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Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Kinematics The topic focuses on the mathematical and physical description of motion in one and two dimensions. CONTENT STATEMENT The description of motion in graphical, mathematical, and written forms sets the foundation for the student of dynamics. Speed, velocity, and acceleration are the results of forces and Newton’s laws of motion and thus the introduction of these topics in kinematics is an essential beginning to the physics course Freefall and the acceleration dues to gravity in both one and two dimensions through a kinematic approach are described using both equations and a variety of time graphs Vectors of all types are an important tool in physics – graphical representation, simple mathematical addition, and component vectors are each essential tools in a variety of topics through physics CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Speed, velocity, acceleration Velocity Acceleration Freefall, ag Displacement Freefall X-T and V-T graphs Uniform Motion Scalars Vectors Vectors Components Components of Motion Projectiles Projectile Motion PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Each of these need to be done first with uniform speed motion, then with accelerated motion, and finally with 2 dimensional motion. Analyze an event involving uniform motion using both mathematical equations and graphs (both x-t and v-t) Study descriptions of uniform motion and translate into both graphical descriptions and mathematical solutions to unknown variables Design a measurable event (involving motion) from which data can be extracted and the motion studied and explained graphically and mathematically Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion CONTENT STATEMENT Dynamics is the “how” of motion and Newton’s three laws of motion are the essential introduction to dynamics and forces that cause motion. Establishing the connection between force and motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion guides the understanding of physics throughout the entire course. Recognizing what is and what is not a force, using free-body diagrams to identify forces, and understanding the force- motion connection are paramount to physics. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY 3 Laws of Motion Inertia Force Equilibrium Contact Force Long-Range Force Net Force Tension Weight Normal Force Friction Free-Body Diagram Newton Action-Reaction Pair Net Force Statics Terminal Speed PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Demonstrate an understanding of the cause of a change in motion by modeling motion when a different net force is involved Given the formulae for the basic laws of motion, the student will calculate the effects of forces on the motion of objects The student will, when presented with an event involving the interaction of forces, describe and explain the motions that may occur in terms of a narrative, graph and a mathematical expression Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Momentum CONTENT STATEMENT Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Momentum Momentum Impulse Elastic Collisions Inelastic Collisions Conservation of Momentum PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Relate an object’s mass and speed to its resulting momentum Demonstrate the conservation of momentum by describing mathematically and narratively the individual changes that occur in a closed system where objects exert forces on each other Apply the relationship between impulse and momentum change to everyday events in the life of a student Identify parameters that indicate the conservation of momentum in real world and in contrived events Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Energy CONTENT STATEMENT The total energy of the universe is constant. Energy can be transferred by collisions in chemical and nuclear reactions, by light waves and other radiations, and in many other ways. However, it can never be destroyed. As these transfers occur, the matter involved becomes steadily less ordered. All energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion; potential energy, which depends on relative position; or energy contained by a field, such as electromagnetic waves. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Energy Energy Work Work Power Kinetic Energy, Power Potential Energy Units of Energy Conservation of Energy PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Identify and describe the forms of energy in a given system, give the properties, and identify the source of the energy Demonstrate an understanding of energy transformations and conservation by an analysis of the changes using mathematical equations, graphs and narratives Relate the mathematical equations for work, energy and power to human activities, the operation of machines, and the interaction of the two Compare the different forms of energy and draw conclusions regarding the viability of the forms to the future of mankind Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Circular Motion CONTENT STATEMENT Objects change their motion only when a net force is applied. Laws of motion are used to calculate precisely the effects of forces on the motion of objects. The magnitude of the change in motion can be calculated using the relationship F = ma, which is independent of the nature of the force. Whenever one object exerts force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted on the first object. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Centripetal Force Centripetal Centrifugal Rotational Kinematics Fictitious Forces Rotation Rotational Dynamics Revolution Angular Speed Linear Speed Angular Acceleration Torque Moment of Inertia Angular Momentum PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Evaluate the motion of an object in a circle and relate it to the topics of linear motion and Newton’s 2nd law to derive the concept of centripetal force Design and develop an event from which data can be collected, leading to an application of the equations of circular motion Relate the concepts of angular speed and angular acceleration to Derive the laws of torque from unstructured activities involving levers Analyze equilibrium arrangements in terms of sums of the torques Apply Newton’s 2nd law to determine the mathematical relationships involved in torque, angular acceleration and angular velocity Relate the concept of moment of inertia to real world experiences Relate the law of conservation of angular momentum to real world experiences Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Gravity CONTENT STATEMENT Gravitation is a universal force that each mass exerts on any other mass. The strength of the gravitational attractive force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Law of Universal Gravitation Center of Gravity Gravity Universal Gravitational Constant Inverse-Square Law ag Satellite Motion Weightlessness Tides Orbital and Escape Velocities Satellite Orbital Velocity Escape Velocity PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Apply the law of universal gravitation to events, analyzing the effects of mass change or separation distance change on the resultant force Predict the gravitational forces that would be present in arrangements involving planets as a way to disprove the influence of bogus science such as astrology Determine the effect of the masses of objects on attractive/repulsive forces by calculating the resultant forces Relate the laws that effect gravity to the orbit of satellite Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Relativity CONTENT STATEMENT The shift from Galilean Relativity to Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is a major component of modern physics. The historical development of the theory combined with the mathematical derivation of the formulae sets the foundation for physics in the 20th century and the beginnings of the 21st. The relative nature of physical properties such as length, mass, and time as well overall structure of the spacetime continuum are as integral to physics as Newton’s laws of motion. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Time, Length, and Mass Relative Values Galilean Relativity Simultaneity E=mc2 Length Contraction Time Dilation Relativistic Addition of Velocities Relativistic Velocities Spacetime Continuum Spacetime Continuum Energy-Mass Equivalence Curved Space Equivalence Principle PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Analyze non-relativistic events for relative motions Describe the implications of the two main postulates of the special theory Compare rest quantities of length, time and mass with the relativistic quantities Apply the mathematical models of the special theory to physical quantities Cite evidence for the validity of the special theory Relate the broad topics of the general theory to specific incidents Apply the concept of curve spacetime to the occurrences of gravitational lensing Differentiate between the effects of weak gravitational fields of light to that of massive objects such as black holes Use non-Euclidean geometry to analyze situations such as parallel lines, triangles, and time and length dilation Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Properties of Matter CONTENT STATEMENT Examining the interaction of matter in different states by applying Newton’s laws and the concepts of energy is a foundation of such principles as the kinetic molecular theory, gas laws, and scaling of models. Density is one of the most basic properties of matter and always presents a challenge to students at all levels of science education. The interaction of matter placed in fluids is an ideal vehicle to understand concepts from density to buoyancy. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Atomic Structure of Matter Compression/Tension Density Gases, Liquids, and Solids Scaling Pressure Density Scaling Properties of Fluids PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Interpret the impact of the characteristics of the 4 states of matter Relate the structure of the atom to the unique properties of individual elements Apply the results of scaling of dimensions to a variety of theoretical and real world situations Describe the concept of density and relate it to a number of everyday situations Relate the laws of fluids to those of gases Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Fluids CONTENT STATEMENT The interaction of matter with liquids and gases play a vital role in the everyday world – from the workings of a combustion engine to the simple use of a straw to floating in a pool to a floating balloon. The initial study of buoyancy by Archimedes to the modern impact of Bernoulli’s laws of air foils, fluid physics touches each part of each student’s world. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes’ principle Pascal’s law Pascal’s Law Fluids Buoyancy Fluids Barometer Bernoulli’s Principle Buoyancy Barometer Bernoulli’s Principle PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Interpret the results of guided investigations dealing with buoyancy Apply the each of the relationships established by Archimedes’ principle and Pascal’s law and Bernoulli’s principle to specific events, both real and contrived Design activities to be preformed in the pool based on the concept of buoyancy Predict the outcome of events as a result of applying the rules of fluid mechanics Relate Bernoulli’s principle to flight Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Thermal Physics CONTENT STATEMENT A concept that bridges the gap between the experiences of chemistry and the world of physics, thermal interactions are an important component in the understanding of energy. From the kinetic molecular theory of heat caused by the motion of molecules to the mathematical solutions to adding ice to warm water, thermal physics is an excellent combination of theory, every reality and the mathematics that ties them together. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Heat energy Heat Heat Capacity Temperature Latent Heat Thermal Equilibrium Heat capacity Absolute Zero Thermodynamics Latent Heat Kinetic Molecular Theory PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Differentiate between the concepts of heat and temperature Work in the lab with the laws of conservation of heat energy dealing with simple combinations, heat capacity of materials, and heat of fusion/vaporization. Derive the value of absolute zero and explain its implication to the physics world Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Oscillations and Waves CONTENT STATEMENT Waves and the interaction of waves is a fundamental component of basic physics. Our senses are impacted continually by sound waves, light waves, and other electromagnetic waves. Basic characteristics of waves form a background for more complex occurrences such as polarization, interference, and resonance. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Oscillations Frequency Period SHM SHM Wave Pendulum Transverse Longitudinal Waves Interference Resonance Sound Forced Vibration Natural Frequency Music Standing Waves Amplitude Decibel Scale Decibel Doppler Shift Doppler Effect Standing Waves PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Identify wave characteristics related to sound waves Relate the physical properties of sound waves to the mathematical relationships predicted by the equations for wavelength, frequency, standing waves, harmonics, beats, and fundamentals Create a source of musical sounds that are designed with the knowledge of the properties of sound waves Analyze a variety of musical and non-musical sounds using technology By investigating wave properties and interactions of various media, the student will describe and explain wave characteristics, the resulting behavior of wave interactions and the wave-energy relationship Design and implement an activity to determine the parameters the affect the period of a pendulum and/or a spring in oscillation Apply the mathematical relationship involved in wave properties to real world and contrived situations Given wave data altered by source motion, apply the concept of the Doppler effect and determine velocities Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Light CONTENT STATEMENT The properties of reflection and refraction of light form the base for a deeper understanding of properties of light that require a higher level of understanding of the wave-particle duality of light. The connection of these theories to everyday phenomena such as mirrors, lenses, lasers, and colors makes an understanding of light and all of its properties an essential component of physics. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Models of Light Wave Model Particle Model Em Waves Quanta Em Waves Interference Two Source Interference Single Slit Interference Diffraction Diffraction Grating Polarized Light Polarized PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Predict the results of historic experiments to determine the speed of light Use the relationship between wavelength and frequency to separate em waves into broad categories Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Reflection, Refraction, and Dispersion CONTENT STATEMENT Mirrors and lenses studied from a ray diagram and a mathematical perspective adds to the understanding of the nature and behavior of light. With applications in the area of fiber optics, telescopes, microscopes, arrays, and 3D imaging as well as the more esoteric examination of rainbows, these characteristics of light waves tie the theoretical to the practical, everyday experiences of students of physics. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Reflection Reflection Refraction Refraction Real Image Virtual Image Mirrors Concave Convex Lenses Total Internal Reflection Critical Angle Ray Diagrams Resolution Rainbows Image Types Dispersion Resolution PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Predict the results of historic experiments to determine the speed of light Use the relationship between wavelength and frequency to separate em waves into broad categories Derive the laws of reflection using mirrors and light sources Derive the laws of refraction using a variety of media and light sources Gather data from image formation using mirrors and lenses and then interpret the graphical representation of the results into the laws of lenses and curved mirrors Identify arrangements which result in total internal reflection Relate the occurrences of dispersion to real world events Apply the principles of spectroscopy to frequency of em waves and then to the Doppler effect Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Static Electricity CONTENT STATEMENT A basic understanding of the laws of charges and static electricity is essential to the study of electricity and electromagnetism. The historical development of the theories of electric charges and the development of the concept of the electric field are the beginnings to the study of electricity as well as developing a concrete model for the movement of charges and the impact on the everyday world of the physics student. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Charge by contact Charge by Contact Charge by Induction Charge by induction Coulomb Coulomb’s Law Coulomb’s law Electric Field Conductors Electric field Insulators Conductors and insulators PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Describe electrical forces between objects Explain how an object becomes charged Distinguish between a conductor and an insulator Generate procedures to charge an object Distinguish between electrical potential energy and electric potential Describe the operation of a Van de Graaff Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Electricity CONTENT STATEMENT Electricity is one of the most used physics concepts in the lives of students. Developing and understanding of emf, electrical circuits, basic components of circuits, and the application of these laws and equations to the real world experiences of physics students makes the study of electricity essential to fulfill the total experiences of students taking physics. Whether a student looks to a future in engineering or merely as an intelligent, informed member of society, a solid grasp of the law of electricity is integral to expanding an understanding of the world in which the student must survive. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Electric Potential Voltage Electric potential Resistance Current Ampere Current Resistance Ohm Capacitance Farads Capacitance Circuits Series Parallel Power Watts PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Distinguish between AC and Dc electricity Relate electric power to the current and voltage Describe Ohm’s law Apply the characteristics of resistance to a variety of natural objects Distinguish between parallel and series circuits Interpret schematic diagrams Determine equivalent resistances of circuits of two or more resistors Explain the cause of overloading in circuits Plan and build a simple electric circuit, including the use of a soldering iron Relate the flow of electric charges to the water flow model Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Magnetism and Electromagnetism CONTENT STATEMENT The impact of magnetism and electromagnetism on 21st century life makes understanding these physics topics an essential component of the life of an educated student. Historical development of magnetic field concepts, induced electric and magnetic fields, generators, motors, and transformers all are a part of the complexity of the connected world, and the laws of physics that govern these interactions are of paramount importance to scientific literacy for the layman and the scientist alike. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Magnetic fields Magnetic Field Oersted Rule Right hand rule Induced Motor Induced magnetic fields Generator Transformer Induced currents AC electricity DC electricity Generators Motors AC DC Transformers PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Compare and contrast magnetic poles and electric charges Describe the effects of a magnetic field on current Describe the effects of current on magnetic fields Identify and explain the parts of motors and generators Describe how voltage is induced in a coil Compare and contrast motors and generators Relate induced electric field to induced magnetic field Explain the generation and classification of electromagnetic waves Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Modern Physics CONTENT STATEMENT Although physics of the 20th and 21st centuries can find their roots in the work of Newton and Galileo, the introduction of the topics of modern physics helps the student become aware of the true complexities of physics. Quantum physics, dealing with the extremely smallest of worlds, plays a larger and larger role in the scientific research and discoveries that current students will encounter in their lives. A basic introduction to modern physics topics can forge a strong base onto which future studies can build, and upon which intelligent members of society can base future judgments. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Quantum Photon Quantum Photoelectric effect Matter Waves Uncertainty Photon Matter waves Uncertainty PERFORMANCE SKILLS: Explain the historical evolution of the model of the atom List the four basic forces of nature Apply the characteristics of the photon to the explanation of the photoelectric effect Relate the uncertainty principle to modern attempts to understand the structure of subatomic particles. Physics 2011-2012 Science Course of Study TOPIC: Atomic Physics CONTENT STATEMENT Although understanding the basic building blocks of the universe is a never ending process, the importance of nuclear energy, the role of the fundamental forces in research, and the potential for discoveries of yet unknown aspect of the atom makes an introduction to these topics valuable, timely, and interesting to physics students. CONCEPTS VOCABULARY Atomic Structure Energy Levels Fission Nuclear Structure Fusion Fundamental Forces Fission Quarks Radio Activity Fusion Dark Matter Dark Energy Spectroscopy Strong Force Weak Force Quarks PERRY PHYSICS PACING GUIDE TIME CONCEPT TOPICS LABS (weeks) Linear Motion speed, velocity, uniform and non-uniform velocity acceleration acceleration down a board I and II freefall, ag freefall with tennis balls and video 3 x-t and v-t graphs x-t, v-t graphs analyzing motion with LoggerPro Projectile vectors horizontal projectiles – dart guns Motion components of motion projectile motion – dart guns 3 projectile motion projectile motion with LoggerPro Newton’s Laws 3 Laws of Motion forces in equilibrium equilibrium friction 3 net force inclined planes – sin theta friction Momentum impulse collisions of hot wheel cars momentum 2 collisions Energy work, power, energy conservation of energy hot wheels potential and kinetic conservation of energy ball on a 2 energy ramp conservation of energy elastic potential energy Rotational centripetal acceleration simple circular motion Mechanics and and force torque Dynamics angular speed rotational formulae activity center of gravity 2 torque moment of inertia angular momentum Gravity Law of Universal gravity and planets – a math Gravitation worksheet gravity fields 1 tides satellites PERRY PHYSICS PACING GUIDE TIME CONCEPT TOPICS LABS (WEEKS) Relativity Galilean relativity Special Theory 2 General Theory Properties of the atom buoyancy pre-lab Matter solids, liquids, gases buoyancy in the pool density Hooke’s law 3 buoyancy Bernoulli Waves and Sound waves dB meters interference and diffraction the speed of sound standing waves music, frequency, and 3 characteristics of sound harmonics resonance music project or wind music chime project Light history of light theories plane mirrors characteristics of light curved mirrors I and II polarization index of refraction – gels color and glass 4 reflection / mirrors lenses I and II refraction / lenses diffraction gratings and diffraction and interference LED polarized light search Electrostatics conservation simple electrostatic Coulomb’s law properties 1 induction, friction, polarization Electricity and fields series and parallel circuits Magnetism potential energy simple LED circuit current, resistance, voltage circuits power 3 magnetism electromagnetic induction generators and motors em waves Atomic Physics history of atom theories structure of atom nucleus 2 radioactivity fission and fusion