TOPIC: Kinematics by jjs207uy


                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Kinematics
   The topic focuses on the mathematical and physical description of motion in one and two

   The description of motion in graphical, mathematical, and written forms sets the
    foundation for the student of dynamics.

       Speed, velocity, and acceleration are the results of forces and Newton’s laws of motion
        and thus the introduction of these topics in kinematics is an essential beginning to the
        physics course
       Freefall and the acceleration dues to gravity in both one and two dimensions through a
        kinematic approach are described using both equations and a variety of time graphs
       Vectors of all types are an important tool in physics – graphical representation, simple
        mathematical addition, and component vectors are each essential tools in a variety of
        topics through physics

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Speed, velocity, acceleration                    Velocity
                                                     Acceleration
   Freefall, ag                                     Displacement
                                                     Freefall
   X-T and V-T graphs                               Uniform Motion
                                                     Scalars
   Vectors                                          Vectors
                                                     Components
   Components of Motion                             Projectiles

   Projectile Motion

Each of these need to be done first with uniform speed motion, then with accelerated
motion, and finally with 2 dimensional motion.
 Analyze an event involving uniform motion using both mathematical equations and graphs
   (both x-t and v-t)
 Study descriptions of uniform motion and translate into both graphical descriptions and
   mathematical solutions to unknown variables
 Design a measurable event (involving motion) from which data can be extracted and the
   motion studied and explained graphically and mathematically
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion

   Dynamics is the “how” of motion and Newton’s three laws of motion are the essential
    introduction to dynamics and forces that cause motion.

       Establishing the connection between force and motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion guides
        the understanding of physics throughout the entire course. Recognizing what is and what
        is not a force, using free-body diagrams to identify forces, and understanding the force-
        motion connection are paramount to physics.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   3 Laws of Motion                                 Inertia
                                                     Force
   Equilibrium                                      Contact Force
                                                     Long-Range Force
   Net Force                                        Tension
                                                     Weight
                                                     Normal Force
                                                     Friction
                                                     Free-Body Diagram
                                                     Newton
                                                     Action-Reaction Pair
                                                     Net Force
                                                     Statics
                                                     Terminal Speed

   Demonstrate an understanding of the cause of a change in motion by modeling motion when
    a different net force is involved
   Given the formulae for the basic laws of motion, the student will calculate the effects of
    forces on the motion of objects
   The student will, when presented with an event involving the interaction of forces, describe
    and explain the motions that may occur in terms of a narrative, graph and a mathematical
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Momentum

   Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to
    calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the
    change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of
    the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in
    magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object.

CONCEPTS                                         VOCABULARY
   Momentum                                        Momentum
                                                    Impulse
                                                    Elastic Collisions
                                                    Inelastic Collisions
                                                    Conservation of Momentum

   Relate an object’s mass and speed to its resulting momentum
   Demonstrate the conservation of momentum by describing mathematically and narratively
    the individual changes that occur in a closed system where objects exert forces on each other
   Apply the relationship between impulse and momentum change to everyday events in the life
    of a student
   Identify parameters that indicate the conservation of momentum in real world and in
    contrived events
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Energy

   The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred by collisions in
    chemical and nuclear reactions, by light waves and other radiations, and in many other ways.
    However, it can never be destroyed. As these transfers occur, the matter involved becomes
    steadily less ordered.
   All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion;
    potential energy, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as
    electromagnetic waves.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Energy                                           Energy
                                                     Work
   Work                                             Power
                                                     Kinetic Energy,
   Power                                            Potential Energy
                                                     Units of Energy
                                                     Conservation of Energy

   Identify and describe the forms of energy in a given system, give the properties, and identify
    the source of the energy
   Demonstrate an understanding of energy transformations and conservation by an analysis of
    the changes using mathematical equations, graphs and narratives
   Relate the mathematical equations for work, energy and power to human activities, the
    operation of machines, and the interaction of the two
   Compare the different forms of energy and draw conclusions regarding the viability of the
    forms to the future of mankind
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Circular Motion

   Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to
    calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the
    change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of
    the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in
    magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object.

CONCEPTS                                           VOCABULARY
   Centripetal Force                                 Centripetal
                                                      Centrifugal
   Rotational Kinematics                             Fictitious Forces
                                                      Rotation
   Rotational Dynamics                               Revolution
                                                      Angular Speed
                                                      Linear Speed
                                                      Angular Acceleration
                                                      Torque
                                                      Moment of Inertia
                                                      Angular Momentum

   Evaluate the motion of an object in a circle and relate it to the topics of linear motion and
    Newton’s 2nd law to derive the concept of centripetal force
   Design and develop an event from which data can be collected, leading to an application of
    the equations of circular motion
   Relate the concepts of angular speed and angular acceleration to
   Derive the laws of torque from unstructured activities involving levers
   Analyze equilibrium arrangements in terms of sums of the torques
   Apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine the mathematical relationships involved in torque,
    angular acceleration and angular velocity
   Relate the concept of moment of inertia to real world experiences
   Relate the law of conservation of angular momentum to real world experiences
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Gravity

   Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the
    gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely
    proportional to the square of the distance between them.

CONCEPTS                                           VOCABULARY
   Law of Universal Gravitation                      Center of Gravity
                                                      Gravity
   Universal Gravitational Constant                  Inverse-Square Law
                                                      ag
   Satellite Motion                                  Weightlessness
                                                      Tides
   Orbital and Escape Velocities                     Satellite
                                                      Orbital Velocity
                                                      Escape Velocity

   Apply the law of universal gravitation to events, analyzing the effects of mass change or
    separation distance change on the resultant force
   Predict the gravitational forces that would be present in arrangements involving planets as a
    way to disprove the influence of bogus science such as astrology
   Determine the effect of the masses of objects on attractive/repulsive forces by calculating the
    resultant forces
   Relate the laws that effect gravity to the orbit of satellite
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Relativity

   The shift from Galilean Relativity to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is a major
    component of modern physics. The historical development of the theory combined with the
    mathematical derivation of the formulae sets the foundation for physics in the 20th century
    and the beginnings of the 21st. The relative nature of physical properties such as length,
    mass, and time as well overall structure of the spacetime continuum are as integral to physics
    as Newton’s laws of motion.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Time, Length, and Mass Relative Values           Galilean Relativity
                                                     Simultaneity
   E=mc2                                            Length Contraction
                                                     Time Dilation
   Relativistic Addition of Velocities              Relativistic Velocities
                                                     Spacetime Continuum
   Spacetime Continuum                              Energy-Mass Equivalence

   Curved Space

   Equivalence Principle

   Analyze non-relativistic events for relative motions
   Describe the implications of the two main postulates of the special theory
   Compare rest quantities of length, time and mass with the relativistic quantities
   Apply the mathematical models of the special theory to physical quantities
   Cite evidence for the validity of the special theory
   Relate the broad topics of the general theory to specific incidents
   Apply the concept of curve spacetime to the occurrences of gravitational lensing
   Differentiate between the effects of weak gravitational fields of light to that of massive
    objects such as black holes
   Use non-Euclidean geometry to analyze situations such as parallel lines, triangles, and time
    and length dilation
                                 Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Properties of Matter

   Examining the interaction of matter in different states by applying Newton’s laws and the
    concepts of energy is a foundation of such principles as the kinetic molecular theory, gas
    laws, and scaling of models. Density is one of the most basic properties of matter and always
    presents a challenge to students at all levels of science education. The interaction of matter
    placed in fluids is an ideal vehicle to understand concepts from density to buoyancy.

CONCEPTS                                           VOCABULARY
   Atomic Structure of Matter                        Compression/Tension
                                                      Density
   Gases, Liquids, and Solids                        Scaling
                                                      Pressure
   Density

   Scaling

   Properties of Fluids

   Interpret the impact of the characteristics of the 4 states of matter
   Relate the structure of the atom to the unique properties of individual elements
   Apply the results of scaling of dimensions to a variety of theoretical and real world situations
   Describe the concept of density and relate it to a number of everyday situations
   Relate the laws of fluids to those of gases
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Fluids

   The interaction of matter with liquids and gases play a vital role in the everyday world –
    from the workings of a combustion engine to the simple use of a straw to floating in a pool to
    a floating balloon. The initial study of buoyancy by Archimedes to the modern impact of
    Bernoulli’s laws of air foils, fluid physics touches each part of each student’s world.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Archimedes’ Principle                            Archimedes’ principle
                                                     Pascal’s law
   Pascal’s Law                                     Fluids
                                                     Buoyancy
   Fluids                                           Barometer
                                                     Bernoulli’s Principle
   Buoyancy

   Barometer

   Bernoulli’s Principle

   Interpret the results of guided investigations dealing with buoyancy
   Apply the each of the relationships established by Archimedes’ principle and Pascal’s law
    and Bernoulli’s principle to specific events, both real and contrived
   Design activities to be preformed in the pool based on the concept of buoyancy
   Predict the outcome of events as a result of applying the rules of fluid mechanics
   Relate Bernoulli’s principle to flight
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Thermal Physics

   A concept that bridges the gap between the experiences of chemistry and the world of
    physics, thermal interactions are an important component in the understanding of energy.
    From the kinetic molecular theory of heat caused by the motion of molecules to the
    mathematical solutions to adding ice to warm water, thermal physics is an excellent
    combination of theory, every reality and the mathematics that ties them together.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Heat energy                                      Heat
                                                     Heat Capacity
   Temperature                                      Latent Heat
                                                     Thermal Equilibrium
   Heat capacity                                    Absolute Zero
                                                     Thermodynamics
   Latent Heat

   Kinetic Molecular Theory

   Differentiate between the concepts of heat and temperature
   Work in the lab with the laws of conservation of heat energy dealing with simple
    combinations, heat capacity of materials, and heat of fusion/vaporization.
   Derive the value of absolute zero and explain its implication to the physics world
                                 Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Oscillations and Waves

   Waves and the interaction of waves is a fundamental component of basic physics. Our
    senses are impacted continually by sound waves, light waves, and other electromagnetic
    waves. Basic characteristics of waves form a background for more complex occurrences
    such as polarization, interference, and resonance.

CONCEPTS                                             VOCABULARY
   Oscillations                                        Frequency
                                                        Period
   SHM                                                 SHM
                                                        Wave
   Pendulum                                            Transverse
                                                        Longitudinal
   Waves                                               Interference
                                                        Resonance
   Sound                                               Forced Vibration
                                                        Natural Frequency
   Music                                               Standing Waves
                                                        Amplitude
   Decibel Scale                                       Decibel
                                                        Doppler Shift
   Doppler Effect

   Standing Waves
   Identify wave characteristics related to sound waves
   Relate the physical properties of sound waves to the mathematical relationships predicted by the
    equations for wavelength, frequency, standing waves, harmonics, beats, and fundamentals
   Create a source of musical sounds that are designed with the knowledge of the properties of sound
   Analyze a variety of musical and non-musical sounds using technology
   By investigating wave properties and interactions of various media, the student will describe and
    explain wave characteristics, the resulting behavior of wave interactions and the wave-energy
   Design and implement an activity to determine the parameters the affect the period of a pendulum
    and/or a spring in oscillation
   Apply the mathematical relationship involved in wave properties to real world and contrived
   Given wave data altered by source motion, apply the concept of the Doppler effect and determine
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Light

   The properties of reflection and refraction of light form the base for a deeper understanding
    of properties of light that require a higher level of understanding of the wave-particle duality
    of light. The connection of these theories to everyday phenomena such as mirrors, lenses,
    lasers, and colors makes an understanding of light and all of its properties an essential
    component of physics.

CONCEPTS                                           VOCABULARY
   Models of Light                                   Wave Model
                                                      Particle Model
   Em Waves                                          Quanta
                                                      Em Waves
   Interference                                      Two Source Interference
                                                      Single Slit Interference
   Diffraction                                       Diffraction
                                                      Grating
   Polarized Light                                   Polarized

   Predict the results of historic experiments to determine the speed of light
   Use the relationship between wavelength and frequency to separate em waves into broad
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Reflection, Refraction, and Dispersion

   Mirrors and lenses studied from a ray diagram and a mathematical perspective adds to the
    understanding of the nature and behavior of light. With applications in the area of fiber
    optics, telescopes, microscopes, arrays, and 3D imaging as well as the more esoteric
    examination of rainbows, these characteristics of light waves tie the theoretical to the
    practical, everyday experiences of students of physics.

CONCEPTS                                         VOCABULARY
   Reflection                                      Reflection
                                                    Refraction
   Refraction                                      Real Image
                                                    Virtual Image
   Mirrors                                         Concave
                                                    Convex
   Lenses                                          Total Internal Reflection
                                                    Critical Angle
   Ray Diagrams                                    Resolution
                                                    Rainbows
   Image Types

   Dispersion

   Resolution

   Predict the results of historic experiments to determine the speed of light
   Use the relationship between wavelength and frequency to separate em waves into broad
   Derive the laws of reflection using mirrors and light sources
   Derive the laws of refraction using a variety of media and light sources
   Gather data from image formation using mirrors and lenses and then interpret the graphical
    representation of the results into the laws of lenses and curved mirrors
   Identify arrangements which result in total internal reflection
   Relate the occurrences of dispersion to real world events
   Apply the principles of spectroscopy to frequency of em waves and then to the Doppler
                                Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Static Electricity

   A basic understanding of the laws of charges and static electricity is essential to the study of
    electricity and electromagnetism. The historical development of the theories of electric
    charges and the development of the concept of the electric field are the beginnings to the
    study of electricity as well as developing a concrete model for the movement of charges and
    the impact on the everyday world of the physics student.

CONCEPTS                                            VOCABULARY
   Charge by contact                                  Charge by Contact
                                                       Charge by Induction
   Charge by induction                                Coulomb
                                                       Coulomb’s Law
   Coulomb’s law                                      Electric Field
                                                       Conductors
   Electric field                                     Insulators

   Conductors and insulators

   Describe electrical forces between objects
   Explain how an object becomes charged
   Distinguish between a conductor and an insulator
   Generate procedures to charge an object
   Distinguish between electrical potential energy and electric potential
   Describe the operation of a Van de Graaff
                                 Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Electricity

   Electricity is one of the most used physics concepts in the lives of students. Developing and
    understanding of emf, electrical circuits, basic components of circuits, and the application of
    these laws and equations to the real world experiences of physics students makes the study of
    electricity essential to fulfill the total experiences of students taking physics. Whether a
    student looks to a future in engineering or merely as an intelligent, informed member of
    society, a solid grasp of the law of electricity is integral to expanding an understanding of the
    world in which the student must survive.

CONCEPTS                                            VOCABULARY
   Electric Potential                                 Voltage
                                                       Electric potential
   Resistance                                         Current
                                                       Ampere
   Current                                            Resistance
                                                       Ohm
   Capacitance                                        Farads
                                                       Capacitance
   Circuits                                           Series
                                                       Parallel
   Power                                              Watts

   Distinguish between AC and Dc electricity
   Relate electric power to the current and voltage
   Describe Ohm’s law
   Apply the characteristics of resistance to a variety of natural objects
   Distinguish between parallel and series circuits
   Interpret schematic diagrams
   Determine equivalent resistances of circuits of two or more resistors
   Explain the cause of overloading in circuits
   Plan and build a simple electric circuit, including the use of a soldering iron
   Relate the flow of electric charges to the water flow model
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Magnetism and Electromagnetism

   The impact of magnetism and electromagnetism on 21st century life makes understanding
    these physics topics an essential component of the life of an educated student. Historical
    development of magnetic field concepts, induced electric and magnetic fields, generators,
    motors, and transformers all are a part of the complexity of the connected world, and the laws
    of physics that govern these interactions are of paramount importance to scientific literacy
    for the layman and the scientist alike.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Magnetic fields                                  Magnetic Field
                                                     Oersted Rule
   Right hand rule                                  Induced
                                                     Motor
   Induced magnetic fields                          Generator
                                                     Transformer
   Induced currents                                 AC electricity
                                                     DC electricity
   Generators

   Motors

   AC

   DC

   Transformers

   Compare and contrast magnetic poles and electric charges
   Describe the effects of a magnetic field on current
   Describe the effects of current on magnetic fields
   Identify and explain the parts of motors and generators
   Describe how voltage is induced in a coil
   Compare and contrast motors and generators
   Relate induced electric field to induced magnetic field
   Explain the generation and classification of electromagnetic waves
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Modern Physics

   Although physics of the 20th and 21st centuries can find their roots in the work of Newton and
    Galileo, the introduction of the topics of modern physics helps the student become aware of
    the true complexities of physics. Quantum physics, dealing with the extremely smallest of
    worlds, plays a larger and larger role in the scientific research and discoveries that current
    students will encounter in their lives. A basic introduction to modern physics topics can
    forge a strong base onto which future studies can build, and upon which intelligent members
    of society can base future judgments.

CONCEPTS                                          VOCABULARY
   Quantum                                          Photon
                                                     Quantum
   Photoelectric effect                             Matter Waves
                                                     Uncertainty
   Photon

   Matter waves

   Uncertainty

   Explain the historical evolution of the model of the atom
   List the four basic forces of nature
   Apply the characteristics of the photon to the explanation of the photoelectric effect
   Relate the uncertainty principle to modern attempts to understand the structure of subatomic
                               Science Course of Study

TOPIC: Atomic Physics

   Although understanding the basic building blocks of the universe is a never ending process,
    the importance of nuclear energy, the role of the fundamental forces in research, and the
    potential for discoveries of yet unknown aspect of the atom makes an introduction to these
    topics valuable, timely, and interesting to physics students.

CONCEPTS                                         VOCABULARY
   Atomic Structure                                Energy Levels
                                                    Fission
   Nuclear Structure                               Fusion
                                                    Fundamental Forces
   Fission                                         Quarks
                                                    Radio Activity
   Fusion                                          Dark Matter
                                                    Dark Energy
   Spectroscopy

   Strong Force

   Weak Force

   Quarks

CONCEPT         TOPICS                     LABS                                   (weeks)
Linear Motion   speed, velocity,           uniform and non-uniform velocity
                acceleration               acceleration down a board I and II
                freefall, ag               freefall with tennis balls and video      3
                x-t and v-t graphs         x-t, v-t graphs
                                           analyzing motion with LoggerPro
Projectile      vectors                    horizontal projectiles – dart guns
Motion          components of motion       projectile motion – dart guns             3
                projectile motion          projectile motion with LoggerPro
Newton’s Laws   3 Laws of Motion           forces in equilibrium
                equilibrium                friction
                net force                  inclined planes – sin theta
Momentum        impulse                    collisions of hot wheel cars
                momentum                                                             2
Energy          work, power, energy        conservation of energy hot wheels
                potential and kinetic      conservation of energy ball on a
                energy                     ramp
                conservation of energy     elastic potential energy
Rotational      centripetal acceleration   simple circular motion
Mechanics and   and force                  torque
Dynamics        angular speed              rotational formulae activity
                center of gravity                                                    2
                moment of inertia
                angular momentum
Gravity         Law of Universal           gravity and planets – a math
                Gravitation                worksheet
                gravity fields                                                       1
CONCEPT           TOPICS                         LABS                           (WEEKS)
Relativity        Galilean relativity
                  Special Theory                                                   2
                  General Theory
Properties of     the atom                       buoyancy pre-lab
Matter            solids, liquids, gases         buoyancy in the pool
                  density                        Hooke’s law                       3
Waves and Sound   waves                          dB meters
                  interference and diffraction   the speed of sound
                  standing waves                 music, frequency, and
                  characteristics of sound       harmonics
                  resonance                      music project or wind
                  music                          chime project
Light             history of light theories      plane mirrors
                  characteristics of light       curved mirrors I and II
                  polarization                   index of refraction – gels
                  color                          and glass
                  reflection / mirrors           lenses I and II
                  refraction / lenses            diffraction gratings and
                  diffraction and interference   LED
                                                 polarized light search
Electrostatics    conservation                   simple electrostatic
                  Coulomb’s law                  properties
                  induction, friction,
Electricity and   fields                         series and parallel circuits
Magnetism         potential energy               simple LED circuit
                  current, resistance, voltage
                  power                                                            3
                  electromagnetic induction
                  generators and motors
                  em waves
Atomic Physics    history of atom theories
                  structure of atom
                  nucleus                                                          2
                  fission and fusion

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