Drifting Towards Disunion by 75UQmA

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									                              Renewing the Sectional Struggle
                                       1848 - 1854
   Popular Sovereignty
     Mexican War and the Treaty of _________________ rekindled the issue of territorial expansion of
       slavery.
     Democrats and Whigs were national political parties. If the split along _________ lines it would
       threaten the union.
     Both parties were split over the _________________ issue - no true geographic sectionalism in
       the parties.
     Most people wanted to ignore the issue of _______.
     Northern abolitionists favored the ______________.
     Southern “fire eaters” condemned ____________.
   Election of 1848
     President Polk, in bad health, chose not to seek reelection.
   The Democrats
     Democrats choose General __________ in 1848 - the father of _____________________The goal
       of popular sovereignty was to allow the ________ of the territories to decide the issue of
       _____________.
   The Whigs
     Henry Clay, the leading Whig, had many too many enemies.
   Taylor Fever
     Whigs chose General ______________, the “Hero of Buena Vista.”
     Taylor was a slave owner but had not come out on either side of Slavery extension.
   Free Soilers
     Anti-slavers in the north organized the _______________ - nominated __________________Free
       Soilers supported the Wilmot Proviso, internal improvements and homesteads.
     “Free soil, free speech, free labor and free men.”
     Condemned slavery because it limited the ability of ______ to gain ________________
     Slavery became a non-issue - ___________ prevailed.
     Taylor won 163 to 127 electoral votes.
   California - Gold and Statehood
     1848 - Gold discovered at _____________ in California.
     Tens of thousands flooded into the territory - California applied for Statehood as a __________ -
       bypassing territorial status.
     California reopened the issue of _________________ - Utah and New Mexico also sought to enter
       as free states.
   Compromise of 1850
     15 free and 15 slave states in 1850.
     _____ dominated the executive and judicial branches and had a balance in the Senate.
     _____ claimed territory in the west,
     Abolitionists wanted slavery out of the ____________________,
     South wanted tougher ___________________.
   Senators and Compromise
     ____, _______ and _______ have a last hurrah - speak in favor of compromise.
     Henry Clay, aided by _______________, proposes a series of compromises.
     Calhoun sought to gain concessions for the south and protection of slavery - died during the
       debate.
       Webster’s ____________ speech stated that slavery could not exist in the west - as cotton could
        not.
   Deadlock to Compromise
     William ______ of New York led the fight against slavery and compromise.
     Seward believed in a “__________” - influenced president Taylor.
     Taylor threatened to use troops against _____ if they moved against New Mexico.
     At the height of the debate President Taylor dies (of Cholera?) and Millard ________ takes over.
   The Compromise of 1850
   For the North:
     California entered the union as a __________
     Territory claimed by Texas went to __________.
     Slave trading was _________ in the District of Columbia.
   For the South:
     Remainder of the Mexican Cession would be divided into two territories (New Mexico and Utah)
        and be open to ___________________.
     Texas would receive $10 million in compensation
     A ______ Fugitive Slave Law was passed.
   The Fugitive Slave Law
     The Fugitive Slave Law led to ________ by the Abolitionists who refused to abide by the law and
        tried to free recaptured slaves in the north.
     The ____________________ and Harriet Tubman continued to help slaves escape to the north and
        into Canada.
     Massachusetts sought to _______ the law and some states passed “personal liberty laws.”
   Southern Reaction
     The South was upset about northern refusal to carry out the law.
     Why did delaying war aid the North?
   Election of 1852
     Democrats nominate dark horse candidate _______________ in 1852.
     Pierce was a weak former military officer in Mexican War, but was without enemies.
     He was a ____________ northerner and agreed with the Compromise of 1850, including the
        Fugitive Slave Law.
   The Whigs
     Whigs nominate ______________ over president Fillmore and Daniel Webster.
     Whig party split over the issues of the Compromise of 1850.
     Pierce won 254 - 42
     Election marked the _____ of the ____ Party - it was unable to survive choking down the fugitive
        slave law.
   President Franklin Pierce
   Fillibusters and Expansionism
     West Coast ports create interest in a _____________ Canal.
     _________ is considered to be the ideal site.
     British also have interest in a Canal in conflict with the Monroe Doctrine.
     US and Britain sign the ________________ Treaty agreeing to no exclusive control.
     1854 - Commodore _____________ sails his black ships into Tokyo Bay - “opening” Japan.
     Slave owning adventurers send “filibusters” to Cuba in failed attempt to gain the island for the US.
     US ministers to Fr., Engl. and Sp. meet in ______, Belgium to send an ultimatum to Spain - sell
        Cuba or lose it by force.
     ________________ is leaked and northern outcry embarrasses the Pierce administration.
   Railroad Dreams
     Mexican Cession acquisitions create a drive to build a _________________________.
     Debate begins between supporters of southern vs. northern route.
     Sec. of War _______________ sends James Gadsden as Minister to Mexico to purchase land
       south of the __________.
     Santa Anna agrees to sell for $10 million.
     The ________________ upsets many northerners.
     The southern route was flatter and the territory already organized.
     Northern railroaders now seek to organize ______ to make a northern route feasible.
   Douglas and Kansas-Nebraska
     Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, the “____________,” wanted a northern train route
       terminating in _______.
     He proposed legislation that would _____ the Nebraska Territory into two sections Kansas and
       Nebraska and open them to ___________________.
     This was in direct violation of the ___________________ of 1820.
     Douglas’s oratory and the support of Pierce rammed the bill past northern opposition.
     Many in the west and south supported popular sovereignty but anti-slavery reactions would lead to
       the first “civil war.”
     The Fugitve Slave Law of 1850 was now truly dead in the North.
     The law weakened the _________ and gave rise to the new __________ Party that would quickly
       sweep the North.


                                Drifting Towards Disunion
                                        1854-1860

                                         Incendiary Literature
   _____________________ lit a wildfire of dissension with the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
   The book helped start the war and helped win it.

   ________________ (1857) wrote The Impending Crisis of the South, in which he attempted to prove
    that the non-slaveholding southern suffered the most from slavery.

                                             Bleeding Kansas
   Southerners believed the agreement had been reached that Kansas would be _____ and Nebraska
    would be ____.
   Northen abolitionists and free-soilers fought this assumption by sending pioneers westward.
   The New England ____________ Company sent 2000 settlers many armed with
    “________________” - the new Sharps rifle.
   1855 - Pro-Slavery “_______________” crossed west from Missouri into Kansas on election day to
    elect the new government at Shawnee Mission.
   Free-soilers elected their own government at ______.
   1856 - pro-slavery raiders invaded the free soil town of ________ and burned part of the town.
   May 1856 -- __________ and his followers hacked five proslavers to death with swords at
    Pottawatomie Creek.
   1857 - Pro-Slavery forces create the _________ Constitution.
   Election forced voters to choose between the constitution with slavery or without slavery - _______in
    the state would be protected no matter what.
   ____________ boycotted the election - constitution passes with slavery.
   President ________ backs the Lecompton constitution - _______ is against it.
   Entire constitution is submitted to a vote - free-soilers defeat it.
   Kansas doesn’t gain statehood until 1861.
   Buchanan and Douglas forces divide the __________ Party.
                                            1856 - Bully Brooks
    Senator Charles ______ makes a speech in the Senate denouncing southern slavery and insulting
    Senator ______ of South Carolina.
   Congressman Preston ______ of S.C. attacks and beats Sumner on the floor of the Senate - whips him
    with a cane.
   This incident underscored the inflamed passions arising from the issue of slavery and free-soil.
                                              Election of 1856.
   Democrats nominate James ________ over Douglas and Pierce - too much political baggage from the
    _______________ Act.
   Republicans nominate John C. _______, “The Pathfinder” - over “Higher Law” ______.
   Republicans were for _________; the Democrats for ___________________.
   The American Party (Know-nothings) nominated ex-President ________. The few remaining Whigs
    also endorsed Fillmore.
   Southerners threatened that a Republican victory would be a declaration of ___.
   ________ won the electoral vote without gaining a majority of the popular vote.
   The Republican loss was a gain for the north - secession in 1856 would have been easier for the south.
                                          The Dred Scott Decision
    __________, having lived in the north for five years, sues for his freedom.
   Chief Justice Roger B. _____ rules that Scott was a black slave and _____________ and hence had no
    standing to bring suit.
   The pro-southern majority went further and ruled that slaves, as property, could be taken into
    _____________ and held there.
   The _______________ denies Congress the power to deprive citizens of their property without due
    process.
   The Missouri Compromise, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was now ruled
    ________________.
   Northern free-soilers called the ruling a mere “_______” and refused to abide by it.
   Southerners considered the likelihood of maintaining the bonds of union with states that would not
    abide by rulings of the Supreme Court.

                                             The Panic of 1857
   Causes
   Inflation caused by ____.
   Overstimulated grain markets caused by the Crimean War
   Overspeculation in land and railroads.

   Effects
   Northwestern _____________ hit the hardest.
   High cotton prices kept the _____ safe from recession.
   The power of the southern economy reinforced southern ideas that cotton was “____”.
   Increased demands for cheap land and higher tariffs
                                              Homestead Act
    Northerners increased demands for _________ laws giving away government land as 160-acre farms.
   Easterners opposed in fear that free land would drain off the _____ force.
   South opposed it because 160 acres was too small for ___________.
   Buchanan would ____ a homestead bill in 1860.
                                           The Illinois Rail Splitter
    Illinois Senate election of 1858 pit Republican Abraham _______ against Democrat Stephen
    _______.
   Lincoln was born in a log cabin, self educated, married Mary Todd, became a trial lawyer, served one
    term in Congress (1847-49; “spotty” Lincoln.)
   Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of _______ at various locations from August to October 1858.
   At ________, Lincoln challenged Douglas to a dilemma “if the people of a territory voted against
    slavery who would prevail --the courts or the people?
   Under what became called the “_________________,” Douglas answered that court or no court, the
    ______ would ultimately decide the fate of slavery in the territories.
   Douglas defeated Lincoln - but because of the way Senators were elected - Lincoln actually carried
    more popular vote.
   Douglas’s victory in defiance of the __________ decision further split him from southern Democrats.
                                      John Brown and Harper’s Ferry
    After the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas - Brown began developing a plan to invade the south and
    start a ______________ and establish a black free state.
   October 1859 - Brown and 20 followers seized the federal arsenal at ______________ in Western
    Virginia.
   Colonel _____________ and the U.S. Marines captured Brown and four survivors - Brown is tried for
    treason and hanged.
   His death note warned that slavery would be purged only by “much _________.”
   The south saw in Brown their worse fears - that the north was dominated by “Brown-loving”
    Republicans seeking to steal their property.

                                      The Fateful Election of 1860
    Democrats meet in Charleston, SC - ________ anti-Douglas delegates walk out and Douglas fails to
    get 2/3rds vote needed for nomination.
   Democrats meet again in Baltimore - southerners again walk but _______ gets nomination.
   Democratic platform is for popular sovereignty and enforcement of the Fugitive Slave laws.
   Southern Democrats meet and nominate John C. ____________ of Kentucky - platform favored
    extension of slavery and the annexation of Cuba.
   Former Whigs and “know nothings” meet to form the ____________________ Party - nominate
    _________ of Tennessee - “the Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of Laws”
   Republicans meet in Chicago - William ______ had too much baggage - _______ gets the nomination
    on the third ballot.
   Republican platform included
   _____________ of slavery,
   protective ______,
   no abridgment of immigrants rights,
   ________ transcontinental railroad,
   internal improvements,
   free __________.
   Southern secessionists warned that the south would secede if Lincoln were elected.
   Lincoln won the electoral vote by a bare plurality of the popular vote.
   ______________ secessionists rejoiced at Lincoln’s victory - they now had their excuse.
   Southern voting did not show a strong sentiment toward disunion - south still had the votes to protect
    slavery from a constitutional amendment.
                                                  Secession
    Four days after the election South Carolina votes to hold a special convention to debate secession.
                                          Failure of Compromise
   On December 18, James __________ of Kentucky puts forth a series of compromises
   one is to amend the constitution to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific
   President-elect Lincoln flatly refuses the compromise.
   December 20, South Carolina votes to ______ from the union.
   Members of the Buchanan cabinet begin to quit in protest over his inaction.
   Buchanan held that the southern states had no right to secede but that he had no right to make them
    stay by force.
   ___________, in Charleston harbor, is held by Major Robert Anderson. S.C. formally calls for the
    removal of all federal forces from their territory.
   Lincoln is unable and _________ to do anything in this lame-duck period.
   January 1861 - Miss, Fla, Ala, GA, and LA - meet in Montgomery, Alabama to form a provisional
    government for the ___________________ of America.

								
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