Old Testament Class 4 Final.ppt - flockNote by dffhrtcv3

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									                  Amos 3:7

“Indeed, the
Lord God does
nothing without
revealing his
plan to his
servants, the
prophets.”
              Bad Kings in Israel

 Jeroboam   1 Kings 12:26, 13:1-5
 Nadab      1 Kings 15:25-26
 Baasha     1 Kings 15:33-34
 Elah       1 Kings 16:8, 12-13
 Zimri      1 Kings 16:15, 18-19
 Omri       1 Kings 16:23, 26
 Ahab       1 Kings 16:23-33
                                   Jeroboam
1 Kings 12:26-30
  Jeroboam thought to himself: “The kingdom will
  return to David's house. If now this people go up
  to offer sacrifices in the temple of the LORD in
  Jerusalem, the hearts of this people will return to
  their master, Rehoboam, king of Judah, and they
  will kill me.” After taking counsel, the king made
  two calves of gold and said to the people: “You
  have been going up to Jerusalem long enough.
  Here is your God, O Israel, who brought you up
  from the land of Egypt.” And he put one in
  Bethel, the other in Dan.
                                 Nadab

1 Kings 12:25-26:
 “In the second year of Asa, king of Judah,
 Nadab, son of Jeroboam, became king of
 Israel; he reigned over Israel two years.
 He did evil in the LORD'S sight, imitating
 his father's conduct and the sin which he
 had caused Israel to commit.”
                                Baasha

1 Kings 15:33-34
 “In the third year of Asa, king of Judah,
 Baasha, son of Ahijah, began his twenty-
 four-year reign over Israel in Tirzah. He
 did evil in the LORD'S sight, imitating
 the conduct of Jeroboam and the sin he
 had caused Israel to commit.”
                                          Elah

1 Kings 16:8, 12-13
 “In the twenty-sixth year of Asa, king of Judah,
 Elah, son of Baasha, began his two-year reign over
 Israel in Tirzah… Zimri destroyed the entire house
 of Baasha, as the LORD had prophesied to Baasha
 through the prophet Jehu, because of all the sins
 which Baasha and his son Elah committed and
 caused Israel to commit, provoking the LORD, the
 God of Israel, to anger by their idols.”
                                         Zimri

1 Kings 16:15, 18-19
 “In the twenty-seventh year of Asa, king of Judah,
 Zimri reigned seven days in Tirzah... When Zimri
 saw the city was captured, he entered the citadel of
 the royal palace and burned down the palace over
 him. He died because of the sins he had committed,
 doing evil in the sight of the LORD by imitating the
 sinful conduct of Jeroboam, thus causing Israel to
 sin.”
                                         Omri

1 Kings 16:25-27
 “In the thirty-first year of Asa, king of Judah,
 Omri became king; he reigned over Israel twelve
 years, the first six of them in Tirzah… But Omri
 did evil in the LORD'S sight beyond any of his
 predecessors. He closely imitated the sinful
 conduct of Jeroboam, son of Nebat, causing
 Israel to sin and to provoke the LORD, the God
 of Israel, to anger by their idols.”
                                                 Ahab

1 Kings 16:23-33
 “In the thirty-eighth year of Asa, king of Judah, Ahab, son of
 Omri, became king of Israel; he reigned over Israel in
 Samaria for twenty-two years. Ahab, son of Omri, did evil in
 the sight of the LORD more than any of his predecessors. It
 was not enough for him to imitate the sins of Jeroboam, son
 of Nebat. He even married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king
 of the Sidonians, and went over to the veneration and
 worship of Baal. Ahab erected an altar to Baal in the temple
 of Baal which he built in Samaria, and also made a sacred
 pole. He did more to anger the LORD, the God of Israel, than
 any of the kings of Israel before him.”
                                      Elijah

 One of the most important figures of the
  Old Testament. His name means “My God
  is Yahweh” – and his primary role as a
  prophet was to speak against the idolatry of
  Israel’s kings, especially against Ahab and
  Jezebel.
 He never died, but was taken up to heaven
  in a whirlwind. It was foretold that his
  return would precede the Day of the Lord.
  (Malachi 3:23-24; Matthew 17:1-13)
                                        Elisha

   Elijah’s successor in his prophetic mission
    (1 Kings 19:19-21). He and Elijah did
    many of the same miracles:
    –   Parted the Jordan River
    –   Multiplied food
    –   Raised the dead
    –   Predicted a king’s death
Four Major Writing Prophets:
  1. Isaiah
  2. Jeremiah
  3. Ezekiel
  4. Daniel
Twelve Minor Writing Prophets:
 1. Hosea           7. Nahum
 2. Joel            8. Habakkuk
 3. Amos            9. Zephaniah
 4. Obadiah         10. Haggai
 5. Jonah           11. Zechariah
 6. Micah           12. Malachi
 God chose ordinary people
 Four characteristics:
    –   Times were good
    –   Used concrete images
    –   Challenge to conversion
    –   Message: “Repent and be saved!”
   Prophets were usually doomed from the
    start.
Five Parts of the Prophetic Message

 Accusations of Sin
 Call to Repentance
 The Day of the Lord
 Remnant
 Hesed Yahweh
 Amos 7:12-15
To Amos, Amaziah said: “Off with
you, visionary, flee to the land of
Judah! There earn your bread by
prophesying, but never again
prophesy in Bethel; for it is the
king's sanctuary and a royal
temple.” Amos answered Amaziah,
“I was no prophet, nor have I
belonged to a company of prophets;
I was a shepherd and a dresser of
sycamores. The LORD took me
from following the flock, and said
to me, Go, prophesy to my people
Israel.”
                  Amos
• Amos was a shepherd and a dresser of
  sycamores from Tekoa in Judah. God sent
  him to prophesy in the north in Israel at the
  shrine of Bethel.
• He condemned Israel's enemies first so they
  would listen to him - then he condemned
  Israel.
• Amos is the prophet of social justice.
  Faithfulness to Yahweh must show itself
  through concrete deeds of mercy and justice.
                  Amos
• Amos was a shepherd and a dresser of
  sycamores from Tekoa in Judah. God sent
  him to prophesy in the north in Israel at the
  shrine of Bethel.
• He condemned Israel's enemies first so they
  would listen to him - then he condemned
  Israel.
• Amos is the prophet of social justice.
  Faithfulness to Yahweh must show itself
  through concrete deeds of mercy and justice.
• Amos' oracles are highly structured:
  (Chapters 1 & 2)
  1. For three crimes of          and
     for four, I will not revoke my word;
  2. Because they...
  3. I will send fire upon ...
• Amos was the first prophet to speak
  about the remnant and the Day of the
  Lord.
                Hosea
 Hosea was the only writing prophet who
  was from the north (Israel). Amos was
  from the south (Judah) though he
  prophesied in the north.
 Symbolic prophecy is prophecy that is
  acted out.
 Hosea's entire life became a symbol. His
  marriage to a harlot (Gomer) was
  symbolic of Yahweh's covenant with an
  unfaithful people (Israel).
 Hosea gave symbolic names to his
  children:
Jezreel: ____________________________
Lo-ruhama: _________________________
Lo-ammi: ___________________________

 Israel's “harlotry” was punished in 721,
  but God promised that one day he would
  bring them back to himself and to their
  land.
 God's love (hesed) is constant and his
  promise eternal.
 Hosea 6:1-2        “He Will Raise Us Up”
In their affliction, they shall
look for me: “Come, let us
return to the LORD, for it is
he who has rent, but he will
heal us; he has struck us, but
he will bind our wounds. He
will revive us after two days;
on the third day he will raise
us up, to live in his
presence.”
Isaiah
I. Isaiah of Jerusalem (740 BC)
   A. Chapters 1 - 39
   B. Called “The Book of Judgment”
   C. Historical Backdrop: the advent of
      Assyria
   D. Contains:
      1.   Messianic Prophecy (2:1-5)
      2.   Isaiah’s call (6:1-13)
      3.   Immanuel Prophecies (7 & 9)
      4.   Historical Appendix (36 - 39)
        Isaiah 11:1-9 Rule of Immanuel
    But a shoot shall sprout from the stump of Jesse, and
    from his roots a bud shall blossom. The spirit of the
    LORD shall rest upon him: a spirit of wisdom and of
    understanding, A spirit of counsel and of strength, a
    spirit of knowledge and of fear of the LORD, and his
    delight shall be the fear of the LORD. Not by appearance
    shall he judge, nor by hearsay shall he decide, But he
shall judge the poor                    with justice, and decide
aright for the land's                   afflicted. He shall strike
the ruthless with the                    rod of his mouth, and
with the breath of his                   lips he shall slay the
wicked. Justice shall                   be the band around his
waist, and faithfulness                  a belt upon his hips.
Then the wolf shall be                   a guest of the lamb,
and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; The calf and the
young lion shall browse together, with a little child to guide
them. The cow and the bear shall be neighbors, together
their young shall rest; the lion shall eat hay like the ox. The
baby shall play by the cobra's den, and the child lay his hand
on the adder's lair. There shall be no harm or ruin on all my
holy mountain; for the earth shall be filled with knowledge of
the LORD, as water covers the sea.
           Jeremiah 1:4-5
The word of the
  LORD came to me
  thus:    “Before I
  formed you in the
  womb I knew you,
  before you were
  born I dedicated
  you, a prophet to
  the nations I
  appointed you.”
                  Jeremiah
• Jeremiah was called in the 13th year of Josiah
  (c.627 BC).
• His ministry lasted 45 years, the longest of any
  writing prophet. When he began his ministry,
  Assyria reigned supreme. When Assyria fell to
  Babylon, Egypt ruled Judah for a few years
  until Nebuchadnezzer defeated Egypt in 605.
  The Babylonians besieged Jerusalem in 598
  and then began deporting leaders until they
  destroyed the city (and the Temple) in 587 BC.
  Jeremiah prophesied through all of this.
• Jeremiah compared Judah's pride to a
  loincloth. (13:1-11)
• He did not marry, as a sign to Judah. (16:1-4)
• He broke a clay pot as a symbol of the coming
  destruction of Jerusalem. (19:1-13)
• He wore a yoke on his shoulders as a sign that
  Judah should submit to the rule of Babylon.
  (28:1-17)
• He was a prophet who expressed his sorrow.
  (8:18-23; 15:10-18)
• He spoke of a New covenant (31:31-34)
  and the restoration of Judah (32:6-15)
                      Ezekiel
• The name Ezekiel means
  “God will strengthen”.
• He was among those to go
  to Babylon in the first
  deportation, around 598
  BC.
• He received his call in a
  vision while in Babylon
  (c.593) at the age of thirty.
• His prophecy contains
  many symbolic acts and
  visions.
• His message, at first was about the
  destruction of Jerusalem:
• 4:1-8       Lying on his side
• 5:1-3,12    cutting his hair
• 12:1-6      digging a hole in the wall
• 12:17-20    eating his bread trembling
• 21:11-12    groaning
• 24:15-23    not mourning his wife's
              death
After Jerusalem was destroyed (587), his
  message became one of hope and restoration:
• 36:16-38 promise of
  rebuilding
• 37:1-14 vision of
      dry bones
• 37:24-28 Davidic
      Covenant
• Ezekiel's entire
  prophetic career was in Babylon, c.593-571.
The hand of the LORD came upon me, and he led me out in the spirit of the
LORD and set me in the center of the plain, which was now filled with
bones. He made me walk among them in every direction so that I saw how
many they were on the surface of the plain. How dry they were! He asked
me: Son of man, can these bones come to life? "Lord GOD," I answered,
“you alone know that.” Then he said to me: Prophesy over these bones,
and say to them: Dry bones, hear the word of the LORD! Thus says the
Lord GOD to these bones: See! I will bring spirit into you, that you may
come to life. I will put sinews upon you, make flesh grow over you, cover
you with skin, and put spirit in you so that you may come to life and know
that I am the LORD. I prophesied as I had been told, and even as I was
prophesying I heard a noise; it was a rattling as the bones came together,
bone joining bone. I saw the sinews and the flesh come upon them, and the
skin cover them, but there was no spirit in them. Then he said to me:
Prophesy to the spirit, prophesy, son of man, and say to the spirit: Thus
says the Lord GOD: From the four winds come, O spirit, and breathe into
these slain that they may come to life. I prophesied as he told me, and the
spirit came into them; they came alive and stood upright, a vast army.
Then he said to me: Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel.
They have been saying, “Our bones are dried up, our hope is lost, and we
are cut off.” Therefore, prophesy and say to them: Thus says the Lord
GOD: O my people, I will open your graves and have you rise from them,
and bring you back to the land of Israel. - Ezekiel 37:1-12
Isaiah continued…
II   Second [Deutero] Isaiah (550 BC)
     A.  Chapters 40 - 55
     B.  Called “The Book of
         Consolation”
     C.  Historical backdrop: the
         Babylonian Exile
     D.  Contains the “Suffering
         Servant Songs”
         1.   42:1-4
         2.   49:1-7
         3.   50:4-11
         4.   52:13 - 53:12
Suffering Servant
Yet it was our infirmities that he bore,
  our sufferings that he endured, While
  we thought of him as stricken, as one
  smitten by God and afflicted. But he
  was pierced for our offenses, crushed
  for our sins, upon him was the
  chastisement that makes us whole,
  by his stripes we were healed. We
  had all gone astray like sheep, each
  following his own way; but the LORD
  laid upon him the guilt of us all.
      - Isaiah 53:4-6
 Isaiah continued…
III. Third [Trito] Isaiah (530 BC)
     A.   Chapters 56 - 66
     B.   Historical backdrop: the
          Restoration
     C.   Contains:
          1.    Rebuilt Jerusalem (60 -62)
          2.    Heavenly Jerusalem
                (65:17-25)
New Jerusalem
“Lo, I am about to create new heavens
  and a new earth; the things of the
  past shall not be remembered or
  come to mind. Instead, there shall
  always be rejoicing and happiness in
  what I create; for I create Jerusalem
  to be a joy and its people to be a
  delight; I will rejoice in Jerusalem
  and exult in my people. No longer
  shall the sound of weeping be heard
  there, or the sound of crying…”
      - Isaiah 65:17-19

								
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