction:
  the southern states, the president, or Congress?
 What to do with captured Confederate leaders (e.g.,
 Jefferson Davis)

 The story of the "hoopskirt, sunbonnet and calico
 wrapper" had no real existence and was started in
 the fertile brains of the reporters and in the
 illustrated papers of the day.
1.   Physical destruction of the south

Charleston                 Richmond
2. Economic conditions
   •Banks, businesses destroyed by inflation
   •Transportation system destroyed by Sherman's raid
   and the prosecution of total war in the south
3. Agriculture
   - cotton crop not up to pre-1860 levels
   until after 1870.
   - loss of slave labor ($2 billion)
 4.   The "lost cause" mentality
 The confusing nature of emancipation
 Emancipation took place unevenly
  -Slaves liberated and then re-enslaved as
  Union armies marched in and out of specific localities
 Resistance of slave owners
 Illustrate complexity of the master-slave
 Some slaves exhibit loyalty to plantation
  master and resist Union occupation
 Others joined Union forces in pillaging their
  master's possessions
 Migration to cities for jobs in the North
   Creates conflict with immigrants, especially
 Legal status of former slave marriages?
 "Exodusters"
   (Black migration west)
 1.Goals of the Freedmen's Bureau (a
  primitive welfare agency) under Gen. Oliver
   Created by Congress on March 3, 1865.
      It was intended to provide clothing,
       medical care, food, and education to
       both freedmen and white refugees.
 Major successes of the Bureau
  educational advances for Blacks,
    improved literacy
   . Failures of the Bureau
   corrupt/land parcels confiscated and
    sold, labor contracts signed put former
    slaves in negative position
 Because it was despised by the President
  and by Southerners, the Freedmen's Bureau
  expired in 1872.
 Andrew Johnson was elected to Congress but refused
  to secede with his own state of Tennessee in 1861.
 Johnson was made Vice President (even though he was
  a Democrat) to Lincoln's Union Party in 1864 in order
  to gain support from the War Democrats and other
  pro-Southern elements.
   Johnson was a strong supporter of state's rights and
    of the Constitution.
   He was a Southerner who did not understand the
    North and a Democrat who had not been accepted
    by the Republicans.
 Intelligent but stubborn and hot tempered
   Basically, Johnson was a political "misfit"(not elected
    Pres., not trust by either Northerners or Southerners)
The politics of Reconstruction
 Lincoln and Congress lock horns in 1863
 Lincoln's 10% Plan
   When 10% who had voted in the 1860 election had
    taken an oath of allegiance to the Union, a former
    slave state was eligible to be readmitted to the
 Due to Republican fears over the restoration of planter
  aristocracy and the possible re-enslavement of blacks,
  Congress passed the Wade-Davis Bill in 1864.
 It required that 50% of a state's voters take the oath of
  allegiance and it demanded stronger safeguards for
 President Lincoln refused to sign the bill.
 The Moderates (Supported Lincoln’s plan)
 The Radicals: the South are "conquered provinces" …
 This radical minority that felt the South should suffer
 greatly before its re-admittance.
   These Radicals wanted the South's social structure to be
    uprooted, the planters to be punished, and the newly-
    emancipated blacks protected by federal power.
 Disfranchisement of leading Confederates and those
  with $20,000+ of taxable property (but they can
  petition President for pardon)
 calls of state conventions in south to REPEAL,
  REPUDIATE, and RATIFY in order to be
   Johnson’s plan was announced on May 29, 1865.
   It called for special state conventions which were
    required to: repeal the decrees of secession, repudiate
    all Confederate debts, and ratify the slave-freeing 13th
 Johnson's broad use of the presidential pardon allowed
 the planter elite to regain political power in Southern
 Black Codes passed by the newly formed southern
 state legislatures.
   These prevented blacks from voting through
    “literacy tests” and “poll taxes”
   Also prevented blacks from serving on juries
   Ensured they would remain a subservient labor force
    in the south
      Created the cycle of sharecropping in the South
 Plantation owners would rent out pieces of their land to
  blacks and make the cost of rent higher than the return the
  land produced.
 The renters of the land were bound by contract to
  continue to work the land until debts were repaid to the
  plantation owner.
   Unable to repay the debts, blacks began to "jump" their
 The codes imposed harsh penalties on blacks who
  "jumped" their labor contracts, some of which usually
  forced the blacks to work for the same employer for one
 "whitewashed rebels" elected to offices, including
  former Confederate leaders elected to Congress (e.g.,
  Alexander Stephens)
 Republicans fear loss of power -- Northern Dems
  and Southern Dems might unite and take control of
 Black codes sought to restore the pre-emancipation
  system of race relations.
 What was Lincoln’s plan to reconstruct the
  Union following the Civil war?
 What was the Wade-Davis Bill?
 What were Black Codes and what was their
 What was Sharecropping?
 What was Andrew Johnson’s plan and why
  was he the wrong man to be president at
  that time?
 Johnson provokes Congress:
 Johnson declares Reconstruction over in December
 Vetoes the Freedmen's Bureau extension in 1866
 Congressional Reconstruction
 In December 1865, Southern states represented
 themselves in Congress with former Confederate
 generals and colonels.
   This infuriated the Republicans who were apprehensive
    about embracing their Confederate enemies in
 The Republicans had enjoyed their supreme rule in
 Congress during the Civil War; but now there would
 be a potentially powerful opposing Democratic
   This time, the South would have much more control
    in Congress due to the fact that slaves were now
    counted as a whole person, not just 3/5; giving the South
    a larger population.
 Republicans feared that the South would take control
 of Congress.
 The Civil Rights Bill of 1866 (gave blacks basic rights
 of citizenship and disqualified former Confeds).
 Fearing that the Southerners might someday repeal the
    hated Civil Rights Law, This amendment:
   1- gave civil rights, including citizenship, to the
    2- reduced proportionately the representation of a
    state in Congress and in the Electoral College if it denied
    blacks on the ballot
    3- disqualified from federal and state offices former
    Confederates who, as federal officeholders, had once
    sworn to support the Constitution of the United States
    4- guaranteed the federal debt, while the Union assumed
    all Confederate debts.
Johnson and the 1866 Congressional Elections
 Johnson's "swing 'round the circle" -- he actively
  campaigns against the Republicans…but contributes to
  their victories with inept and confrontational speeches
 Result: Republicans secure more than a 2/3
  majority in both houses -- a veto-proof hold on the
  legislative branch
The Republican "Radicals"
 1.    Charles Sumner in the Senate
 2.     Thaddeus Stevens in the House
  The goals of the "Radicals“…pass laws that guarantee
  black freedom and racial equality
 The moderate Republicans, the majority in Congress,
 preferred policies that restrained the states from
 cutting citizens' rights, rather than policies that
 directly involved the federal government in individual
Military Reconstruction Act (March 1867)
 Divided the south into 5 military districts
   Each under a military "governor"
   20,000 troops would enforce it
  Conditions for readmission to the Union
   -ratification of the 14th amendment
  - full male suffrage to blacks in states
   Radical Republican Conditions for
       readmission to the Union
    -Ratification of the 14th amendment
   - Full male suffrage to blacks in all the states
       The 15th Amendment was passed by Congress in
       1869. It granted black men the right to vote.
 The moderate Republican goal was to create voters in
  Southern states that would vote those states back
  into the Union and thus free the federal
  government from direct responsibility for the
  protection of black rights.
 No land or education guaranteed to freedmen
 Repubs. felt that creating an electorate would be
  enough to protect freedmen's rights
 Questionable legality of military rule, (as the
  South was no longer at war with the North but was
  treaty as an occupied county.
    Ex parte Milligan case (1866) (Civilians cannot
     be tried by military tribunals)
 ID’s and Outlines for the entire Unit
  are due Thursday.
 Multiple Choice Test Friday and an in
  class DBQ on Monday.
 EC Notes from Reconstruction video.
 The struggle for freedom ignores
 women's rights
  The 14th Amendment (extends
   citizenship to black adult males but
   not women)
  The 15th Amendments (black male
   suffrage only)
 Freedmen and the vote
  Moderate plans (Lincoln's, Johnson's)
   give way to widespread enfranchisement
   in the south in 1867 and then in the
   nation as a whole in 1870.
  Blacks are the majority of the electorate
   (due to disqualification of former
   Confederates & their large population
   density) in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana,
   Mississippi, and Arkansas.
 An engraving depicting an agent of the Freedman’s
 Bureau as a peacemaker between blacks and
 whites after the Civil War.
 only one state legislature (SC) elected a
  majority of blacks in the lower house.
 no state senates had black majorities
 no black governors were elected
 most black officials were highly capable,
  educated, free-born
 2 US Senators (Hiram Revels and Blanche K.
  Bruce) were elected from Mississippi
 over a dozen US Congressmen elected
 State State Legislators   U.S. Senators U.S.Congressmen
 Alabama       69                 0             4
 Arkansas         8               0              0
 Florida       30                 0              1
 Georgia        41                0              1
 Louisiana      87                0              1*
 Mississippi    112                2             1
 N. Carolina     30                0              1
 S. Carolina   190                 0            6
 Tennessee        1               0              0
 Texas          19                 0            0
 Virginia       46                0             0
 Total           633 2 15
 In Reconstruction era
 Senator             Party       State       Term Lifespan Former slave
  Hiram Rhodes Revels Republican Mississippi 1870-1871 1822-1901 No
  Blanche Bruce       Republican Mississippi 1875-1881 1841-1898 Yes

 In Modern era
 Senator                     Party     State           Term      Lifespan
  Edward William Brooke, III Republican Massachusetts 1 967-1979 1919-
  Carol Moseley Braun        Democrat   Illinois         1993-1999 1947-
  Barack Obama               Democrat    Illinois      2005-2008 1 961-
  Roland Burris              Democrat    Illinois       2009 -       1937-
 Originally a pro-Union organization.
   Freedmen turned the Union League into a network of
    political clubs that educated members and campaigned
    for Republican candidates.
   The League also took up building black churches and
    schools, representing black grievances before local
    employers and government, and recruiting militias to
    protect black communities from white retaliation.
 Presence of former slaves in civil service and government
 "scalawags" and "carpetbaggers“
   Scalawags" were Southerners who were accused of
    plundering the treasuries of the Southern states through their
    political influence in the radical governments.
   "Carpetbaggers" were sleazy Northerners who had come to
    the South to seek power and profit.

 Accusations of graft and corruption
   some truth to these accusations in SC and Louisiana
   political corruption, however, not confined to the South in
    these years (New Orleans after Katrina)?
Secret organizations emerge
 Ku Klux Klan is most notorious
   TN 1866 – founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest
   Intended to strike fear through intimidation
      often resorts to violence
   main goal = disfranchisement of blacks
   angered by the success of black legislators
Force Acts of 1870 and 1871
 White resistance…
    to Force Acts
    of 14th / 15th Amendments
       literacy tests reinstated in some places

 The Acts came too late, though, after the
intimidation of the Klan had already been
   In effect, the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the
   Democratic party, the planter class, and all those who desired
   restoration of white supremacy.
 Congressional attacks on Johnson
   accusations/mudslinging
   Secretary of War Edwin Stanton (main enemy of Johnson
    and important leader of the Radical Republicans)
   Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867. It
    required the president to secure the consent of the Senate
    before he could remove his cabinet members once they had
    been approved by the Senate. Its purpose was to keep in the
    president's cabinet.
   constitutionality of measure is questionable

 When Johnson dismissed Stanton in 1868, the House of
 Representatives voted to impeach Johnson for "high
 crimes and misdemeanors."
 Johnson dismisses Stanton
 Impeachment vote results…126 to 47 in the House for
  “crimes and misdemeanors”
 Trial and verdict
   biggest show of 1868 (a media circus)
   not guilty verdict in Senate (by one vote)
 -Significance of the trial…preserved the power and
 equal station of the executive branch
 Initially viewed as a failure.
 In the South…
   Segregation perpetuated.
   The pre-Civil War South was romanized in literary
     works like Gone With The Wind and The Clansman

   Black rights by 1877 little better than in pre civil war
     slave times
 There were more important issues than Black rights or
   Such as the growing industrial economy, further
    westward expansion, an even larger influx of European
 Newer historical research (see pages 500-501 in Bailey)
  highlighted the real tragedy of Reconstruction.
 It failed not because blacks were incapable of
  governing, but because the civil rights and
  equalities granted during this period were but a
  passing temporary development.
 These rights would ultimately be removed, only to wait
  until the 1950s and 1960s, for the rise of the Civil
  Rights Movement or what is sometimes referred to as
  "Second Reconstruction."
 The Alaska Purchase, historically also referred to as
  Seward's Folly, was the purchase of Alaska by the
  United States from the Russian Empire in 1867.
 The purchase was at the time derided as "Seward's
  folly," "Seward's icebox," and Andrew Johnson's "polar
  bear garden," because it was believed foolhardy to
  spend so much money on the remote region.
 The purchase price set at $7,200,000, about 1.9¢ per
 Seward, the main force behind the treaty, had long favored
  expansion. U.S. Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts,
  the chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign
  Relations, agreed that the nation's strategic interests
  favored the treaty.
 Russia had been a valuable ally of the Union position
  during the American Civil War, while Britain had been a
  nearly open enemy.
 It seemed wise to help Russia while discomfiting the
 Today: Divide up Chapter 22 Apparts
  (due Friday)
 Tomorrow: Review Game or Practice
    ID’s and Outlines Due (check off)
   Friday: Multiple Choice Unit Test
   Monday: In class DBQ
 Finish the Unit 7 ID’s and Questions by 12/2
 Review Chapters 21, 22 and 23 in your textbook.
 Do Practice Tests
 The Final Exam will consist of about 20 matching
  items (terms, people, events, etc), and 50 multiple
  choice questions.
 What were the advantages of both the North and the
  South during the Civil War? What advantage proved most
  important to each side? What disadvantage proved to be
  the most difficult to overcome for the South?
 Why did the North win the Civil War? How might the
  South have won? Discuss specific strategies and battles in
  support of your ideas.
 Was Reconstruction a noble experiment that failed, a
  vengeful Northern punishment of the South, a weak effort
  that did not go far enough, or the best that could have been
  expected under the circumstances? What has been the
  historical legacy of Reconstruction? (Consider particularly
  the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and Civil
  Rights laws.)

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