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Renewing the Sectional Struggle 1848 - 1854 Popular Sovereignty Mexican War and the Treaty of _________________ rekindled the issue of territorial expansion of slavery. Democrats and Whigs were national political parties. If the split along _________ lines it would threaten the union. Both parties were split over the _________________ issue - no true geographic sectionalism in the parties. Most people wanted to ignore the issue of _______. Northern abolitionists favored the ______________. Southern “fire eaters” condemned ____________. Election of 1848 President Polk, in bad health, chose not to seek reelection. The Democrats Democrats choose General __________ in 1848 - the father of _____________________The goal of popular sovereignty was to allow the ________ of the territories to decide the issue of _____________. The Whigs Henry Clay, the leading Whig, had many too many enemies. Taylor Fever Whigs chose General ______________, the “Hero of Buena Vista.” Taylor was a slave owner but had not come out on either side of Slavery extension. Free Soilers Anti-slavers in the north organized the _______________ - nominated __________________Free Soilers supported the Wilmot Proviso, internal improvements and homesteads. “Free soil, free speech, free labor and free men.” Condemned slavery because it limited the ability of ______ to gain ________________ Slavery became a non-issue - ___________ prevailed. Taylor won 163 to 127 electoral votes. California - Gold and Statehood 1848 - Gold discovered at _____________ in California. Tens of thousands flooded into the territory - California applied for Statehood as a __________ - bypassing territorial status. California reopened the issue of _________________ - Utah and New Mexico also sought to enter as free states. Compromise of 1850 15 free and 15 slave states in 1850. _____ dominated the executive and judicial branches and had a balance in the Senate. _____ claimed territory in the west, Abolitionists wanted slavery out of the ____________________, South wanted tougher ___________________. Senators and Compromise ____, _______ and _______ have a last hurrah - speak in favor of compromise. Henry Clay, aided by _______________, proposes a series of compromises. Calhoun sought to gain concessions for the south and protection of slavery - died during the debate. Webster’s ____________ speech stated that slavery could not exist in the west - as cotton could not. Deadlock to Compromise William ______ of New York led the fight against slavery and compromise. Seward believed in a “__________” - influenced president Taylor. Taylor threatened to use troops against _____ if they moved against New Mexico. At the height of the debate President Taylor dies (of Cholera?) and Millard ________ takes over. The Compromise of 1850 For the North: California entered the union as a __________ Territory claimed by Texas went to __________. Slave trading was _________ in the District of Columbia. For the South: Remainder of the Mexican Cession would be divided into two territories (New Mexico and Utah) and be open to ___________________. Texas would receive $10 million in compensation A ______ Fugitive Slave Law was passed. The Fugitive Slave Law The Fugitive Slave Law led to ________ by the Abolitionists who refused to abide by the law and tried to free recaptured slaves in the north. The ____________________ and Harriet Tubman continued to help slaves escape to the north and into Canada. Massachusetts sought to _______ the law and some states passed “personal liberty laws.” Southern Reaction The South was upset about northern refusal to carry out the law. Why did delaying war aid the North? Election of 1852 Democrats nominate dark horse candidate _______________ in 1852. Pierce was a weak former military officer in Mexican War, but was without enemies. He was a ____________ northerner and agreed with the Compromise of 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Law. The Whigs Whigs nominate ______________ over president Fillmore and Daniel Webster. Whig party split over the issues of the Compromise of 1850. Pierce won 254 - 42 Election marked the _____ of the ____ Party - it was unable to survive choking down the fugitive slave law. President Franklin Pierce Fillibusters and Expansionism West Coast ports create interest in a _____________ Canal. _________ is considered to be the ideal site. British also have interest in a Canal in conflict with the Monroe Doctrine. US and Britain sign the ________________ Treaty agreeing to no exclusive control. 1854 - Commodore _____________ sails his black ships into Tokyo Bay - “opening” Japan. Slave owning adventurers send “filibusters” to Cuba in failed attempt to gain the island for the US. US ministers to Fr., Engl. and Sp. meet in ______, Belgium to send an ultimatum to Spain - sell Cuba or lose it by force. ________________ is leaked and northern outcry embarrasses the Pierce administration. Railroad Dreams Mexican Cession acquisitions create a drive to build a _________________________. Debate begins between supporters of southern vs. northern route. Sec. of War _______________ sends James Gadsden as Minister to Mexico to purchase land south of the __________. Santa Anna agrees to sell for $10 million. The ________________ upsets many northerners. The southern route was flatter and the territory already organized. Northern railroaders now seek to organize ______ to make a northern route feasible. Douglas and Kansas-Nebraska Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, the “____________,” wanted a northern train route terminating in _______. He proposed legislation that would _____ the Nebraska Territory into two sections Kansas and Nebraska and open them to ___________________. This was in direct violation of the ___________________ of 1820. Douglas’s oratory and the support of Pierce rammed the bill past northern opposition. Many in the west and south supported popular sovereignty but anti-slavery reactions would lead to the first “civil war.” The Fugitve Slave Law of 1850 was now truly dead in the North. The law weakened the _________ and gave rise to the new __________ Party that would quickly sweep the North. Drifting Towards Disunion 1854-1860 Incendiary Literature _____________________ lit a wildfire of dissension with the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. The book helped start the war and helped win it. ________________ (1857) wrote The Impending Crisis of the South, in which he attempted to prove that the non-slaveholding southern suffered the most from slavery. Bleeding Kansas Southerners believed the agreement had been reached that Kansas would be _____ and Nebraska would be ____. Northen abolitionists and free-soilers fought this assumption by sending pioneers westward. The New England ____________ Company sent 2000 settlers many armed with “________________” - the new Sharps rifle. 1855 - Pro-Slavery “_______________” crossed west from Missouri into Kansas on election day to elect the new government at Shawnee Mission. Free-soilers elected their own government at ______. 1856 - pro-slavery raiders invaded the free soil town of ________ and burned part of the town. May 1856 -- __________ and his followers hacked five proslavers to death with swords at Pottawatomie Creek. 1857 - Pro-Slavery forces create the _________ Constitution. Election forced voters to choose between the constitution with slavery or without slavery - _______in the state would be protected no matter what. ____________ boycotted the election - constitution passes with slavery. President ________ backs the Lecompton constitution - _______ is against it. Entire constitution is submitted to a vote - free-soilers defeat it. Kansas doesn’t gain statehood until 1861. Buchanan and Douglas forces divide the __________ Party. 1856 - Bully Brooks Senator Charles ______ makes a speech in the Senate denouncing southern slavery and insulting Senator ______ of South Carolina. Congressman Preston ______ of S.C. attacks and beats Sumner on the floor of the Senate - whips him with a cane. This incident underscored the inflamed passions arising from the issue of slavery and free-soil. Election of 1856. Democrats nominate James ________ over Douglas and Pierce - too much political baggage from the _______________ Act. Republicans nominate John C. _______, “The Pathfinder” - over “Higher Law” ______. Republicans were for _________; the Democrats for ___________________. The American Party (Know-nothings) nominated ex-President ________. The few remaining Whigs also endorsed Fillmore. Southerners threatened that a Republican victory would be a declaration of ___. ________ won the electoral vote without gaining a majority of the popular vote. The Republican loss was a gain for the north - secession in 1856 would have been easier for the south. The Dred Scott Decision __________, having lived in the north for five years, sues for his freedom. Chief Justice Roger B. _____ rules that Scott was a black slave and _____________ and hence had no standing to bring suit. The pro-southern majority went further and ruled that slaves, as property, could be taken into _____________ and held there. The _______________ denies Congress the power to deprive citizens of their property without due process. The Missouri Compromise, repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, was now ruled ________________. Northern free-soilers called the ruling a mere “_______” and refused to abide by it. Southerners considered the likelihood of maintaining the bonds of union with states that would not abide by rulings of the Supreme Court. The Panic of 1857 Causes Inflation caused by ____. Overstimulated grain markets caused by the Crimean War Overspeculation in land and railroads. Effects Northwestern _____________ hit the hardest. High cotton prices kept the _____ safe from recession. The power of the southern economy reinforced southern ideas that cotton was “____”. Increased demands for cheap land and higher tariffs Homestead Act Northerners increased demands for _________ laws giving away government land as 160-acre farms. Easterners opposed in fear that free land would drain off the _____ force. South opposed it because 160 acres was too small for ___________. Buchanan would ____ a homestead bill in 1860. The Illinois Rail Splitter Illinois Senate election of 1858 pit Republican Abraham _______ against Democrat Stephen _______. Lincoln was born in a log cabin, self educated, married Mary Todd, became a trial lawyer, served one term in Congress (1847-49; “spotty” Lincoln.) Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of _______ at various locations from August to October 1858. At ________, Lincoln challenged Douglas to a dilemma “if the people of a territory voted against slavery who would prevail --the courts or the people? Under what became called the “_________________,” Douglas answered that court or no court, the ______ would ultimately decide the fate of slavery in the territories. Douglas defeated Lincoln - but because of the way Senators were elected - Lincoln actually carried more popular vote. Douglas’s victory in defiance of the __________ decision further split him from southern Democrats. John Brown and Harper’s Ferry After the Pottawatomie Massacre in Kansas - Brown began developing a plan to invade the south and start a ______________ and establish a black free state. October 1859 - Brown and 20 followers seized the federal arsenal at ______________ in Western Virginia. Colonel _____________ and the U.S. Marines captured Brown and four survivors - Brown is tried for treason and hanged. His death note warned that slavery would be purged only by “much _________.” The south saw in Brown their worse fears - that the north was dominated by “Brown-loving” Republicans seeking to steal their property. The Fateful Election of 1860 Democrats meet in Charleston, SC - ________ anti-Douglas delegates walk out and Douglas fails to get 2/3rds vote needed for nomination. Democrats meet again in Baltimore - southerners again walk but _______ gets nomination. Democratic platform is for popular sovereignty and enforcement of the Fugitive Slave laws. Southern Democrats meet and nominate John C. ____________ of Kentucky - platform favored extension of slavery and the annexation of Cuba. Former Whigs and “know nothings” meet to form the ____________________ Party - nominate _________ of Tennessee - “the Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of Laws” Republicans meet in Chicago - William ______ had too much baggage - _______ gets the nomination on the third ballot. Republican platform included _____________ of slavery, protective ______, no abridgment of immigrants rights, ________ transcontinental railroad, internal improvements, free __________. Southern secessionists warned that the south would secede if Lincoln were elected. Lincoln won the electoral vote by a bare plurality of the popular vote. ______________ secessionists rejoiced at Lincoln’s victory - they now had their excuse. Southern voting did not show a strong sentiment toward disunion - south still had the votes to protect slavery from a constitutional amendment. Secession Four days after the election South Carolina votes to hold a special convention to debate secession. Failure of Compromise On December 18, James __________ of Kentucky puts forth a series of compromises one is to amend the constitution to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific President-elect Lincoln flatly refuses the compromise. December 20, South Carolina votes to ______ from the union. Members of the Buchanan cabinet begin to quit in protest over his inaction. Buchanan held that the southern states had no right to secede but that he had no right to make them stay by force. ___________, in Charleston harbor, is held by Major Robert Anderson. S.C. formally calls for the removal of all federal forces from their territory. Lincoln is unable and _________ to do anything in this lame-duck period. January 1861 - Miss, Fla, Ala, GA, and LA - meet in Montgomery, Alabama to form a provisional government for the ___________________ of America.
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