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					Alone

Lying, thinking
Last night
How to find my soul a home
Where water is not thirsty
And bread loaf is not stone
I came up with one thing
And I don't believe I'm wrong
That nobody,
But nobody
Can make it out here alone.

Alone, all alone
Nobody, but nobody
Can make it out here alone.

There are some millionaires
With money they can't use
Their wives run round like banshees
Their children sing the blues
They've got expensive doctors
To cure their hearts of stone.
But nobody
No, nobody
Can make it out here alone.

Alone, all alone
Nobody, but nobody
Can make it out here alone.

Now if you listen closely
I'll tell you what I know
Storm clouds are gathering
The wind is gonna blow
The race of man is suffering
And I can hear the moan,
'Cause nobody,
But nobody
Can make it out here alone.

Alone, all alone
Nobody, but nobody
Can make it out here alone.


Maya Angelou
History: The Pledge of Allegiance
Thursday, June 27, 2002
By Paul Wagenseil

The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy, a Baptist minister in Boston who
was prominent in the Christian Socialist movement of the time.

Bellamy was also an official in the National Education Association, the teachers' union, and he created
the Pledge as part of a school flag-raising ceremony to mark the 400th anniversary of Columbus'
arrival in America.

Bellamy's original words were:
I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with
liberty and justice for all.
He considered adding the word "equality" to stand with "liberty and justice," but he reasoned that the
implication of equal rights for women and blacks would be too controversial.

The first draft of the Pledge was published in the Sept. 8, 1892, issue of The Youth's Companion, a
popular family magazine. Daniel Ford, the Companion's publisher, had hired Bellamy after Bellamy
had been forced from the pulpit for his socialist sermons.

The Pledge was reprinted on leaflets and distributed nationwide, with later versions repeating the
preposition "to" before "the Republic." Twelve million schoolchildren recited it for the first time one
month later on Columbus Day, Oct. 12, 1892.

From that point on, the Pledge was used by schoolchildren to salute the flag, though only in an
unofficial capacity for several decades.

The original gesture when reciting the Pledge was not the current right hand held over the heart, but
the "Roman salute" a movement of the right hand away from the heart until it pointed away from the
body. That fell out of favor when the Fascists in Italy and later the Nazis in Germany adopted the same
salute.

In 1924, concerned that immigrants would actually be saluting the flags of their home countries, the
American Legion and Daughters of the American Revolution pressured the National Flag Conference
to replace the words "my flag" with "the Flag of the United States of America." Bellamy, still alive,
was not happy about the change.

The Pledge now read:
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands,
one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

In 1942, soon after America entered World War II, Congress officially endorsed the Pledge of
Allegiance and instituted the current hand-over-heart gesture. One year later, however, the Supreme
Court ruled that schoolchildren could not be forced to recite the Pledge.

In 1954, under pressure from the Knights of Columbus and other religious groups, Congress officially
added the words "under God" to the Pledge, so that it currently reads:
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands,
one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Several variations of the Pledge are in use by groups espousing differing social and political principles.
Pro-life activists sometimes add the words "born and unborn" to the end of the sentence, while liberals
will often add Bellamy's original "equality."

Last fall [2001], actor Tom Hanks created a stir when he recited the Pledge on a televised Sept. 11
fundraiser and omitted the phrase "under God."

Sources: Dr. John W. Baer, The Pledge of Allegiance: A Short History; The American Legion.
http://www.foxnews.com/printer_friendly_story/0,3566,56320,00.html

Answer the following questions as we read the article.

   1.    Who wrote the first version of the pledge?


   2.     Why did he leave out the word “equality” in his version even though he had wanted to
        include it?



   3.    What year was the first draft published?


   4.    Why did “my flag” change to “the Flag of the United States of America” in 1924?




   5.    What decision did the Supreme Court make in 1943 regarding the pledge?




   6.    Why was “under God” added?
Look at the words in the Pledge of Allegiance and see what they mean: Define each underlined word.

I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands,
one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.

Pledge         ____________________________________________________________
Allegiance      ____________________________________________________________
Republic        ____________________________________________________________
Indivisible     ____________________________________________________________
Liberty         ____________________________________________________________

Now, as the FOX article mentioned, many groups use the format of the pledge but change it to
represent their own particular views. Here is one example that some environmentalist groups use
(thanks to Jeri Pollock):

I pledge allegiance to the Earth and all the life which it supports, one planet in our care,
irreplaceable, with sustenance and respect for all.

Think of Melinda and her fear of saying what she knows is true. What pledges might she make? What
things might she promise to be true to?

   1.      Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

          _____________________________________________________________________

   2.      Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

          _____________________________________________________________________

   3.      Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

          _____________________________________________________________________

Choose one other character from the novel. What pledges might he/she make? Who is your character?

________________________

   1.      Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

          _____________________________________________________________________

   2.      Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

          _____________________________________________________________________
   3.     Promise to be true to _______________________________________________; why

         _____________________________________________________________________



As we think about what it means to pledge allegiance to something that we believe in, write your own
pledge to something that is important to you. Following the example of an alternative pledge shown
above and of course the regular pledge, write one of your own that is your promise to be true to
something you believe in. Follow the same format, just change the words to fit the new pledge you are
writing. As you choose your words, think of what they mean and how they affect the interpretation of
your entire new pledge.


If you’re having trouble getting started, here is a list of things that you could use if you want.
Otherwise, have fun with your own idea.

Family                          Friends                         Learning

Your town                       Your pet                        The environment

Reading                         Any sport                       Yourself



Write your pledge below.

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________
Next, write a paragraph that reflects on this activity. Choose one of the ideas below or develop one of
your own ideas.

   1.    Making a promise
   2.    Freedom to express ideas that are different
   3.    Making a choice to recite
   4.    Melinda should pledge to . . . .
   5.    Mr. Neck should understand that . . . .


________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________




Or, you might want to continue with these options:
    ·      Write another, different pledge
    ·      Write in a journal about the importance of free speech
    ·      Write a letter from Melinda to Mr. Neck defending David
    ·      Think of other books, movies, songs, or other media that you remember having to do with
       free speech. What was the idea presented? How was it important? How has your perception of
       that book (etc.) changed now that you’ve reflected on free speech more specifically?

				
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