The Solar System

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					The Solar System
 Order of the Planets
        Our Sun
Rotation and Revolution
       The Moon
  Eclipses and Tides
     Planet Details
   Orbit means to circle around.
    The planets orbit the Sun.
   Our moon is a body in space that circles
    planet Earth. Other planets have moons, too.
   Our solar system includes the Sun and all
    the planets, moons, and stars.
   A star is a body which looks like a bright
    point in the sky at night. A star is not a planet
    or a moon. Our sun is a star.
   Scientists pretend that planets and stars
    have a line drawn through their middles. This
    line is called an axis.
            Order of the Planets
Educated                  Earth

Mother                    Mars
Just                      Jupiter
Served                    Saturn
Us                        Uranus
Nachos                    Neptune

Sorry Pluto, you’re a dwarf
A solar system consists of a star and everything within reach of
the star’s gravity.

Our solar system includes a star, called the Sun, planets, and
other objects including moons, comets, asteroids, and
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,
Neptune, and Pluto (Dwarf Planet) all travel around
the Sun.
The first four planets are solid and rocky.
The next four planets are large and gaseous.
Pluto, the farthest from the Sun is frozen
solid and considered a dwarf planet.
Scientist now have evidence that an additional
planet has been discovered beyond Pluto.
Examine the vast distances between planets in the solar system.   Return
Our Sun
             What is the Sun?
A star is an object in the
sky made of very hot,
spinning gases.

It gives off its own heat
and light.

There are trillions of
stars in space. The Sun
is one of those stars.
The Sun is the largest
object in our solar
system, but it is only a
medium-sized star.

It appears larger than
other stars because it is
the closest star to the
Earth, even though it is
nearly 150,000,000
kilometers away.
The Sun is at the center of our solar system.
Everything in the solar system travels around
the Sun.
 How important is the Sun to Earth?

The Sun is a very
important natural

It is the major source
of energy for Earth.
Thermal energy circulates air currents on Earth, which
influences ocean water evaporation which drives clouds
and rain, which then adds to vast rivers that moderates

The movement of water from one place to another as it
changes its state of matter is called the water cycle.

Heat energy from the Sun is the most important part of the
water cycle.
Without energy,
plants do not make
the food needed
for them to live and

The energy plants
need is from the
Wind is “moving air”.

Air moves because the Sun heats the Earth’s surface

The Sun is needed for the wind to blow.
                   Sun Facts
   The outside of the Sun is 11,000 degrees
    Fahrenheit. A REALLY hot day on Earth is only
    100 degrees Fahrenheit. The Sun's surface is
    about 100 times as hot as the hottest day on
   The Sun is very, very big. More than one million
    planet Earths could fit inside of the Sun!
   The Sun is very important to us. It gives us light
    and heat. Without light and heat we would not be
    able to live.
   The Sun is composed of helium and hydrogen.
Rotation and Revolution
If a planet or moon has an axis, then it
rotates, or spins. Think of a globe. Where
is the axis on a globe?

It takes the Earth 24 hours to rotate on its
axis. This is equivalent to ___ day(s).

It takes the Moon 28 days to rotate on its
axis. This is equivalent to ___ month(s).
Another word for orbit is Revolution.

It takes the Earth ___ day(s) to revolve around the

It takes the Moon ___ day(s) to revolve around the

Have you noticed anything interesting about the
length of time it takes the Moon to revolve and
          Astronomy Connections: Earth in Motion             Return
     ..\..\My Music\Cotton-Eyed Joe\01 Cotton-eyed Joe.wma
The Moon
The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite.

A satellite is an object that travels around
another object.
It takes the moon 28 days to travel around
the Earth.
The moon is about one-fourth the size of
Earth, and it is about 348,000 kilometers
Earth, Moon and Sun - An Interactive Learning Experience
Where is the sun in this picture?
    What is the Moon made of?
The moon is made of rock.
There is evidence of water on the Moon but no water
cycle because it has no atmosphere.
The rocky surface of the moon has mountains,
craters, flat areas, and valleys.
The craters formed when meteorites struck the
surface of the moon.
Meteorites do not burn away before reaching the
Moon’s surface because the Moon does not have an
Apollo Landing.avi
                 A fraction of the Meteor that
                 created Meteor Crater

Meteor Crater,
Arizona, U.S.A
                   Meteor Crater, Arizona, U.S.A

It is nearly one mile across, 2.4 miles in circumference, and more than 500 feet
deep. A 60-story building could rest on its floor and not be as high as the crater
rim. Twenty football fields could be put on its floor and more than 2 million fans
could watch games from the crater walls.
     Is there life on the moon?
There is no life or living organism on the
The moon does not have an atmosphere to
sustain life.

The daytime temperatures on the moon can
rise above the boiling point of water, 100 C.
They can drop as low as -160 C at night.
Could you light a match on the moon?

No, because it has no oxygen.
Why does the moon shine at night?
The moon does not produce its own light. It
reflects the light of the Sun.

The moon appears to change shapes from night to
night. The part of the moon that we see depends
on the position of Earth, the moon, and the Sun at
that particular time. These changes in the moon’s
appearance are called the phases of the moon or
the lunar cycle.
Moon Challenge         Wonderville - Phases of the Moon

Examine the phases of the moon from Earth and space.      Return
 Why do astronauts seem to “float”
         on the moon?
Gravity is a force that pulls objects toward
each other.
The gravity on the moon is much less than
Earth’s gravity.
The gravity on the moon is one-sixth that of
The astronauts seem to float because they
weigh less on the moon.
 What would you weight on other
 planets and why does it change?
But did the astronauts
lose mass on the way to
the moon? Is that why
they weight less on the
moon and can float
        Let’s Think About It?
You already know that mass is the amount
of matter in an object. Mass can be
measured on a balance.

You have just learned that weight is the
amount of pull that gravity has on an object.
Imagine that a fifth grader travels from Earth to the
moon. The student weighs himself before he
leaves. He weight 96 pounds. On the moon, that
same student weighs about 16 pounds because the
pull of gravity on the moon is less that the pull of
gravity on Earth. He is able to float.
The student did not
lose any mass on the
way to the moon.
Think about it, did he
lose an arm or leg?
Of course not. So,
the student’s mass is
the same on the
moon as on Earth.
          Venn - Diagram
On the next slide is a Venn- Diagram
You need to compare and contrast the Earth
and the moon
        Earth      The Moon


Gravity 48 to -73 °C
Landforms (Craters)
Temps                    Atmosphere
Weathering                Rotates
   Volcanoes Revolves Earthquakes
Temps 107 to –153 ° C   Mass
Eclipses and Tides
                   Lunar Eclipse
This occurs when the
Earth blocks the
sunlight to the moon.
In other words, the
Earth’s shadow falls
on the moon.

Observe a lunar eclipse.
                  Solar Eclipse
The Moon passes
directed in front of the
sun. The Moon
blocks out the light
from the sun.

Observe solar eclipses.

The Earth has 2 high tides and 2
low tides each day.

High Tides and Low tides occur
because of the Moon’s gravity
pulling on the Earth’s oceans.

   Welcome to Discovery Education Player

Planet Details
   Mercury is the planet which is closest to the Sun. It is one
    of the four inner planets. These planets are Mercury,
    Venus, Earth and Mars. The inner planets are also called
    the rocky planets, because they are made of rocks.
   1 Earth year = about 4 Mercury years!!

   Mercury is about 1/3 as big as earth.

   3 Mercurys = 1 Earth!
•Venus is the second planet from the Sun.
•Venus is sometimes called the "Evening Star" and the
"Morning Star". It is very bright. You can see it at sunset
and sunrise.
•Venus spins very slowly. One "day" on Venus is longer
than one year on Earth.
•Venus is different from all the other planets because it
spins "backwards" on its axis.

A photograph of
Earth from space

 The planet we live on is called Earth. It is
  also called the blue, or water planet,
  because most of the surface of Earth is
  covered with water. From space Earth
  looks like a blue marble. Earth is just the
  right distance from the Sun to stay warm,
  and the water on Earth is constantly being
  moved by the Sun’s energy.
      Earth Facts
   Earth is the third planet from the
    sun. It is the largest of the four inner
   Earth spins very quickly compared
    to other planets. It only takes Earth
    24 hours to spin around its axis one
    time. One Earth day is 24 hours
    Earth orbits the sun in 365 days.
    This makes one Earth year 365
    days long.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. It is the last
 of the four inner planets. Mars is often called the
 "Red Planet" because the dirt on the planet is a
 red color.
Mars has an atmosphere, but it is different than
 Earth's. Our atmosphere is made up of oxygen
 (which we breathe), nitrogen, carbon dioxide
 and other gases. Earth has a lot of water vapor
 in the air. Mars has "air" made up mostly of
 carbon dioxide. Other gases in the air of Mars
 are nitrogen and oxygen, but there is not enough
 oxygen for a human to breathe.

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun. It is the
  largest planet in the solar system and it is the
  largest of the outer planets. The outer planets
  are: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
Jupiter is mostly made of a gas called hydrogen.
  Its atmosphere has three layers of clouds in it.
  The first layer of clouds is made of ammonia.
  Ammonia is the stinky stuff that is used to clean
Jupiter Facts
    An interesting fact about
     Jupiter is that it has rings.
    Jupiter has a lot of storms in
     its atmosphere. The spot in
     this picture is a storm on
     Jupiter. Scientists call this
     Jupiter's red spot. It is a storm
     which has been going on for
     about 300 years.
     Jupiter has at least 16 moons.
Saturn is the second of the outer planets. It is also
  the second largest planet in our solar system.
Saturn is made mostly of hydrogen and helium. On
  Earth these are usually gases. In fact, helium is
  the gas used to blow up balloons that float. On
  Saturn, hydrogen and helium are liquids! Saturn
  has weather and storms. Scientists think these
  are mostly wind storms.
The rings are made up pieces of rocks and ice.
  These pieces can be as small as a pebble or as
  big as a building. The rings get their pretty colors
  because the sun shines on them from far away.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is the third of
  the outer planets. Like Saturn and Jupiter, Uranus has a
  very short day. One day on Uranus is only 17 hours long.
  A year on Uranus is VERY long. One Uranus year is 84
  Earth years! It takes Uranus 84 years to orbit the Sun
  one time! That means Uranus goes all the way around
  the Sun ONCE in our lifetime!
  Uranus has more moons than any other planet in our
  solar system. So far, 20 moons have been discovered.
Uranus is made of methane ice. Methane is usually a gas
  on Earth, but it is so cold on Uranus that it is frozen into
  ice. Uranus's atmosphere is mostly made of methane
  gas. There so many clouds made of methane in the
  atmosphere, that they cover the whole planet.

Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun and the
fourth of the outer planets. Like Uranus, Neptune is a
blue color because its atmosphere is mainly made of
methane gas. Jupiter has the "Great Red Spot" that
looks like an eye. Neptune has a "Great Dark Spot".
Jupiter's spot is really a storm. Scientists think that
Neptune's spot is a hole in its atmosphere.
Neptune has 8 moons. The biggest one is Triton.

Pluto is the 9th planet from our sun. It is a dwarf
  planet and is very far away! It takes Pluto about
  248 years to orbit, or circle, the Sun 1 time.
  Pluto spins like a top 1 time in about 6 Earth
  days. We have not learned much about Pluto,
  because it is so far away from us. We know that
  Pluto is smaller than Earth, and that the
  temperature on Pluto may be -300 degrees!
  That is cold! Scientists are almost sure that
  there is no life on Pluto.


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