1. Wine Making 2. From Grape To Glass 3. The Red Grapes 4. The White Grapes 5. The Ten Basic Styles, Red 6. The Ten Basic Styles, White 7. Wine Glossary 8. Wine Tasting 9. Wine And Temperature For Serving 10. Wine And Alcohol Contend 11. Wine And Decanting 12. Wine And Health 13. Methode Champenoise 14. Champagne By The Bottle 15. Fortified Wine 16. Wine Service – White And Rose 17. Wine Service – Red 18. Wine Cellar Construction – Wine Storage
1. Wine Making
Of the three colours of wine, white is the simplest of all to make , precisely because it has no colour. When the ripe grapes are harvested, they are brought to the winery And immediately de-stemmed and crushed to extract the first (and best) juice from them. After that, they are likely to be treated to a slightly heavier pressing and then the juice is separated off from all the solid matter, such as skins, pips, leaves, etc. The juice must be stored at low temperatures, to minimize the risk of spoilage through oxidation. While standing, any remaining minute, solid particles settle to the bottom and thus clarify the juice; the process can be speeded up artificially by subjecting it to centrifugal force. The fermentation of white wine takes place at much lower temperatures than that of reds, typically around 12-18°C/54-64° F, which means that it tends to be a fairly slow process. At some stage, the wine maybe be encouraged to undergo a secondary type of fermentation to the sort that turns grape juice into alcohol, this is called the “malolactic fermentation”, and is useful for converting hard-tasting malic acid, with which grape juice is naturally abundant, into softer, creamier lactic acid. Some white wines are better off with a noticeable bite to them, and for those the winemaker will take positive steps to avoid a malolactic fermentation, usually by keeping the temperature low. The final decision is whether to bottle the wine as it is, or give it a period of aging in oak barrels, which adds spiciness and richness to the finished product. If so the wine may well be left on its lees (fermentation sediments) to acquire extra character, and a periodic stirring up of the settled gunge with a wooden paddle helps to maximize the effect. Before bottling the wine is generally subjected to a final filtration to ensure that it is absolutely bright and clear, but this has become a contentious issue in recent years, with some authorities feeling that it strips the wine of to much of its character Internationally used white grapes which have become most increasingly famous today are: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Riesling, Chenin Blanc, Gewuerztraminer, Viongnier and various members of the Muscat family. Making red wine is a more complicated process in that the grape juice has to be dyed. The skins of the grapes may be red (or deep purple) but their juice is as colorless as that of white grapes. The colour has therefore to be put into the wine by leaching it out of the skins. When the grapes have to been de-stemmed as well and crushed, and perhaps pressed as well, the mass of smashed skins and pips is left sitting in the juice. A period of cold soaking before the fermentation begins, is now common practice. It is thought to emphasize the wine’s fruitiness and to encourage the development of good ripe, fruit tannin which, which together with acidity, will give the wine the structure to age well. Red wine is fermented at higher temperatures than white wine: generally in the 25-30°C / 77-86°F range, although some reds are allowed to go higher than this. The mass of skins, known as pomance, is left in the fermenting juice. Of course its not doing any good merely floating on the surface, and so either the pomance is punched down manually a couple of times a day, or a device is used that pumps wine from the bottom of the vat over the floating cap of skins to give the fermenting juice the benefit of it. Malolactic fermentation is automatically carried out for the vast majority of red wines. After the fermentation the wine may be allow a further few days of sitting in contact with the skins, before they are removed and the wine transferred to its maturation vessel. This can be either stainless steel or oak, as in the case of white wine. Premium reds may be kept for a year or more in barrels in the wine cellar, during the course of which they may pick up more tannin (of a different kind, this time from the wood) and undergo a very gentle process of oxygenation. Some reds are meant to be aged by the buyer, others as the Spanish Riserva quality reds, have been aged and are intended to be drunk on release.
Major international red grape varieties are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Shiraz or (Shyrah) and Grenache Grapes of importance in their homeland but with international reputations: Gamay of Beaujolais, Spain’s Tempranillo, Italy’s Sangiovese and Nebbiolo, California’s Zinfandel and South Africa’s Pinotage
Rose wine is basically a partially made red. It achieves its pale tint by virtue Of the fact that the skins of the red grapes are only allowed a short maceration In the juice (usually) less than 24 hours before being removed. Some pink wine is made as an off-cut of a serious red, in that a little of the juice is siphoned off after the maceration has begun, with the rest going on to turn into Fully fledged red. In the case of pink Champagne, a kind of cheat’s approach has been sanctioned by the French wine authorities. The colour is attained by simply adding a slug of ready-made red wine to the finished white. If that sounds a little sloppy for the product as illustrious as champagne, rest assured that it is Preferable to the coloring materials that were resorted to in the 19th century. The alternative method is to allow a short maceration period on the skins. Such as wine is said to have been saignee, or bled, but the technique is used for only about 2% of all pink champagne on the market. Although those who use it dispute the fact, the taste is essentially the same.
2. From Grape To Glass
The “Ingredients” of Fresh Grape Juice per volume 73.5% 25% per volume 86% 12%
The “Contents” of Wine
Water carbohydrates, of which 5% - cellulose 20% - sugar organic acids, of which 0.54% tartaric acid 0.25% malic acid 0.01% citris acid minerals, of which 0.025% calcium; 0.01% chloride; 0.025% magnesium; 0.25% potasium; 0.05% phosphate; 0.005% silicic acid; 0.035% sulphate; 0.1% others such as iron, sodium, copper, aluminium, boron etc. tannin and colour pigments nitrogenous matter, of which 0.05% amino acids 0.005% protein 0.015% other nitrogenous matter mainly vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyrodoxine, nicotinic acid etc.
water alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
organic acids, of which 0.20% tartaric acid 0.15% lactic acid 0.05% succinic acid (plus traces of malic acid citric acid) carbohydrates (unfermentable sugar) minerals, of which 0.02% calcium; 0.01% chloride; 0.02% magnesium; 0.075% potassium; 0.05% phosphate; 0.05% silicic acid; 0.02% sulphate; tannin and colour pigments volatile acids (mostly acetic acid) nitrogenous matter, of which 0.01%amino acids 0.015% protein and other nitrogenous matter esters aldehydes higher alcohols mainly vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, pyrodoxine, nicotinic acid etc.
0.1% 0.045% 0.025%
0.025% 0.004 0.001% traces