Phonological Awareness 9.30.11

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Phonological Awareness 9.30.11 Powered By Docstoc
					    Big Ideas in Reading:
   Phonological Awareness
         Presented by April Kelley
             June 6th, 2010

 On the back of your name tent, write 1 word
that describes you that begins with the same
          sound as your first name.

Help yourself to refreshments/breakfast and
        we’ll get started shortly! 
Seasonal Partners
     Sample Lesson

The Bag I’m Taking to Grandmas’s
Phonemic Awareness
Round the Room Survey

What do you know What do you want
about phonological to know about
awareness?         phonological
Round the Room Survey

        Stop = return & record

         Go = mingle & share
       Round the Room Survey

• At your table, pool and extend your lists.
  Designate one recorder and one reporter.
         Learning Targets:
       What You Should Know

• Learn about the continuum of phonological
  awareness (PA) skills and why they are
• Learn how to diagnose PA skill
  deficiencies for the class and individual
• Gather intervention ideas for PA
• Gather ideas for strengthening your core
  for PA
      My challenge to you…

What does this mean for
 me in my classroom?
                          How might I adapt
                          this for my grade
     Phonological Awareness

Involves understanding how the sounds of spoken
language can be segmented, combined and

Is an auditory skill that NEED NOT involve print.

Is one strong predictor of children’s
later reading success.
Phonological Awareness Skills

Easiest               Hardest
          Phonological Awareness
                                                                 Phoneme Blending,
                                                                   Segmenting, &
                                                      & Segmenting
                                       & Segmenting


           Levels of Phonological
Phoneme Segmenting,     Blending phonemes into words,
Blending, and           segmenting words into individual phonemes, and
Manipulation            manipulating phonemes in spoken words

                        Blending/segmenting the initial consonant or
Onset-Rime Blending     Consonant cluster (onset) with or from the vowel
And Segmentation        and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)

Syllable Blending and   Blending syllables to say words or
Segmenting              segmenting spoken words into syllables

Sentence Segmenting     Segmenting sentences into spoken words

Alliteration            Recognizing or saying words with common
                        initial sounds
                        Matching the ending sounds of words
Phonological Awareness

      Sorting Activity
Sample Rhyming Lesson

   Auditory Cloze Technique
Sample Alliteration Lesson

     Read Alliteration Story
      Practice Alliteration
 Sample Sentence
Segmenting Lesson

    Walk this Way
Sample Syllable Blending &
   Segmenting Lesson

        Name Game
  Sample Onset-Rime
Blending & Segmenting

      Simon Says
Template for Onset-Rime
  Blending Instruction

         Card #4
          Phonological Awareness
                                                                 Phoneme Blending,
                                                                   Segmenting, &
                                                      & Segmenting
                                       & Segmenting


      Phonemic Awareness

Focus on the individual sounds (or phonemes) in
                  spoken words
               Phonemes are the smallest
             units of sound in spoken words

       /d/               /o/             /g/
    1st phoneme       2nd phoneme    3rd phoneme
       /sh/              /i/            /p/
   Phonemic Awareness is…

• The ability to segment words into sound,
  blend them back together, and manipulate
  the sounds to make new words.

• The understanding that spoken words and
  syllables are made up of sequences of
  speech sounds.
       Phonemic Awareness

• PA requires the ability to attend to one sound
  in the context of other sounds in the word.
  Makes it difficult because sounds overlap and
  merge in speech.

• Not necessary to speak and understand
  speech, but children need to be aware of
  those small parts to read and spell in an
  alphabetic language.
Seasonal Partners

Find your winter partner.
    Phonemic Awareness Fun

• How many speech sounds are in played?
• How many speech sounds are in street?
• How many speech sounds are in though?
• What is the 3rd sound in fixed? 4th?
• Take /m/ away from time. What word do
  you have left?
• Take /p/ away from splat. What word?
    Phonemic Awareness Fun

• What is driver without the /v/?
• Say ice backwards.
• Say teach backwards.
• Say enough backwards.
• Write the letter groups that stand for each sound
  in church.
• Write the letter groups that stand for each sound
  in shrink.
Pronunciation of Sounds
 What is a continuous sound?

• A sound that can be prolonged (stretched out)
  without distortion
• Words that begin with continuous sounds are
  easier to blend

            n r l sh m v f
 z (voiced) s (voiceless) all vowels (voiced)
     What is a stop sound?

• A sound that you can not say

       d     ch b c j h k             p
           g (voiced) t (voiceless)
    Pronunciation of Sounds

• As a school team, discuss how your
  program or curriculum pronounces the
  sounds. (refer to your teacher’s manuals if
• Find ways to be consistent!
• If you are the only one from your school,
  head to the back of the room to share out
  with others.
              PA Research
    (that’s valuable to classroom teachers)

• PA can be taught and learned.
• PA instruction helps children learn to read.
• PA instruction helps children learn to spell.
• PA instruction is most effective when children
  are taught to manipulate phonemes by using the
  letters of the alphabet.
• PA instruction is most effective when it focuses
  on only one or two types of phoneme
  manipulation, rather than several types.
               PA Research
    (that’s valuable to classroom teachers)

• Children who begin school with little PA
  will have trouble acquiring the alphabetic
  principle which will, in turn, limit their ability
  to decode words. (Blachman, 1991)
• PA is teachable and promoted by attention
  to instructional variables. (Smith, 1995)
 The best predictor of reading difficulty
   in kindergarten or first grade is the
inability to segment words and syllables
      into constituent sounds units
          (phonemic awareness).

                           -Lyon, 1995
              Good News

• Evidence indicates that most (80-85%) of
  children acquire PA by the middle first

• Research also indicates that 2 of these 3
  or 4 students in each classroom who don’t
  develop PA initially can develop it within a
  few weeks.
       #1 Phoneme Analysis

• Segmenting tasks

• Students must say individual phonemes in
  a word or delete an initial or final sound
      Sample Phoneme
     Segmenting Lesson

            Stretchy Names
             Sound Boxes
A Song to Teach Phonemic Segmentation
 Template for Phoneme
Segmentation Instruction

         Card #6
     #2 Phoneme Synthesis

• Blending tasks

• Student must pronounce a word after
  hearing the segments (either individually
  phonemes or onsets and rimes)
 Sample Phoneme
 Blending Lesson

I’m Thinking of a Word Song
Template for Phoneme
 Blending Instruction

       Card #5
 Sample Phoneme
Manipulation Lesson

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Word
Performance on both segmenting and
 blending is highly correlated to the
  acquisition of early reading skills,
although segmenting appears to be a
   more complex linguistic activity.
                    -Perfetti, Beck, Bell, & Hughes, 1987
Analyze Core Program

   Scope and Sequence
        NE L.A. Standards &
         Reading Programs
• Work as a school team.
• Take the NE Language Arts Standards Or Early
  Learning Guidelines (Pre-K)
• Look through your program (using either a
  scope and sequence or actual lessons) and
  place a tally mark next to each standard every
  time it’s taught in the program
• Complete Activities: PA Reading Program
  Evaluation for Grades K, 1, and 2-6
  Find Phonological
 Awareness Activities
    to Supplement
  Your Core Program

Use flags to mark your favorites!!!
        Sharing of Favorite
          PA Activities

• When I say “go”, you’ll find your fall
• You and your partner will pair up with
  another set of partners (group of 4)
• Take turns sharing your favorite PA
            Assessing PA

• Program Assessments

   Initial Sound Fluency/First Sound Fluency
   Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

• CORE Phonemic Awareness Survey
    Program Assessments

  What program      How well do they
assessments do I    related to the PA
 have available?   continuum of skills?
DIBELS Assess the Big Ideas

Core Components of Reading (Big                 DIBELS Indicator

Phonemic Awareness                    Initial Sound or First Sound Fluency
                                      Phoneme Segmentation Fluency

Alphabetic Principle and Phonics      Nonsense Word Fluency – gr. 1
                                      Oral Reading Fluency – gr. 2
Accuracy and Fluency with Connected   Oral Reading Fluency
Comprehension                         Combination of Oral Reading Fluency
                                      and Retell Fluency
Vocabulary – Oral Language            Word Use Fluency
CORE Phonological Awareness

• Six Subtests
   Detecting rhymes
   Counting Syllables
   Matching Initial Sounds
   Counting Phonemes
   Comparing Word Length
   Representing Phonemes with Letters
CORE Phonological Awareness

• Group or individual

• Screening Tool for
   K Mid-Year
   1st grade Fall
   2nd graders not yet reading
 CORE Phonological
Awareness Screening

Find your summer partner and
read through the test together.
CORE Phonological Awareness

• Each subtest is worth 5 points
• 4 points means the corresponding section
  of the curriculum should be revisited
• 3 points or less means the corresponding
  section of the curriculum warrants more
  serious attention (teach or reteach)
CORE Phonological Awareness
• Students able to match initial sounds will
  profit from phonics instruction.
• Students not able to meet any of the
  benchmarks will benefit from more intense
  phonemic awareness instruction and
  language work in general
   Intervention of 14 hours (3-4 days/week for
    15-20 min./day for about 10 weeks) is all that
    is needed for K-2 students
CORE Phonological Awareness

• Questions?

         Which assessments might we use
                  for PA skills?

              How will we use them?
         (outcomes measure, diagnostic)
Website to Find Templates
 Investigate Additional
Phonological Awareness

 Use flags to mark your favorites!!!
   Effective Classroom Instruction

• Playful and game-like activities, much like
  children manipulate the language of
  songs, chants and rhymes on their own.
• Rhyming, alliteration, word games, songs
  and poetry.
• Activities that promote word play are part
  of a classroom culture - “roaming around
  in phonological space.”
Critical Feature of Instruction #1

Phonemic Awareness is a critical
 component of reading instruction but not
 an entire reading program.

It needs to be taught explicitly, but should
   only be 10-15 minutes per day of your
   reading instruction block.
 Critical Feature of Instruction #2

Instruction must focus on…
• a few types of phonemic awareness for
  the highest payoff.

• the 2 critical skills of
   • blending
   • segmentation
Critical Feature of Instruction #3

• Research has found that you get better
  results when teaching phonemic
  awareness to small groups of children
  rather than an entire class.
Critical Feature of Instruction #4

• Phonemic awareness needs to be taught
• The instructional program must show
  children what they are expected to do.
• Teachers must model skills they want
  children to perform before the children are
  asked to demonstrate the skill.
 Critical Feature of Instruction #5

Teachers increase effectiveness when the
  manipulation of letters is added to phonemic
  awareness tasks.

Phonemic awareness is an auditory skill, but once
  children start to become familiar with the
  concept, teachers can introduce letter tiles or
  squares and manipulate them to form sounds
  and words.
Phonemic Awareness

Additional Resources

         THANK YOU!!!

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