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Nutrition for Rowing

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					Eating for Competing
            Dr Helen O’Connor
              Department of
            Exercise and Sport
                 Science
           University of Sydney
            NSW Institute of
                  Sport
    Overview of the Presentation

•   A healthy diet
•   Pre-event meal
•   During the event
•   Recovery
•   Common questions
        Nutrition Basics
           Checklist
•   Varied and balanced diet → good health
•   Carbohydrate → energy & recovery
•   Moderate to low in fat → health
•   Adequate protein → grow & muscle
•   Adequate fluid → hydration
•   Regular meals → energy & concentration
    Carbohydrate the Key
    to Energy & Recovery

•   Stored as glycogen
•   Important energy source
•   Limited body stores
•   Improves endurance,
    concentration and recovery
 How Much Carbohydrate do
         I Need?
Activity                   g carb/kg/day
Couch Potato                    4-5
1 hr light exercise             5-6
1-2 hours medium-light          6-7
2 hours medium exercise         7-8
3-4 hours medium-hard           8-9
Crazy people (ultra-endurance) 10
       Low GI Foods Produce Higher
                 Satiety
Rice cakes of identical appearance, energy content, nutrition composition

 250

 200
                                              P<0.05
        P<0.01
 150                                P<0.01
                                                                   Low GI

 100                                                               High GI


  50

   0
         Glucose AUC         Satiety AUC      Food eaten at 2 hr
                                                     (g)



                                   Holt & Brand-Miller Appetite 1995
                  Glycaemic Index
                       Breakfast Cereals

                                                 Sanitarium Weet-bix

                                                 Porridge

                                                 Untoasted Muesli
Breakfast
 Cereals                                         Toasted Muesli

                                                 Kellog's Cornflakes

                                                 Kellog's Coco Pops

                                                 Kellog's All Bran

            0   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                      Glycaemic Index
                   Glycaemic Index
                                      Breads

                                                              Fruit Loaf

                                                              Kibble Barley (av)

                                                              Mixed Grain (av)
Breads                                                        Oat Bran (av)

                                                              Rye/Kernel

                                                              Wholemeal (av)

                                                              White


         0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90 100
                        Glycaemic Index
                      Glycaemic Index
                                      Fruit


                                                              Watermelon

                                                              Pineapple

                                                              Grapes
Fruit
                                                              Cherries

                                                              Banana

                                                              Apricot (dried)

                                                              Apple/Pear (av)

        0   10   20   30    40   50   60   70   80   90 100
                           Glycaemic Index
                  Glycaemic Index
                           Vegetables

                                                  Peas (green)
                                                  Carrots
                                                  Sweetcorn
                                                  Pumpkin
Vegetables
                                                  Sweet Potato (av)
                                                  Fries (av)
                                                  New Potato (av)
                                                  Baked Potato (av)

             0   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                      Glycaemic Index
                   Glycaemic Index
                                  Legumes


                                                             Soya Beans (av)

                                                             Kidney Beans (av)

Legumes                                                      Chick Peas (av)

                                                             Butter Beans (av)

                                                             Baked Beans (av)


          0   10   20   30   40   50 60   70   80   90 100
                        Glycaemic Index
                 Glycaemic Index
                                     Pasta


                                                             Vermicelli

                                                             Spaghetti (av)
Pasta
                                                             Meat Ravioli

                                                             Egg Fetucine



        0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90 100
                      Glycaemic Index
                     Glycaemic Index
                                      Rice


                                                             Brown


                                                             Doongarra/Basmati
Rice
                                                             Calrose


                                                             Long Grain White



       0   10   20   30    40   50   60   70   80   90 100
                          Glycaemic Index
                  Glycaemic Index
                     Sugars/Confectionery

                                                   Sucrose
                                                   Glucose
                                                   Fructose
Sugars/Con-                                        Honey
 fectionery
                                                   Muesli Bars
                                                   Mars Bars
                                                   Jellybeans
                                                   Chocolate

              0   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                      Glycaemic Index
Case Study
Mark: Cricket Umpire
Weight: 85 kg (ideal weight 70 kg)
Work: Office job
Umpire: Once a week on Saturday
Carbohydrate needs: 5 g carb/kg/day
Daily needs: 70 x 4 = 280 g carb/day
             30 g fat/day
             1,500 kcal (6,300 kJ)/day
 Easy Carbohydrate Counter
Food                       Carbohydrate (g)
Bread (1 slice)                 15
1 small box breakfast cereal    20
Fruit (1 average piece)         20
1 medium potato                 15
1 cup cooked rice               50
1 cup cooked pasta              35
1 carton yoghurt (200 g)        25
300 ml milk                     15
        Case Study - Mark
Food Consumed          Carbohydrate (g)
2 servings of cereal        40
Bread 4 slices              60
Fruit 3 pieces              60
Milk                        15
Rice/Pasta/Potato           50
Mixed vegetables            50
Total                      275
               Breakfast
2 Cups Cereal
Milk
150 ml Fruit Juice
 (1 fruit)

Carbohydrate: 70 g
               Lunch
2 salad sandwiches (grain bread) with
  lean meat, cheese, fish or egg
1 piece fresh fruit



Carbohydrate: 75 g
                  Dinner
Lean meat, chicken, fish
Potato (2) or Rice 1 cup cooked (basmati or
  Doongara) or Pasta (1 cup)
Vegetables 3-5 types
Fresh fruit

Carbohydrate: 120 g
              Smart Snacks
•   Fresh fruit
•   Fruit yoghurt
•   Wholegrain toast (little spread)
•   Fruit toast (little spread)
•   8 vita-weet with light cheese
•   Low fat milk smoothie
•   Bowl wholegrain cereal with light milk
•   Low fat vegetable soup

     Low GI carbs with lean protein for
           maximum satisfaction
Nutrition Essentials


     1-2 Treats/ week
  Fat the Hidden Opponent
Too much fat can:
• Replace carbohydrate
• Delay digestion
• Increase risk for body fat
  gain
• Heart and other health
  problems in later life
Reducing Fat Intake




 Decrease added fats
Reducing Fat Intake




 Remove fat from meat and
     skin from chicken
Reducing Fat Intake
Reducing Fat Intake
Reducing Fat Intake
                 Protein
• Requirements about 0.75 g/kg/day
• Most Australians already eat twice as
  much as they need
• Lean protein can help you to feel full
    Weight Gain Risk Factors
•   Desk job
•   Family history
•   “Off” or “Holiday” seasons
•   Eating on the run
•   Fast food, snacking
•   Grazing ??
•   Other...
Why Low CHO Diets?

•   Popular at present
•   Claims for substantial weight loss
•   Against traditional nutrition principles
•   Safety, effectiveness, performance?
•   Public frustrated with weight loss
   Popular Lower CHO diets
Older Diets               Newer Diets
Dr Atkins Diet            Sugar Busters
Stillman’s Diet           CHO Addicts
The Drinking Man’s Diet   Protein Power
The Scarsdale Diet
The Airforce Diet
      Ketogenic Diets
• Dr Atkins Prototype
• Switch from glucose to
  fat or starvation
  metabolism
• Lean mass spared?
RCT Low CHO Diet for
      Obesity
                 n=63 (43F; 20M)


     LCHO                           LF
      n=33                         n=30
   Atkins Diet            15% P; 30%F; 60% CHO


     Attrition
                                     Attrition
   3 Mo: n=28
                                   3 Mo: n=21
   6 Mo: n=24
                                   6 Mo: n=18
   12 Mo: n=20
                                   12 Mo: n=17


                        Foster et al NEJM 2003
  RCT Low CHO Diet for Obesity
                                   0
                                   -1   0    3              6             12
            Change in Weight (%)


                                   -2
                                   -3
                                                                                       LCHO
                                   -4                                     P=0.27
                                                                                       LF
                                   -5
                                   -6            *P=0.002

                                   -7                           *P=0.03

                                   -8
                                            Time (months)


Base values carried forward for drop-outs                                   Foster et al NEJM 2003
Fluid Replacement
• Drink regularly
• Thirst is a poor indicator of needs
• Dehydration of only 1% of body weight can
  decrease exercise performance
• Start each session well hydrated
• Replace fluids during and after each
  training session
               Drink-Up
• Drink 300-500 ml 30 min prior to umpiring
• Drink around 250-500 ml over session
• Use weight before and after exercise to
  approximate fluid losses
• Each kilogram = 1 L sweat
• Replace 1.5 times fluid loss to rehydrate
  after the session
    Benefits of Sports Drinks
•   Superior hydration
•   Enhanced fluid consumption
•   Carbohydrate replacement
•   Electrolyte replacement
•   Delay fatigue during exercise
  Intestinal Uptake
Blood       Gut Lumen
           G    s G s
                      G
              s    G
            G
                 G s G
            Sports drink

            Water
    Flavouring & Cooling a Solution will Increase
        Voluntary Consumption by Workers


                                                    Warm Water (15C)


                                                    Cool Water (5C)


                                                    Cool Flavoured
                                                    Water (citrus)


0           1000           2000   3000       4000

     Average fluid consumption over 6 hour period (ml) during
                      moderate work at 400C

Hubbard RW et al., 1984.
             Energy Drinks

Drink (/100 ml)      CHO (g)   Na (mg)   Caffeine (mg)
Black Stallion       10.8      46        32
Lift Plus            11.7      19.8      17.4
Lipovitan            10.4      12        16.8
Professor Heads      14.1      11.7      32
Prof Heads (Brain)   13.2      11.4      32
Red Bull             11.2      80        32
         Energy Drinks
Drink (/100 ml)      CHO (g)   Na (mg)   Caffeine (mg)
Red Eye (Classic)    14.8      <0.1      10
Red Eye (Xtrm)       14.8      <0.1      10
Red Eye (Gold)       15        <0.1      10
Red Eye (Platinum)   11.3      <0.1      10
Upper E              12        <5        -
V                    11.2      97        20
Average              12        24        20.2
ACSM Guidelines      4-8       50-70     -
Competition Strategies
            Pre-Event Meal
•   2-4 hr prior
•   High in carb
•   Low in fat
•   Moderate protein
•   Moderate fibre
•   Adequate in fluid
•   Familiar and tested
 Staying Cooled and Fuelled
• Check fluid intake
• Check body weight
• Monitor urine
  volume & colour
• Replace fluids and
  energy regularly
A Recipe for Recovery




  Carbs and fluids immediately
          after exercise
                 20

                                                    Immediately after exercise
                 15
                                                    Two hours after exercise
    Glycogen      10
    Synthesis
( mol/gm wet wt)
                  5


                  0
                                     0-2                           2-4

                                           Recovery Time (hr)

  Muscle Glycogen storage in the vastus lateralis muscle during the
   first and second two hours of recovery when carbohydrate was
 consumed immediately after exercise or two hours after exercise.


 Adapted from Wheeler et al., 1989
   How can I
   Speed up
   Recovery?
• Eat carbs immediately after exercise
• Consume approximately 1 g per
  kilogram for first hour
• Follow with a high carb meal
• Liquid carb sources can be useful
          Useful Resources
•   www.ais.org.au/nutrition (links)
•   www.sportsdietitians.com
•   www.coachesedge.com
•   www.gssi.com
•   www.msse.org (scientific)
•   Books available from Sports
    Dietitians Australia (see site above)
Common Questions

				
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posted:9/30/2012
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