Georgraphy shapes greek life: by 00ZQg73

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									Matthew Gross History Questions                           10/12/2010 9:02:00 PM

 Topic: Ancient Greece- Introduction
 Time: ca. 1750-133 BCE
 Place: Greece (and her colonies)
 Concepts: geography; civilization
 Big Question: how did Greece’s geography determine its political and
 economical stand?


 Geography shapes Greek life:


    Ancient Greece was mostly mountains and peninsulas
    It contained about 1400 islands
    The Greeks were indo European


 The Sea:


    The Greeks lived basically on the water
    They would never travel more than 85 miles to the coastline
    The Aegean sea, Ionian sea, and black sea were very important to the
     Greeks they provided transportation routes
    These water ways were good for trade and Greece needed trade in order
     to succeed because they didn’t have much resources
    Very maritime (connecting with the seas) it’s culture is maritime
    Their main source of protein was fish


 The Land:


    ¾ of the land was mountains
    The Greeks made small communities based on their geographical location
    The distances were short to one another but because of the mountains it
     was a very hard travel to go from place to place
    Only 20% arable (suitable for farming); of the land was farmable
    The fact that they didn’t have such good resource may have been the
     cause that they got new colonies
    A lot of little rivers running through Greece (very good for growing grapes
     and olives.) and these are used as very important trading goods.
    Very big sheppards
   City-states=poleis (politics come from this word)


The climate:


   They usually met outdoors to discuss public events and etc.
   Thei invented the gymnasium
   Very big in athletics


Mycenaean Civilization Develops:


   Around 2000 BCE people settle mainland Greece later called Mycenaean
   The city Mycenae had a 20 foot thick wall surrounding it and almost
    withstood any attack
   The kings that ruled these people and neighboring villages rules from
    1600-1200 BCE


Culture and Trade:


   The rich people lives in fortresses and lives perfect lives
   They would eat in dining halls 35 feet wide and 50 feet long
   The warrior kings invaded Crete
   These invasions prevented the Minoans to rebuild


The Trojan War:


   About 1200 BCE
   They fought a ten year war with Greece because a youth had kidnapped
    the kings wife


Greek Culture Declines under the Dorians:


   Around 1200 BCE sea raiders attacked Greece and destroyed them
   According to legend the people to inhabit the land were the Dorians
   When they took control the Greek empire basically stopped
   Historians say that they forgot how to write in the period (1150-750 BCE)
    because there are no written records
Epics of Homer:


   It is said that the best storyteller of the time was a blind man named
    homer
   He wrote poem based on heroic deed from 750-700 BCE
   His to best epic poems were the Iliad and odyssey
   The Iliad is about hector of troy fighting Achilles and when his wife asks
    him not to fight him he says that then he would be a coward showing
    about Greek life and values
   The odyssey is about Odysseus and his travels on the sea and fighting the
    Trojans


Greeks create Myths:


   Myth- traditional story
   Through the myths the people would explain super natural powers
   They gave their basic attributes to god
   The gods lived forever
   Zeus the head of gods lived on mount Olympus


    1. What were the influences of Greek geography on Greek political and
    economic life?
    Answer: economically it was everything. Mainland Greece didn’t have
    such good resources so trade on the sea was very important. Politically it
    kind of made them a little weaker, because they could be united into one
    big kingdom. They couldn’t unite into one kingdom because of the
    mountains.
    2. Homer and Hesiod: What can mythology help us understand about
    Greek societies’ understanding of order and stability?
    Answer: the Greeks thought that they were very good people. They
    thought this because they gave their basic attributes as gods. They were
    very orderly and stable because these are good attributes to have and
    they possessed them.
Rule and order in Greek City-States:


   Most city states controlled 50-500 miles of territory
   Most of the time less than 20,000 residents
   On the hilltop called the acropolis the people would make business
    meetings


Greek Political Structures:


   In some city states their were monarchs or kings
   In some city states their were artistocracies which were whn a few noble
    families were the head and would gain olitical power by working in the
    king’s military cavalry
   As trade expanded merchants became the political leaders
   They made an oligarchy when a few powerful people rule the government


A New Kind of Army Emerges:


   After the bronze age people started to use iron whichw as cheeper so the
    less wealthy people could afford weapons and defend themselves
   Phalanx’s of fearsome formations was the most powerful fighting force in
    the ancient world


Tyrants seize Power:


   In many city states lower classmen would join rebellions against the
    nobles, these powerful individuals were called tyrants
   In some CS it would go from tyrant to tyrant


Topic: Ancient Greece- Sparta
Time: 725-150 BCE
Place: Sparta
Concepts: militarism, totalitarism
Big Question: Why did Sparta develop a military state?

Sparta Builds A Military State:
   They were the only CS to build a military state
   Nobles also need commoners to keep society together and fight helots


Sparta Dominates Messenians:


   Sparta conquered messenia in 725 BCE
   They became helots or people who were forced to stay and do work on
    the land
   Every year the Spartans would demand half of the crops
   Around 600 BCE the much bigger messenians revolted and just lost it
    took the Spartans 20 years to put it down
   After the revolt the Spartans made themselves a stronger nation


Sparta’s Government and Society:


   They were governed by 2 groups
   1 group: aseemble- all free adult males- ones who were elected voted on
    major issues
   2 group: council of elders- they proposed laws
   five elected officials called ephors carried out the laws council passed
   2 kings ruled over sparta’s military and als checked eachother and if one
    dies
   there were different social classes the rich ones were the people who
    were indigenous to the land the other were the non native people


Spartan Education:


   for men army was everything
   serve reserve until 60
   once a boy turned 7 he started training for the army
   Spartan girls would play sports instead of military service
   You couldn’t marry until 20 and men couldn’t live with women until 30
   The women couldn’t vote but got a lot of rights
   In places like Athens the women weren’t expected to come out of their
    house
   600-371 BCE the Spartans had the most powerful army in Greece


Topic: Ancient Greece- Athens
Time: 621-508 BCE
Place: Athens
Concepts: government; democracy; rights
Big Question: How does Athens evolve intoa democracy.


Athens Builds a Limited Democracy:


   Athens was north of Sparta
   Compared to Spartans because they complete each other


Political Development in Athens:


   Athens tried to make a democracy
   Only free adult males were counted as citizens


Solon’s Political and Economic Reforms:


   Peseants destroyed the attempt of a rich man named cylon to make it a
    tyranny
   621 BCE first code of laws are written by draco
   to prevent civil war in 594 BCE solon is chosen to rule the government
   he allowed al citizens to debate policies in the assembly
   he was the first to say that someone can press charges against someone
    else for doing something wrong
   he ignored land reforms so when he finished the wealthy and poor
    landowners would fight
   546 BCE pisustratus becames athens’ first tyrant
   he gave jobs to the poor and got their support
    10/12/2010 9:02:00 PM


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    10/12/2010 9:02:00 PM


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