7 1 Gender and Sexuality by 5KxFLO6

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									Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, Spring 2012
7.1 Gender and Sexuality

Sex / Gender
• Sex: biological differences that are more or less unalterable (e.g., Y chromosome in males, different genitalia).
• Gender: the traits that a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females (social and cultural construction of
  male and female characteristics).

Margaret Mead (1901 – 1978)
•   Student of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict.
–   Culture and Personality: How does culture determine personality of the individual?
•   Popular writer; public face of anthropology (1930s-70s).

Mead’s Predecessors
• Cultures can only be understood with reference to their particular historical developments (Boas’ Historical
  Particularism).
• Each culture shapes personality of individual (Benedict’s Culture and Personality).
• “Having originally taken its values from the values dear to some human temperaments and alien to others, a culture
  embodies these values more and more firmly in its structure, in its political and religious systems, in its art and
  literature; and each new generation is shaped, firmly and definitely, to the dominant trends.” (Margarent Mead)

One of Mead’s Contributions
•   Gender roles, stereotypes, and stratification are socially and culturally constructed (emphasis of Mead’s research).

The Social Construction of Gender (Lorber)
•   Something we take for granted in everyday social practices and interactions.
•   We “do gender” without thinking. We notice it most when encountering “disruptions”.

Gender Construction
•   Starts at birth (dressing, naming): sex category becomes gender status.
•   Once gender is evident, people treat that individual accordingly.
•   Gender behaviors and roles change (constantly created and recreated through social interactions).
•   If they were natural (biologically determined), then they would be immutable. But . . .
     – They vary cross-culturally. They vary across time within a culture.
Gender Roles: The tasks and activities a culture assigns to the sexes.

Gender Stereotypes: Strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females.

Gender Stratification: Rights and responsibilities allocated according to gender (ordering of society).
•   What men do is often valued more highly (education; economic activities; politics; etc.).
•   Gender ideology legitimates stratification.

Domestic-Public Dichotomy (differentiation between home and outside world).
  – Strong differentiation correlates with more gender stratification (higher status for men).
Beyond Male and Female
Transgender includes: Intersex individuals who have both male and female biological traits. Individuals whose gender
identity is different than biological sex and gender identity assigned in infancy. “Biology isn’t destiny; people construct
their identities in society.”
Hijra
•   Member of the “third” gender in India (seen as neither male nor female).
•   Often are intersex (genitalia is neither exclusively male or female).
•   Low status, marginal members of society.
•   Make living by performing at weddings and birth ceremonies (association with fertility) .

Sex & Social Control: Formal Means
    – Jim Crow Prohibitions; Statutory Rape; Bestiality Laws; Sodomy Laws
Sex & Social Control: Informal Means
How do informal means of social control influence sexual behaviors?

Sex and Culture
Culture and Nature: cultural traditions convert natural acts into cultural customs.
    • Sex is a natural act (procreation) surrounded by a variety of cultural customs.

								
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