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					   The Contribution of Nature Tourism to the Zambian Economy

                                     April 16, 2007




Prepared by Goodson Sinyenga, Besa Muwele and Kirk Hamilton   DRAFT
                                               Summary

   The average tourist to Zambia is economically active and well-educated, with 88% of tourists
    having a post-secondary degree. 71% of tourists are on their first visit to Zambia.

   At least 88%, and probably a higher proportion, of holiday-makers are nature tourists visiting the
    falls, viewing wildlife, or taking an adventure trip.

   The average duration of stay in Zambia by a nature tourist is 6.3 days, which is low compared to
    Botswana (8.6 days) or Namibia (12.4 days). Most (84%) nature tourists visit only one site in
    Zambia.

   Nature tourists are satisfied with their Zambian experience. 84% say they will visit again, and at
    least 90% rate the major parks (Mosi-oa-Tunya falls and park, South Luangwa, Lower Zambezi
    and Kafue) as good or very good.

   The average spending per trip by a nature tourist in Zambia is $1100, of which 47% is spent on
    lodging, 16% on transport, 19.5% on food and beverages, 15% on activities and 2.5% on shopping.

   Nature tourists are willing to pay 50-100% greater fees for the falls and parks they have visited,
    particularly if improvements are made. They would be willing to pay a conservation fee of $20 per
    visit if the fee were used to improve and extend the natural areas under protection in Zambia.

   Tapping nature tourist willingness to pay could increase proceeds at the gate (for the falls and the
    major parks) from the current $2.2 million to $3.9 or $5.1 million depending on whether
    improvements are made. A conservation fee charged to South African and non-African visitors
    could raise as much as $6.4 million per year.

   The ‘tourism multiplier’ for the average nature tourist in Zambia is 2.1. This implies that when this
    tourist spends $1100 in Zambia, $2300 of value added is generated, $1300 in wages, $420 in tax
    revenue (indirect and corporate taxes), and 30% of a full time equivalent formal sector job.

   The overall (direct and indirect) economic impact of nature tourists in Zambia in 2005 was to
    contribute 18% of exports, 7.5% of GDP, over 7% of wages and net income of unincorporated
    business, 8% of government revenues (indirect and corporate taxes) and nearly 10% of formal
    sector employment.

   Hotels and restaurants, the major sector providing tourist services, is the second-most employment
    intensive sector in the economy, generating over 180 direct and indirect formal sector jobs per
    ZMK 1 billion of final consumption expenditure.

   Increasing the length of a tourist visit by 2.3 days (to match the figure for Botswana) would
    increase nature tourism’s contribution to GDP by 3% when indirect impacts are included. To
    achieve this would likely require more promotion of Zambian tourism, infrastructure investments
    and growth in the tour operator sector.
                                         3


                                Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Survey Design Methodology and Implementation

3. Survey Results – Basic Information

4. Level and Distribution of Tourist Expenditures

5. Willingness to Pay for Conservation

6. Financing Conservation

7. Economic Impact of Nature Tourism

8. Increasing the Economic Impact of Nature Tourism

9. ‘Leakage’


Annex 1. The tourist survey questionnaire
                                                 4



1. Introduction

Statistics from the World Tourism Organization shown in Table 1 indicate that Zambia is
solidly in the middle rank of African tourist destinations when it comes to international
tourism receipts as a share of GDP. The goal of this paper is to delve much more deeply
into the contribution that nature tourism makes to the Zambian economy. The principal
tool used for this task is a survey of tourists taken in October of 2005.

Table 1. Tourism receipts, selected countries, 2003
                         International      Percent of
                     tourism receipts            GDP
                                   $m
 Namibia                          333            7.8%
 Ghana                            414            5.4%
 Botswana                         356            4.8%
 Tanzania                         450            4.4%
 Zambia                           149            3.5%
 Senegal                          184            2.9%
 South Africa                    4270            2.7%
 Kenya                            339            2.4%
 Mozambique                         98           2.3%
 Madagascar                         76           1.4%
Source: World Tourism Organization (2005)

The objectives of the tourist survey included (i) understanding the basic socio-economic
characteristics of tourists visiting Zambia, (ii) identifying the purpose of visit, (iii)
measuring duration of stay and number of sites visited, (iv) recording perceptions of
quality, and (v) measuring willingness to pay for visits to national parks and for
improvements in their conservation and management. The results of the tourist survey are
combined with a recent Input/Output (IO) table in order to estimate the impacts of nature
tourists on wages, employment, value added and tax revenue. These results also shed
light on the question of tourism ‘leakages.’

As will be seen in the figures presented below, international tourists visit Zambia for a
variety of reasons, including holiday-making, business, attending a conference, visiting
friends and relatives, and so on. Since government has an avowed goal of making the
tourism contribution to the Zambian economy grow significantly, this paper will focus on
the portion of the tourist universe most sensitive to government policy: holiday-makers,
and nature tourists in particular.

Table 2 summarizes the distribution of all tourists visiting Zambia in 2005, compiled
from arrivals figures provided by the Zambia National Tourist Board (2006). The data
were collected from twelve ports of entry: Nakonde, Kasumbelesa, Mwami, Chirundu,
Kariba North, Kazungula, Victoria Falls, Katima Mulilo borders, and Ndola , Mfuwe,
Lusaka and Livingstone International Airports.
                                                  5




Table 2. Visitor Arrivals 2005: Area of Origin by Purpose of Visit
 Area of Origin                     Holiday    Business    Conference      VFR        Other     Total
 South Africa                        48,010      34,475         2,219      12,108     13,460   110,272
 Zimbabwe                            16,231      69,666         1,632      44,256     16,651   148,436
 Other Southern Africa               13,640      19,224         1,273       8,781      7,967    50,885
 Total Southern Africa               77,881     123,365         5,124      65,145     38,078   309,593

 Kenya                                2,446       5,227            122      1,659      2,284    11,738
 Tanzania                             6,120      39,490            463      8,070     11,738    65,881
 Other East Africa                    2,654       7,838            181      3,390      3,386    17,449
 Total East Africa                   11,220      52,555            766     13,119     17,408    95,068

 Central Africa                       7,075      23,032            336       7,393     9,944    47,780
 North Africa                           700         973             55         429       595     2,752
 West Africa                            809       3,224             84       1,057       633     5,807
 Total West & Central Africa          8,584      27,229            475       8,879    11,172    56,339

 Denmark                              1,752       1,089             72        528        701     4,142
 France                               4,609       1,667             85        666        997     8,024
 Germany                              9,915       4,080            269      1,490      2,006    17,760
 Italy                                4,168       1,755             90        712        973     7,698
 Sweden                               2,366       1,570            160        685        957     5,738
 United Kingdom                      23,788      10,761            547      4,066      5,207    44,369
 Other Europe                        13,056       6,332            457      2,816      3,210    25,871
 Other Scandinavian                   4,678       1,428            190        670      1,144     8,110
 Total Europe                        64,332      28,682          1,870     11,633     15,195   121,712

 Canada                               5,684       2,631            130       1,173     1,612    11,230
 South America                        1,020         588            120         275       452     2,455
 United States of America            13,734       4,783            616       1,979     2,783    23,895
 Total Americas                      20,438       8,002            866       3,427     4,847    37,580

 Australia                            9,264      3,977              153       1,234    1,708    16,336
 India                                3,290      2,695              166       1,135    1,372     8,658
 Japan                                2,146      1,433              118         588      919     5,204
 New Zealand                          4,529      1,468               87         592      959     7,635
 Other Asia                           4,291      3,552              202       1,069    1,623    10,737
 Total Asia                         23,520      13,125              726       4,618    6,581    48,570
 Grand Total                       205,975     252,958           9,827 106,821        93,281   668,862
Source: Zambia National Tourist Board (2006). VFR: Visiting friends and relatives.



2. Survey Design Methodology and Implementation

As noted above, the tourist survey asked a series of basic questions concerning the socio-
economic characteristics of the tourists, their provenance, purpose of visit, duration of
                                                6


stay, perceptions of quality, level and distribution of expenditures (including package vs.
non-package tours) and willingness to pay for an improved experience.

Sample Design and Coverage

The tourist survey aimed for a sample of 1800 tourists in both the lodges/hotels and
airports. In the end 1578 agreed to fill out the questionnaire (appended in Annex 1). The
survey was carried out for a period of 25 days using a cross sectional sample of tourists.
The desired sample size was efficient for yielding reliable combined as well as sub-group
estimates.

The target population for the survey consisted of resident and non-resident tourists who
were interviewed at either international airports (Lusaka and Livingstone) or in lodges in
and around national parks (South Luangwa, Lower Zambezi, Kafue and Mosi Oa Tunya).
Tourists were interviewed at the end of their stay in Zambia.

Sample Stratification and Selection

For the purposes of this survey, tourists were stratified into internally homogenous
categories based on their respective residential status and mode of transport used to visit
the country and the sites. This implies that tourists who traveled by air were interviewed
at the 2 international airports mentioned above whilst the over-landers and 4x4 tourists
were covered in their respective lodges/hotel/camps around Livingstone town, Kafue and
South Luangwa National Parks.

Sample Selection of Tourists

In order to minimize selection bias, the tourist survey employed a systematic sample of
tourists found in airports and lodges/hotels. In the case of airports, the interviewer was
expected to interview every ith tourist that entered the departure lounge just after
immigration clearance. On the other hand, every ith tourist was selected for an interview
in the parks using a lodging/bedding list provided by the lodge/hotel operators. In the
case of Kafue and South Luangwa National Parks, the field teams were targeting tourists
who had completed their park activities for interviews.

The sampling interval was determined as follows:

Sampling   Interval 
                            Available number of tourists
                          Required daily sample of tourists

Table 3 shows the distribution of tourists by interview location. Roughly 55% of the
sample was from the international airports in Lusaka and Livingstone, with the remainder
interviewed at hotels and lodges in Livingstone, South Luangwa and Kafue.
                                                7


Table 3. Distribution of tourists by location of interview, November 2005
Interview Location                            Number of       Proportion (%)
                                                Tourists
Lusaka Airport                                     424                  26.9
Livingstone Airport                                460                  29.2
Livingstone Town                                   306                  19.4
South Luangwa National Park                        248                  15.7
Kafue National Park                                140                   8.9

Total                                               1578

Source: Tourist survey



3. Survey Results – Basic Information

Table 4 breaks out basic information on the tourists sampled in the survey – of the 1578
tourists in the total sample, 1417 were able to provide both region of origin and purpose
of visit information.

Table 4. Number of tourists in the sample by origin and purpose of visit
                                                                                                 Holiday
 Region of Origin        Holiday   Business    Conference     VFR      Other       Total           share
 UK                          352         25              3      30         1        411           30.9%
 Other Europe                367         27              7      57         4        462           32.2%
 North America               211         27              6      19         0        263           18.5%
 Asia/Pacific                119         12              2      14         0        147           10.4%
 South Africa                 79         22              1       9         2        113            6.9%
 Neighboring SSA              10          4              1       2         0         17            0.9%
 Other                         3          0              1       0         0          4            0.3%
 Total                     1,141        117             21     131         7      1,417          100.0%
 Share by purpose         80.5%       8.3%           1.5%    9.2%      0.5%     100.0%
Source: Tourist survey

The sampling strategy for the survey was designed to capture information about holiday-
makers as the primary target. Comparing Table 4 with Table 2 it is clear that business
travelers are under-represented in the sample – this may be linked to individual business
travelers making multiple visits per year (which the one-shot survey would miss,) or to
seasonality, or the fact that Ndola was not sampled. There is an under-count of South
African holiday-makers which may be seasonal or related to the over-weighting of
international airports in the sample (many South Africans arrive in Zambia by road).

The other obvious difference between the universe of tourists (shown in Table 2) and the
sample is the under-representation of visitors from the rest of Africa (excluding South
Africa) – the principle reason for this is that the great majority of these visitors arrive on
business (and many of these visitors coded as holiday-makers may in fact be on business
but choose to code the visit as holiday). For the neighboring Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
tourists a lot of trans-border travel takes the form of day trips for commerce.
                                                                      8



The survey shows that the average tourist is economically active and well-educated: only
13% of tourists to Zambia are retirees, and 88% have a post-secondary education. Men
moderately outnumber women, 54% to 46%. As Figure 1 indicates, most tourists in the
sample are first-time visitors.

Figure 1. Number of visits to Zambia
                          100

                          90

                          80

                          70
 Percentage of tourists




                          60

                          50

                          40

                          30

                          20

                          10

                           0
                                Once               Twice   3 to 5 times   6 to 10 times     >10 times



Source: Tourist survey

Figure 2. Holiday-makers main purpose for visit

                                           Other
                                           12%




     Viewing wildlife                                                      Mosi Oa Tunya Falls
          28%                                                                     54%




                                Adventure trip
                                    5%
                                       Hunting trip
                                          1%


Source: Tourist survey
                                                                                     9


Holiday-makers were asked their main reason for visiting Zambia – Figure 2 shows that
88% of holiday-makers are nature tourists. This proportion may be higher because the
survey form lists non-specific reasons for visiting Zambia, such as ‘part of package’ or
‘recommended by friend’ or ‘good previous experience,’ which are classified as ‘other’
in the chart. Visiting the falls is currently the big attraction at 54% of all holiday-makers,
while viewing wildlife is significant at 28%. As shorthand, therefore, we will refer to
holiday-makers as nature tourists in what follows.

Figure 3. Duration of stay by nature tourists
                                  50

                                  45

                                  40
   Percentage of holiday-makers




                                  35

                                  30

                                  25

                                  20

                                  15

                                  10

                                  5

                                  0
                                        1-3 Days      4-7 Days          8-10 Days         11-14 Days     15-30 Days

Source: Tourist survey

Figure 4. Number of sites visited by nature tourists
                                  100

                                  90

                                  80
  Percentage of holiday-makers




                                  70

                                  60

                                  50

                                  40

                                  30

                                  20

                                  10

                                   0
                                           One Site         Two Sites               Three Sites        Four + Sites
                                               10


One of the key factors in maximizing revenues from tourism is the length of time a tourist
stays in a given country, which in turn is often closely linked to the number of sites that
the tourist visits. Figure 3 shows that 41% of nature tourists stay for 1-3 days, and 70%
for up to seven days, while Figure 4 indicates that 85% of nature tourists visit only one
site in Zambia. The average stay of a nature tourist is 6.3 days. These results are
consistent with Figure 2, in that short trips to see the falls are the predominant activities
by nature tourists.

Quality

Visitor satisfaction is an important question for tourist destinations – it certainly affects
whether nature tourists return again, and may be influential in the informal marketing of a
destination by word of mouth. The survey asked tourists to rank the major destinations in
Zambia according to overall satisfaction as well as specific sub-components:
accommodation, food and beverages, transport, safety, value for money and, in the case
of the parks, wildlife abundance. Table 5 reports the overall satisfaction with the major
sites.

Table 5. Nature tourist’s overall
satisfaction with sites (percent)
                                 Very
                     Good        good
 Livingstone                44            46
 South Luangwa              34            61
 Lower Zambezi              29            68
 Kafue                      54            40
Source: Tourist survey

Overall at least 90% of nature tourists were satisfied or very satisfied with the
destinations they visited (only 5 tourists in the sample rated their experience as ‘bad’).
Tourists were also asked how likely they would be to visit Zambia again – while there
may be good reasons for tourists who were highly satisfied with their visit not to return (a
desire to see more of Africa, for example), Figure 5 shows that over 80% say that they
would visit again.

Figure 5. Percentage of nature tourists who would return to Zambia

                    No
                  16%




                                    Yes
                                  84%
                                                    11



4. Level and Distribution of Tourist Expenditures

The key to the economic impact of tourism is the total amount of expenditure incurred by
tourists in Zambia and the distribution of these expenditures across different goods and
services. The tourist survey asked respondents to break down their total trip expenditures
both inside and outside the country.

In identifying tourist expenditures an important distinction has to be made between
package vs. non-package tourism. 51% of nature tourists in the survey sample were not
package tourists, meaning that they purchased transport to Zambia, local travel,
accommodation, food, shopping and activities as separate transactions. The remaining
49% bought a full package in their home country, with or without airfare, or bought a
package in Zambia. Table 6 reports the level of expenditures per trip and per day for
these different categories of nature tourists.

Table 6. Nature tourist expenditures per person
    Per person per trip without airfare                    $

    International package                                  3098
                                               a
    International package (airfare subtracted)             2540
                   b
    Local package                                          1137
    Local non-package                                      1092

    Per person per day without airfare                     $

 International package                                      443
                                               a
 International package (airfare subtracted)                 508
                  b
 Local package                                              190
 Local non-package                                          137
Source: Tourist survey
a: Calculated as average full package price minus average airfare
b: Package of accommodation, transport and activities bought in Zambia

Table 6 suggests that the average international package tourist paid roughly $2500-$3100
for their Zambian experience, compared with roughly $1100 for tourists who either
bought a package in Zambia or made individual purchases of goods and services in
Zambia1. The latter figure is the best estimate of the impact of international tourists on
the Zambian economy because it does not include the fees charged by foreign travel
agents and tour operators.

Another useful slice through the data is to return to the question of the number of sites
visited by nature tourists in Zambia. Table 7 shows the average expenditure per tourist

1
  Since most South African holiday-makers are non-package tourists, the small difference between local
package and non-package expenditures per tourist-trip in Table 6 suggests that the undercount of South
Africans in the survey sample will not have a significant effect on the estimates of the economic impacts of
tourism in Zambia.
                                                    12


per trip broken down according to the number of sites visited. On average each additional
site visited adds $200 to expenditures in Zambia per person-trip.

Table 7. Expenditure per nature tourist per trip
by number of sites visited
                              % of nature
 Visited                   tourists visiting   Expenditure ($)
 One Site                             84.5%               1053
 Two Sites                            12.0%               1258
 Three Sites                           3.0%               1447
Source: Tourist survey, based on non-package tourist expenditures.
Data for 4+ sites visited not shown owing to small sub-sample size.

Finally, the distribution of expenditures by tourists in Zambia matters when examining
economic impact since different sectors (accommodation and transport for example) may
vary in their employment intensiveness and degree of linkage to the domestic economy.
Table 8 presents the per person-trip average expenditures by nature tourists for different
categories of goods and services.

Table 8. Breakdown of expenditures
per nature tourist per trip
 Category                           $
 Hotel                                583
 Transportation                       200
 Food                                 240
 Shopping                              31
 Activities                           186
Source: Tourist survey, based on non-package
tourist expenditures.

The figures in Table 8 are used in the estimation of the overall economic impacts of
nature tourists visiting Zambia.


5. Willingness to Pay for Conservation

As can be seen from the questionnaire for the tourist survey in Annex 1, an important part
of the survey is a series of questions on tourist willingness to pay (i) to enjoy the national
parks as they stand, (ii) for specific improvements in the national parks, and (iii) for a
conservation fund to improve protection and management of the environment in Zambia.
The results of these questions are summarized below.

The important considerations in the willingness to pay portion of the questionnaire
include: (i) tourists were interviewed after they had enjoyed their trip to a national park,
making the questions seem less hypothetical to the respondent; (ii) the scenarios used to
elicit willingness to pay are described in precise terms, rooted in the experience the
respondent has just had; and (iii) the means of eliciting willingness to pay was through a
payment card, giving the respondent a menu of potential amounts to pay for the
                                                                             13


experience just enjoyed (or enhancements to the experience) – the questions are couched
in terms of maximum willingness to pay.

The willingness to pay (WTP) part of the tourism demand survey used five out of six
guidelines from the "Report on the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation" (Arrow et al,
1993, Randall, 1997). The survey used personal interviews, probability sampling, careful
pre-testing, and reminders of budget constraints and the availability of substitutes. A
common criticism of Contingent Valuation (CV) analysis is that CV estimates are gross
overestimates. Studies show that, under plausible conditions, when asked to value quasi-
public goods where the effective trade-off is a quality change against a cost change, and
public goods to be provided by means of an increased tax, it is in the strategic interest of
the respondents to truthfully reveal their WTP (Carson et al, 1999). The survey used a
menu of multiple choices in payment cards. This question format is likely to bias WTP
responses downwards for three reasons (Carson, 1997): (a) the optimal strategy for
respondents whose WTP is less than the expected cost is to state a WTP of $0; (b) open
ended and payment card questions indicate uncertainty about future costs for the
respondent and result in a lower WTP response; and (c) if the respondent believes that the
government is capable of capturing part of any available surplus for unproductive
purposes, the WTP reported would be lower. Thus, WTP reported in the survey may be
lower than the actual WTP of the respondents.

Figure 6 shows the results of the willingness to pay questions for the main parks / sites in
the survey. Respondents were reminded of the current park fee before they answered the
willingness to pay questions.

Figure 6. Nature tourist willingness to pay park entrance fees
                          50

                          45

                          40

                          35
  Willingness to pay, $




                          30
                                                                                          Current fee
                          25                                                              No improvement
                                                                                          With improvement
                          20

                          15

                          10

                          5

                          0
                               Livingstone   South Luangwa   Lower Zambezi        Kafue

Source: Tourist survey

As seen in Figure 6, untapped nature tourist willingness to pay to enjoy the national parks
in their current state is roughly 50% higher than current park entrance fees. When
                                                            14


specific improvements in the national parks are part of the scenario, willingness to pay
climbs to roughly twice the level of current fees.

Figure 7. Willingness to pay conservation fee – all tourists
                          25




                          20
  Willingness to pay, $




                          15




                          10




                          5




                          0
                               Holiday   Business   Conference   VFR   Other

Source: Tourist survey. VFR: Visiting friends and relatives

Note that even at the higher fee level, an individual park fee would represent less than 1%
of the total trip price (including airfare) for a typical European, American or Asian tourist
(see Table 6). If the elasticity of tourism demand is 1, then the reduction in demand for
visits to Zambian national parks would be 1% – however, Crouch and Shaw (1991) find
that the price elasticity of total tourist spending is quite low (0.39), while studies by
Hiemstra and Ismail (1992,1993) show that the elasticity of demand for hotel rooms is
0.44, again quite inelastic.

Figure 7 plots the mean willingness to pay a conservation fee for the different categories
of tourists in Zambia – the overall mean is $20 per person per visit. As can be seen in
Annex 1, this willingness to pay is linked to a specific scenario concerning the use of
conservation fees. Since the conservation fee would in principle be paid by all visitors,
the relatively low variation in willingness to pay across different types of visitors is
important (note that conference and ‘other’ visitors, the categories with the lowest
willingness to pay, are small proportions of the total number of tourists).

6. Financing Conservation

The data in Figure 2 show that at least 88%, and probably a much higher share, of
holiday-makers are visiting Zambia for purposes of nature tourism – enjoying the falls,
parks and wildlife of Zambia.
                                                       15


When determining the potential revenues that could be generated by tapping tourist
willingness to pay for conservation in Zambia, it is important to define which universe of
tourists should be used in the analysis. For example, if government chose to implement a
conservation tax payable at the border, it might decide to exclude all African visitors
from payment of the tax (particularly people from neighboring countries who are on a
day trip for commercial reasons), with the possible exception of South Africa. Table 9
therefore shows total visitors by purpose of visit (these figures are the same as in Table
2), total visitors excluding Southern Africa but including South Africa, and finally total
visitors excluding all of Africa but including South Africa.

Table 9. Tourist arrivals by purpose of visit, 2006
                                        Holiday Business         Conference       VFR         Other     Total
 Total by purpose of visit             205,975   252,958              9,827      106,821      93,281   668,862
                                 a
 Total minus Southern Africa           176,104   164,068              6,922       53,784      68,663   469,541
                      a
 Total minus Africa                    156,300    84,284              5,681       31,786      40,083   318,134
Source: Zambia National Tourist Board (2006)
a: South Africa is included in the total

From this table we can derive a conservative figure for the total number of foreign nature
tourists, 176,104, as well as a figure for the number of tourists who might be the target of
a conservation tax, 318,134.

Table 10 displays the current and potential fees by the main parks / destinations, drawing
upon the willingness to pay data displayed in Figure 62. The number of nature tourists
shown visiting Livingstone consists of 11,276 visitors to Mosi-oa-Tunya park (data from
ZAWA), plus 54% of the total number of foreign nature tourists, 176,104. This is a
conservative estimate of Falls visitors because of seasonality (the survey was taken while
water levels in the Zambezi were low), and because a number of business visitors and
those visiting friends and relatives also take time to visit the Falls.

Current revenues from these main nature tourism sites are $2.2 million, and could
increase by $1.7 to $2.9 million if tourist willingness to pay were tapped through higher
fees. If the investments outlined in the different scenarios laid out for the survey
respondents were made (see the questionnaire in Annex 1), total receipts could be as
much as $5.1 million.




2
    As discussed previously, we assume that the price elasticity of tourism demand is close to zero.
                                                       16


Table 10. Current and potential fees from visitors to natural sites, $
                                                                        No. of
    Park / destination              Current vs.                         nature         Increased
                             willingness to pay                 Fees    tourists       revenues
    Livingstone          Current fee                              15      105,879
                         No improvement                           27                   1,270,549
                         With improvement                         36                   2,223,460
    South Luangwa        Current fee                              20        22,688
                         No improvement                           36                     363,008
                         With improvement                         45                     567,200
    Lower Zambezi        Current fee                              20         5,177
                         No improvement                           32                      62,124
                         With improvement                         40                     103,540
    Kafue                Current fee                              15         2,003
                         No improvement                           24                       18,027
                         With improvement                         29                       28,042

 Current revenues                    2,175,531
 Increase in
 revenues                            1,713,708 to 2,922,242
Source: Visitation data for 2006 from ZAWA plus author’s estimates of Falls visitors



Finally, if a conservation fund were established, per the scenario described to survey
respondents, then a conservation fee of $20 per visit levied on all South African and non-
African visitors would generate $6.4 million per year.

If government were willing to establish a conservation fund and to make the specified
investments in improved management of natural areas, therefore, total fee receipts could
total as much as $11.5 million per year, with $3.4 million of that coming from visitors to
the falls. These revenues would increase in proportion to any future growth in tourist
arrivals.

7. Economic Impact of Nature Tourism

The survey results highlighted in Section 3 above provide the basic information required
for an analysis of the overall economic impact of nature tourism. Roughly speaking, the
average nature tourist spends $1100 in Zambia (Table 6), and these expenditures are
distributed across different goods and services in proportion to the figures appearing in
Table 8. This information can be combined with the 1998 Input-Output (IO) table3 for
Zambia to estimate the impact of nature tourism on value added, wages, employment, tax
revenues and imports.


3
  This IO table may appear to be rather dated for the analysis of tourism in 2005. However, as long as the
structural parameters of different sectors (the relative proportions of intermediate and primary inputs) are
fairly stable over time there is no particular issue with regard to the vintage of the IO data. While the
copper sector has restructured since 1998, it sells none of its output to other sectors in Zambia, and so does
not affect the calculation of the direct plus indirect effects of nature tourist demand featured in this section.
                                                       17


IO tables are built around a matrix of inter-sectoral flows detailing how much of the
intermediate demand for goods and services in a given production sector is met by other
sectors in the economy. Detailed information on value added broken down into wages,
indirect taxes and operating surplus complete the production accounting system. IO
models make the strong assumption that factor inputs are fixed in proportion, but have
the unique property of being able to trace sectoral inter-linkages in great detail.

The methodology employed in this analysis is to ‘close’ the IO table to households –
when this is done then a thousand Kwacha of expenditure on the output of a sector such
as Hotels and Restaurants generates a certain amount of wage income and net surplus
which accrues to households, who then spend this income by consuming goods and
services. In addition, when the Hotels and Restaurants sector produces one thousand
Kwacha worth of output, it must purchase inputs of food, beverages, water, electricity,
communications, manufactures, and so on. These inputs to the sector are either imported
or produced by other sectors in the Zambian economy. When all these transactions are
added up it is possible to arrive at a total measure of the ‘direct plus indirect’ production,
value added, wages, employment, tax revenues and imports required to meet this
demand4.

Table 10 displays the economic impact of one nature tourist spending $1100 on their visit
to Zambia. In rough figures, $1100 worth of expenditure by a nature tourist generates
nearly $2300 worth of GDP in the Zambian economy (the ‘tourism multiplier’ is
therefore 2.1), $1300 worth of wages and net income of unincorporated business, $420 in
tax revenue, and $425 worth of imports of goods and services. Every three nature tourists
generate one full-time equivalent job in the formal sector5.

Table 10. Economic impact of one
average nature tourist visit
    Value added                 $2288
    Wages & NIUB                $1298

    Indirect taxes               $152
    Corporate taxes              $265

    Employment                  0.307

 Imports                        $425
Source: Authors’ calculations
NIUB: Net income of unincorporated business
Note: Employment is measured as full-time
equivalent jobs in the formal sector




4
  Technically the re-spending by households is termed an ‘induced’ effect, but we will simplify the
terminology.
5
  Note that this should not be taken literally. Three nature tourists generate fractions of jobs across the
different sectors of the economy, and these fractions add up to one full time equivalent job.
                                                  18


The economic impact of 176,000 nature tourists each spending $1100 in Zambia is shown
in Table 11. This level of spending represents an export value to the economy of $194
million, or 3.6% of 2004 GDP.

Table 11. Economic impact of nature
tourism in Zambia, percent of GDP
    Value added                          7.5%
    Wages & NIUB                         4.2%

    Indirect taxes                       0.5%
    Corporate taxes                      0.9%

    Employment                           9.6%

 Imports                                   1.4%
Source: Author’s calculations.
Note: Employment figure is the share of total
formal sector employment

In 2004 government revenue was about 17% of GDP in Zambia, exports 20% and
imports 27%. The story given by Table 11 can therefore be portrayed in the following
broad terms: when direct and indirect linkages are included, nature tourism contributes
18% of Zambian exports, 7.5% of GDP, over 7% of wages and net income of
unincorporated business6, 8% of government revenues, nearly 10% of formal sector
employment, and 5% of imports into the economy.

The accommodation and restaurant sector, accounting for roughly half of nature tourist
expenditures (see Table 8), is a major contributor to employment at the margin. Table 12
shows the number of direct and indirect formal sector jobs generated by different
economic sectors in response to one billion Kwacha of additional final consumption
expenditure (a billion Kwacha of final expenditure on hotels and restaurants, for example,
generates 182 jobs). The very low figures for textiles and leather, other manufacturing,
and chemicals reflect the high import content of these goods – for example, on average
61% of final consumption expenditure on ‘other manufactures’ is imported.

In terms of direct and indirect employment generation per unit of final expenditure, the
key supplier of tourism services, the hotel and restaurant sector, is virtually at the head of
the list, equaling wholesale and retail trade and only slightly lagging construction.




6
  The wages and NIUB generated by nature tourists is 4.2% of GDP as reported in Table 11, which
represents 7.1% of total wages and NIUB in the economy.
                                              19




Table 12. Direct and indirect employment
content of ZMK 1 bn final consumption
 Construction                        184
 Trade                               182
 Hotels & restaurants                182
 Real estate & business
 service                             158
 Forestry                            142
 Financial institutions &
 insurance                           138
 Transport & communications          137
 Livestock & fishing                 133
 Agriculture                         132
 Community & personal
 services                            123
 Mining & quarrying                  120
 Food, beverages & tobacco           117
 Electricity, water & gas            115
 Textiles & leather                   59
 Other manufacturing                  47
 Chemicals                            40
Source: author’s calculations.
Figures represent full time formal
sector jobs



8. Increasing the Economic Impact of Nature Tourism

The average length of stay of nature tourists in Zambia is low compared to competing
destinations (Zambia, 6.3 days; Kenya, 13.4 days; Tanzania, 14.2 days; Botswana, 8.6
days; Namibia, 12.4 days; South Africa, 12 days). One of the most direct ways to
increase tourism receipts in Zambia is to increase the average number of days that nature
tourists spend in the country. This section looks at the potential benefits of an increase in
visitor days and what may be required to achieve such an increase.

Increasing the length of an average visit to match the equivalent figure for Botswana is a
reasonable goal, at least in the short run. This would imply a 2.3 day increase in the
length of an average visit, entailing extra expenditures of $190 per day (Table 6).
Multiplying these figures by 176,000 nature tourists (Table 9) leads to an increased value
of tourism exports of $77 million or an additional 1.4% of GDP – through the ‘tourism
multiplier’ the overall impact could be as large as 3% of GDP.

The barriers to achieving this increase are evident in Figures 2 and 4. Fifty-four percent
of surveyed nature tourists listed visiting the falls as the main purpose of the visit – and a
                                                    20


visit to the falls is typically a one-day trip. Secondly, 84% of nature tourists only visit one
site on their Zambian trip, with only 12% visiting two sites.

Turning these duration of visit statistics around will likely require actions on several
fronts, including (i) increased promotion of Zambian tourism in source markets, (ii)
infrastructure investments, particularly in transport, and (iii) scaling up of private sector
investment in hotels and lodges, as well as development of tour operators who can
package multi-site vacations.

The other way to increase tourism receipts in Zambia is to attract more visitors. More
extensive promotion of Zambia as a tourist destination is the obvious government action
required, but it could be that the limitations of infrastructure and transport in Zambia
would act as a bottleneck in tourism sector expansion.


9. ‘Leakage’

A concern that is common to many tourist destinations is the question of tourism
‘leakages’ – how much of the price paid by a foreign tourist for their vacation actually
ends up being received in the destination country. The tourist survey sheds important
light on what services are being paid for in what country (which is not ‘leakage’ – Box 1
looks at this question in another context that is important to several African countries, the
coffee market).

The survey shows that the average airfare paid by a foreign tourist flying to Zambia is
$1525. Table 13 combines this information with the figures on per person per trip
expenditures appearing in Table 6 (rounding the local package price to $1100).

Table 13. The cost of an average nature tourism trip to Zambia
Total package cost including airfare                    $4625
Airfare                                                 $1525
Foreign travel agent and tour operator margin           $2000
Package price in Zambia (including local                $1100
travel agent and tour operator)
Source: Tourist survey
Note: Foreign travel agent and tour operator margin calculated residually

If $1100 is the best estimate of the cost of services provided in Zambia, including any
bundling of accommodation, transport and activities, is the rest ‘leakage?’ Not if you
consider that these are simply payments for services rendered. Consider the following:

-   $1525 is for the service of flying the tourist to Zambia.
-   $2000 is for the service of marketing the range of destinations within Zambia to the
    tourist and organizing the different elements of accommodation, transport and
    activities that make up the trip.
                                            21


Many countries feel that they would capture more of the tourist dollar if tourists flew on
the national airline. However, most national airlines in small countries lose money –
having tourists flying on these airlines is actually a misallocation of scarce development
resources.

Similarly, there is no sense in which the foreign travel agent and tour operator margin
‘should’ be captured by Zambia. These are services by Europeans to Europeans (or by
Americans to Americans, etc.), making it possible for the tourist to choose, travel to and
enjoy the ultimate destination in Zambia.

Do the figures in Table 13 suggest, by the usual ‘leakage’ arguments, that tourism is not a
good business for Zambia to be in because the ‘leakage’ rate is 76%? As argued in Box 1,
this is equivalent to suggesting that Uganda or Kenya should not be in the business of
exporting coffee because the ‘leakage’ rate when an American buys a tall coffee at
Starbucks is 99.4%. To make this argument is to completely ignore questions about what
service is being provided, where, by whom and to whom.


 Box 1. ‘Coffee leakage’

 According to information from Global Exchange, the price paid for raw coffee at
 auction in New York averages $0.50 per pound, while the price paid to the farmer in
 Kenya (for example) who grew the coffee averages about $0.30 per pound. The
 difference represents local processing costs, wholesaling margins and transportation
 costs. When an American consumer buys a pound of coffee at retail they may pay
 $10-$12 for a pound of roasted coffee beans. The difference between this price and the
 New York raw bean price consists of processing, roasting, packaging, transport,
 wholesale and retail margins.

 When this same consumer buys a tall coffee at their local Starbucks they pay $1.75 for
 an amount of coffee beans that they could buy at retail for $0.35. Here the difference
 in price consists of renting retail space, hiring service staff, paying for expensive
 coffee-making equipment, marketing, providing cream and sugar, and so on. The
 Kenyan farmer who grew the coffee beans in question would have received, on
 average, $0.01 for them. So the ‘leakage’ rate on a coffee at Starbucks is 1 – 1/175 or
 99.4%.

 Under ‘fair trade’ schemes the farmer is paid $1.00-$1.20 for the same pound of beans
 that previously fetched $0.30. This means that the farmer is receiving $0.03-$0.04 for
 the beans in the tall coffee purchased for $1.75 at Starbucks, and the ‘leakage’ rate is
 therefore about 98%.




References
                                          22



Arrow K., Solow R., Portney P.R., Leamer E.E., Radner R., Schuman H., 1993 "Report
of the NOAA Panel on Contingent Valuation." Federal Register 58: 4601-14.

Carson R.T., 1997 "Contingent Valuation: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests
since the NOAA Panel." American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(5): 1501-7.

Carson, R.T., Groves T., Machina M., 1999, "Incentive and Informational Properties of
Preferences Questions." Plenary Address, European Association of Environmental and
Resource Economists, Oslo, Norway.

Crouch, G., and R. Shaw. 1991. "International Tourism Demand: A Meta-Analytical
Integration of Research Findings." Management Paper No.36. Graduate School of
Management, Monash University, Australia.

Hiemstra, S. and J. Ismail. 1993. "Incidence of the Impacts of Room Taxes on the
Lodging Industry." Journal of Travel Research, Spring, pp.22-26.
                                                     23


Annex 1. The tourist survey questionnaire

1       Questionnaire number



                                      ZAMBIA VISITOR SURVEY


Final Version

2       Interviewer code
3       Date :            /         / 2005

                  Mon = 1           Tue = 2     Wed = 3   Thu = 4     Fri = 5   Sat = 6      Sun = 7
4       Day:


5       Weather conditions (circle the correct response, one in each box)
5.1                           5.2                         5.3                       5.4
                                                                      0
                                                          Very hot (>30 C)      1
Sunny                 1       Dry                    1           0      0           Calm           1
                                                          Hot (21 C-30 C)       2
Broken cloud          2       Drizzle/showers        2                  0           Breezy         2
                                                          Warm (15-20 C)        3
Overcast              3       Persistent rain        3                0             Windy          3
                                                          Cool (10-15 C)        4


6       Interview location:

Lusaka airport                                                                               1
Livingstone / Victoria Falls / Mosi Oa Tunya                                                 2
Livingstone airport                                                                          3
Lower Zambezi / Lake Kariba                                                                  4
South Luangwa                                                                                5
Mfuwe airport                                                                                6
Kafue                                                                                        7
North Luangwa                                                                                8
Kasanka                                                                                      9
Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika                                                                  10


7       Air flight number (if applicable):


8       Time started (24 hour clock):
                                           24

9      Time ended (24 hour clock):


10     Total time taken:        minutes




                           INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTIONS
ASK THE VISITOR IF HE/SHE HAS ALREADY BEEN INTERVIEWED IN ANOTHER SITE.
IF YES, THEN WITHDRAW POLITELY; IF NO, THEN PROCEED
Hello, my name is ……………. And I am doing a survey for the Ministry of Tourism,
Environment and Natural Resources of Zambia. I would be very grateful if you would
answer a few questions about your visit to Zambia. This is not a marketing or sales
survey. We are doing the survey to have a better understanding of what tourists want from
their trip to Zambia and what experiences and natural resources they value the most.
The survey should not take more than 30 minutes. The questions are really easy to
respond to. Any information you provide will be kept strictly confidential.
Would you be prepared to answer some questions?
IF YES, THEN PROCEED; IF NO, THEN WITHDRAW POLITELY
                                             25



                                 A. SOCIOLOGIC DATA
First, I would like to ask few questions about yourself.
11      Record sex of respondent.
Circle one only.
Male                                                       1
Female                                                     2

12      How old are you?
Circle one only.
18-24 years                                                1
25-34 years                                                2
35-44 years                                                3
45-54 years                                                4
55-64 years                                                5
65-74 years                                                6
75 or more                                                 7

13      What is your nationality?
Circle one only.
Zambian                                                    1
American (USA)                                             2
Australian                                                 3
British                                                    4
Canadian                                                   5
Chinese                                                    6
Danish                                                     7
Dutch                                                      8
French                                                     9
German                                                     10
Indian                                                     11
Italian                                                    12
Japanese                                                   13
Kenyan                                                     14
New Zealander                                              15
South African                                              16
Swedish                                                    17
Tanzanian                                                  18
Zimbabwean                                                 19
                                                 26


Other
Please specify:


14      Are you currently a member of any conservation, wildlife or environmental
organisations?
Circle one only.
Yes                                                                                        1
No                                                                                         2

15      Which level best describes the highest level of education you have attained until
now?
Circle one only.
No formal education                                                                        1
Primary school (up to 11 years old)                                                        2
Lower Secondary school (up to 15 years old)                                                3
Upper Secondary school (up to 18 years old)                                                4
Professional qualification or diploma                                                      5
College degree                                                                             6
Higher degree (MSc or PhD)                                                                 7

16      What is your current work status?
Circle one only.
Self-employed                                                                              1
Employed full-time (30 hours plus per week)                                                2
Employed part-time (under 30 hours per week)                                               3
Student                                                                                    4
Unemployed                                                                                 5
Looking after the home full-time / housewife/husband                                       6
Retired                                                                                    7
Do not work: private means                                                                 8
Unable to work due to sickness or disability                                               9
Unpaid voluntary work                                                                     10
Other work status
Please specify:

17        What is your yearly gross (personal) income?
(If the interviewee is reluctant stress that the survey is anonymous and the information will be kept
strictly confidential)
Use the income card with the relevant currency


Record currency                                    Record income
           27


17.1        17.2

Currency
                                            28

Dollar               =1          Rand              =4
Euro                 =2          Kwacha            =5
Pound                =3


18      Do you have any children (including independent children)?
Circle one only.
Yes                                                                             1
No                                                                              2

19     How many people are in your travel party, including yourself?
Record response.

                                                            IF ANSWER IS 1 GO TO
Number of people
                                                                 QUESTION 22
20      Record the people the tourist is travelling with.
Circle one only.
Family                                                                          1
Friends                                                                         2
Family and friends                                                              3
Work colleagues                                                                 4
Other people
Please specify:

21     What are the sex and the age of these members?
Record the number of people.
                                           Male                        Female
Up to 5 years                  21.1                         21.2

6 to 15 years                  21.3                         21.4

16 to 60 years                 21.5                         21.6

60 to 75 years                 21.7                         21.8

Over 75 years                  21.9                         21.10
22      What is your country of residence?
Circle one only.
Zambia                                                      1
USA                                                         2
Australia                                                   3
UK                                                          4
Canada                                                      5
China                                                       6
Denmark                                                     7
France                                                      8
Germany                                                     9
Holland                                                     10
India                                                       11
Italy                                                       12
Japan                                                       13
Kenya                                                       14
New Zealand                                                 15
South Africa                                                16
Sweden                                                      17
Tanzania                                                    18
Zimbabwe                                                    19
Other country of residence
Please specify:




            IF ANSWER IS NOT ZAMBIA, THEN GO TO SECTION C




29
                               FOR RESIDENTS ONLY
                  B. GENERAL RESIDENT TRIP INFORMATION

23       Which countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have you ever visited?
Circle the response, only one per row.
                                                               Visited      Not visited
23.1   Botswana                                                  1               2
23.2   Kenya                                                      1              2
23.3   Malawi                                                     1              2
23.4   Namibia                                                    1              2
23.5   South Africa                                               1              2
23.6   Tanzania                                                   1              2
23.7   Uganda                                                     1              2
23.8   Zimbabwe                                                   1              2
23.9   Other country visited
                                    Please specify:

24     From which province and city did you start this trip to the parks?
Record responses. Exclude transit provinces and cities.

24.1   Province

24.2   City / Town


Province                        City
Central           =1            Chipata          =1          Lusaka              = 11
Copperbelt        =2            Chirundu         =2          Ndola               = 12
Eastern           =3            Choma            =3          Mansa               = 13
Luapula           =4            Isoka            =4          Mazabuka            = 14
Lusaka            =5            Kabwe            =5          Mkushi              = 15
Northern          =6            Kafue            =6          Mongu               = 16
North-western     =7            Kapiri Mposhi    =7          Mpika               = 17
Southern          =8            Kasama           =8          Mpulungu            = 18
Western           =9            Kitwe            =9          Siavonga            = 19
                                Livingstone      = 10        Solwezi             = 20
                                                             Other city: please specify



                                GO TO SECTION E




30
                     FOR NON RESIDENTS / FOREIGNERS ONLY
                C. GENERAL INTERNATIONAL TRIP INFORMATION

25      How many times in total have you visited Zambia (including this trip) in the last
ten years?
Circle one only.
1 (it is my first time)                                                            1
2                                                                                  2
3-5                                                                                3
6-10                                                                               4
Over 10                                                                            5

26       Which countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have you ever visited?
Circle the response, only once per row.
                                                                Visited         Not visited
26.1      Angola                                                  1                    2
26.2      Botswana                                                1                    2
26.3      Kenya                                                   1                    2
26.4      Malawi                                                  1                    2
26.5      Mozambique                                              1                    2
26.6      Namibia                                                 1                    2
26.7      South Africa                                            1                    2
26.8      Tanzania                                                1                    2
26.9      Uganda                                                  1                    2
26.10     Zimbabwe                                                1                    2
26.11 Other country visited
Please specify:

27        How many days in total are you spending in Zambia during this trip?

Record number of days spent.




31
28       What is the main reason you came to visit Zambia?
Circle the main one only.
I came for business reasons                                                            1
I came for a conference                                                                2
I wanted to visit Victoria Falls                                                       3
I am on a hunting trip                                                                 4
I came for an adventure trip (rafting, boating, bungi jumping)                         5
I came for a cultural trip (heritage sites, villages)                                  6
I came for viewing and photographing wildlife                                          7
I wanted to visit friends or family                                                    8
It was included in my packaged tour                                                    9
It is close to where I live                                                            10
It was recommended by friends/ relatives/ book                                         11
I had a really good experience during my previous trip                                 12
Other reason
Please specify:

29      From which country, province and city did you come into Zambia? This refers
to the country, province and city you were before coming into Zambia.
Exclude transit countries, provinces and cities

29.1     Record country

29.2     Record province

29.3     Record city

Country:

Angola               =1            India                = 10     Sweden             = 19
Australia            =2            Italy                = 11     Tanzania           = 20
Botswana             =3            Japan                = 12     Uganda             = 21
Canada               =4            Kenya                = 13     UK                 = 22
China                =5            Malawi               = 14     USA                = 23
Denmark              =6            Mozambique           = 15     Zimbabwe           = 24
France               =7            Namibia              = 16     Other country: Please specify
Germany              =8            New Zealand          = 17
Holland              =9            South Africa         = 18




32
30      What is the principal mode of transport that you used to come into Zambia from
this previous destination?
Circle one only.
Aeroplane                                                                       1
Car                                                                             2
Coach                                                                           3
Taxi                                                                            4
Other mode of transport
Please specify:


                 IF THE RESPONSE IS NOT 1 GO TO QUESTION 32
31         Which Airline did you fly with?


Record the airline


Airlines

Air Malawi                =1     Ethiopian Airways    =5   Nationwide Airlines     =9
Air Zimbabwe              =2     Inter Air            =6   Regional Air            = 10
British Airways           =3     Kenya Airways        =7   South African Airways = 11
Comair                    =4     KLM                  =8   Other airline: Please specify


32      What was your entry point into Zambia?
Circle one only.
Lusaka Airport                                                                  1
Livingstone Airport                                                             2
Mfuwe Airport                                                                   3
Ndola Airport                                                                   4
Chirundu border                                                                 5
Nakonde                                                                         6
Mwami                                                                           7
Kasumbalesa                                                                     8
Kariba / Siavonga                                                               9
Kazungula                                                                      10
Katimamulilo                                                                   11
Other entry point
Please specify:

33      Is this visit to Zambia part of a packaged tour?
Circle one only:
               Yes                            1
                No                            2               GO TO SECTION E



33
                    FOR NON RESIDENTS / FOREIGNERS ONLY
             D. INTERNATIONAL PACKAGED TOUR INFORMATION

34       From whom did you purchase your tour?

34.1     Record name

34.2    Record the name of
the tour (if any)

35     Approximately what is the price of your packaged tour?
Record the price per person and for the group with currency.
        Price per person                 Price for the group                        Currency
35.1                              35.2                                35.3



Currency:

Dollar             =1      Rand             =4         Yen               =6
Euro               =2      Kwacha           =5         Other currency: Please specify:
Pound              =3
36       Which of these other items are included in the price of your tour?
Circle the response, only one per row
                                                                                If not     Currency
                                                                              included
                                                                  Not
                                              Included                         amount
                                                               Included
                                                                              spent on
                                                                             round trip
36.1   International air fares (from                                         36.2          36.3
home to origin city of tour and                  1                2
back)
36.4     Transfers                               1                2
36.5     Inland transportation                   1                2
36.6     Accommodation                           1                2
36.7     Breakfast                               1                2
36.8     Lunch                                   1                2
36.9     Dinner                                  1                2
36.10    Drinks                                  1                2
36.11    Parks entry fees                        1                2

37      Does your packaged tour include ONLY Zambia
Circle one only.
              Yes                                1

              No                                 2                        GO TO QUESTION 39

38       How long did it take you to travel to Zambia from your home?

Record the time spent in hours.


34
                                  GO TO QUESTION 45
39     Was international airfare/travel cost between countries within the package
included in the package tour price?

            Yes                             1                   GO TO QUESTION 41
             No                             2

40     How much did you spend in total on international airfare/travel cost between
countries in the package tour?
Record the amount                               Record the currency
40.1                                            40.2

Currency:

Dollar            =1                              Kwacha              =5
Euro              =2                              Yen                 =6
Pound             =3                              Other currency: Please specify
Rand              =4
41      Is Zambia your first destination?
Circle one only.
            Yes                             1
             No                             2                   GO TO QUESTION 43
42      How long did it take you to travel to Zambia from your home?

Record the time spent in hours.


                                  GO TO QUESTION 45
43      From which country, province and city did you start your tour?

43.1    Record country

43.2    Record province

43.3    Record city


Country:

Australia           =1       India              =9          Sweden             = 17
Botswana            =2       Italy              = 10        Tanzania           = 18
Canada              =3       Japan              = 11        Uganda             = 19
China               =4       Kenya              = 12        UK                 = 20
Denmark             =5       Malawi             = 13        USA                = 21
France              =6       Namibia            = 14        Zimbabwe           = 22
Germany             =7       New Zealand        = 15        Other country: Please specify
Holland             =8       South Africa       = 16
44     Which countries are also included? Which are the specific tourism sites in
these countries that are included in your packaged tour?
Record responses in order of visit.




35
                                   Time spent to go
                                   to this country
                 Mode of
Country                            from the         Sites visited / to be visited
                 transportation
                                   previous country
                                   in hours
44.1             44.2              44.3                 44.4
First
country
from home
44.5             44.6              44.7                 44.8



44.9             44.10             44.11                44.12



44.13            44.14             44.15                44.16



44.17            44.18             44.19                44.20
Back to
your home
country

  Country                                                           Mode of transport

  Botswana               =1         Tanzania           =6           Plane             =1
  Kenya                  =2         Uganda             =7           Car               =2
  Malawi                 =3         Zambia             =8           Coach             =3
  Namibia                =4         Zimbabwe           =9           Taxi              =4
  South Africa           =5         Other country: Please specify   Other mode of transportation:
                                                                    Please specify:
  45        How many days does your packaged tour last?

  Record total number of days( including days in other countries)



        The following questions are now only related to the Zambian part of
                                     your trip.




  36
          46      Could you please describe your packaged tour, in order of visit?
          Record in the order of visit; inscribe 1 for the price of the features included in the packaged tour

                         Travel to the site                                First visit     Accommodation                          Additional expenses per person
                                                             Number            =1
                                                                                                                 Price                              Price
        Origin                 Time       Price of            of days      Second                                                List any special
Site                                                                                                             Food




                                                      Cur.




                                                                                                                          Cur.




                                                                                                                                                               Cur.




                                                                                                                                                                                 Cur.
                  Mode of                                    spent on     visit = 2 in                                                                of              Shopping
        ated                  spent in    transpo                                        Type       Name         and              activities you
                 transport                                      site     the last ten                                                               activit            amount
        from                   hours         rt                                                                  drink                  did
                                                                             years                                                                   ies

46.1    46.2     46.3         46.4        46.5       46.6    46.7       46.8             46.9    46.10           46.11   46.12   46.13              46.14     46.15   46.16      46.17




46.18   46.19    46.20        46.21       46.22      46.23   46.24      46.25            46.26   46.27           46.28   46.29   46.30              46.31     46.32   46.33      46.34




46.35   46.36    46.37        46.38       46.39      46.40   46.41      46.42            46.43   46.44           46.45   46.46   46.47              46.48     46.49   46.50      46.51




46.52   46.53    46.54        46.55       46.56      46.57   46.58      46.59            46.60   46.61           46.62   46.63   46.64              46.65     46.66   46.67      46.68




                                                                                 GO TO SECTION F



          37
Site visited                        Originated From                        Mode of transport                       Cur. = Currency

Livingstone Victoria Falls /        Mosi Oa Tunya         =1               Plane             =1                    Dollar            =1
Mosi Oa Tunya                  =1   South Luangwa         =2               Car               =2                    Euro              =2
South Luangwa                  =2   Lower Zambezi /Lake Kariba= 3          Coach             =3                    Pound             =3
Lower Zambezi /Lake Kariba     =3   Kafue                 =4               Taxi              =4                    Rand              =4
Kafue                          =4   North Luangwa         =5               Other mode of transport:                Kwacha            =5
North Luangwa                  =5   Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika= 6            Please specify                          Yen               =6
Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika       =6   Kasanka               =7                                                       Other currency: Please specify
Kasanka                        =7   Lusaka                =8               Type of accommodation
Other site: Please specify          Mfuwe                 =9
                                    Ndola                 = 10             Camp site         =1
                                    Chirundu              = 11             Tented chalet     =2
                                    Nakonde               = 12             Built chalet      =3
                                    Mwami                 = 13             Rondervel         =4
                                    Kasumbalesa           = 14             Hotel room        =5
                                    Kazungula             = 15             Friends & Family = 6
                                    Katimamulilo          = 16             Other type of accommodation:
                                    Other: Please specify                  Please specify

Activities

Walking safari            =1                City / Village / Market tour       =8                     Canoeing /
Traditional safari        =2                Golf                               =9                     Kayaking / Rafting       = 14
Elephant back safari      =3                Jet boats                          = 10                   Quad-biking              = 15
Horse / Elephant riding   =4                Helicopter flight                  = 11                   Wind-surfing /
River cruise              =5                Light aircraft flight                                     Paragliding / waterskiing      = 16
Fishing                   =6                (Vintage biplane)                  = 12                   Bungee jumping /
Museum / Aquarium                           Micro-lights flight /                                     Gorge swinging           = 17
/ Crocodile farm tour     =7                Ultra-lights flight                = 13                   Tandem parachuting       = 18
                                                                                                      Other activity: Please specify




38
        E. NON INTERNATIONAL PACKAGED TOUR INFORMATION
IF THE TOURIST IS A ZAMBIAN RESIDENT THEN SKIP TO QUESTION 54
47      Will you visit ONLY Zambia during your trip?
Circle one only.
            Yes                                1
             No                                2                 GO TO QUESTION 50
48      How long did it take you to travel to Zambia from your home?

Record the time in hours.

49    How much did you pay per person and for the whole group for travelling into
Zambia?
Record the price per person       Record the price for the group Record the currency
49.1                              49.2                          49.3

Currency
Dollar             =1              Rand               =4            Other currency: Please
Euro               =2              Kwacha             =5            specify:
Pound              =3              Yen                =6
                                   GO TO QUESTION 54
50      Is Zambia your first destination?
Circle one only.
            Yes                                1

             No                                2                GO TO QUESTION 51

50.a) How long did it take you to travel to Zambia from your home?
Record the time spent in hours.

                                   GO TO QUESTION 53
51      From which country, province and city did you start your tour?

51.1    Record country

51.2    Record province

51.3    Record city

Country:
Australia          =1              India              =9            Sweden             = 17
Botswana           =2              Italy              = 10          Tanzania           = 18
Canada             =3              Japan              = 11          Uganda             = 19
China              =4              Kenya              = 12          UK                 = 20
Denmark            =5              Malawi             = 13          USA                = 21
France             =6              Namibia            = 14          Zimbabwe           = 22
Germany            =7              New Zealand        = 15          Other country: Please specify
Holland            =8              South Africa       = 16




39
        52     Could you then provide me more details on your multicountry trip?
        Record the responses in order of visit
         Country        Mode of transport-    Time spent to     Cost of the           Cur.     sites visited / to
                             ation              go to this     transportatio                       be visited
                                              country from      n from your
                                              your previous       previous
                                                country in        country
                                                  hours
52.1                  52.2                   52.3             52.4             52.5          52.6
First country
from home
52.7                  52.8                   52.9             52.10            52.11         52.12




52.13                 52.14                  52.15            52.16            52.17         52.18




52.19                 52.20                  52.21            52.22            52.23         52.24




52.25                 52.26                  52.27            52.28            52.29
Back to your
home country
52.30                                        52.31            52.32            52.33
Total time and
cost

        Country                          Mode of transport                     Currency

        Botswana          =1             Plane              =1                 Dollar                =1
        Kenya             =2             Car                =2                 Euro                  =2
        Malawi            =3             Coach              =3                 Pound                 =3
        Namibia           =4             Taxi               =4                 Rand                  =4
        South Africa      =5             Other mode of transportation:         Kwacha                =5
        Tanzania          =6             Please specify:                       Yen                   =6
        Uganda            =7                                                   Other currency:
        Zambia            =8                                                   Please specify:
        Zimbabwe          =9
        Other country:
         Please specify
        53      How long in total will your multicountry trip last?

        Record number of days




        40
54       Which of these sites in Zambia have you visited during this trip?
Circle the response on the table below, only one per row.
55     Do you know what the entry price to the sites you visited is?
Record the response on the table below.

Response:

I don’t remember / I don’t know = 1
I am not sure, it is …          =2
Of course, I know it is…        =3


56     If yes could you give use the amount you paid
Record the amount paid if given on the table below.

Currency:

Dollar               =1                            Rand               =4
Euro                 =2                            Kwacha             =5
Pound                =3                            Yen                =6
                                                   Other currency: Please specify
57     How many times have you visited each of these sites before this trip in the last
ten years (exclude this visit)?
Record the number of time for each of the sites on the table below.
                                                                                  Question
                              Question 54                         Question 56
                                                    Response                        57
                                        Not           to 55                       Number
                            Visited                             Amount     Cur.
                                      visited                                     of time
54.1     Livingstone /                              55.1       56.1        56.2   57.1
         Victoria Falls /      1        2
         Mosi Oa Tunya
                                                    55.2       56.3        56.4   57.2
54.2     South Luangwa         1        2

54.3     Lower Zambezi /                            55.3       56.5        56.6   57.3
                               1        2
         Lake Kariba
                                                    55.4       56.7        56.8   57.4
54.4     Kafue                 1        2

                                                    55.5       56.9        56.10 57.5
54.5     North Luangwa         1        2

54.6     Nsumbu / Lake                              55.6       56.11       56.12 57.6
                               1        2
         Tanganyika
                                                    55.7       56.13       56.14 57.7
54.7     Kasanka               1        2

Other site visited                                  55.8       56.15       56.16 57.8
Please specify:




58       Did you buy an organized tour for visiting sites in Zambia?
             Yes                                1

41
             No                                  2                      GO TO QUESTION 61


59      Approximately what is the price of your organised tour (to all the sites) and
what sites are covered?
Price per person             Price for group                Currency               Sites covered
59.1                  59.2                           59.3                    59.4




Currency                             Sites
Dollar             =1                                                    North Luangwa             =5
                                     Livingstone Victoria Falls /
Euro               =2                                                    Nsumbu /
                                     Mosi Oa Tunya             =1
Pound              =3                                                    Lake Tanganyika           =6
                                     South Luangwa             =2
Rand               =4                                                    Kasanka                   =7
                                     Lower Zambezi
Kwacha             =5                                                    Other site visited:
                                     /Lake Kariba              =3
Yen                =6                                                    Please specify
                                     Kafue                     =4
Other currency:
Please specify



60      What was included in your organized tour?


Circle the response


                                                                              Not
                                                             Included
                                                                           Included
             Travel to site                                     1              2
             Accommodation                                      1              2
             Breakfast                                          1              2
             Lunch                                              1              2
             Dinner                                             1              2
             Drinks                                             1              2
             Parks entry fees                                   1              2
             Activities                                         1              2




42
        61     Please provide details on your trip.
        Record in the order of visit. Inscribe 1 for the price of the features included in the local packaged tour

                 Travel to the site within Zambia                                 Accommodation                                           Expenses per person
                                                            Number                                  Price            Price of
                   Mode                                      of days                                                                      List any       Price            Shop-
Site    Origin               Time      Price of                                                       of              Food




                                                     Cur.




                                                                                                             Cur.




                                                                                                                                 Cur.




                                                                                                                                                                   Cur.




                                                                                                                                                                                  Cur.
                     of                                     spent on                                                                       special         of              ping
        ated                spent in   transpo                         Type           Name         accom               and
                   trans                                       site                                                                     activities you   activi           Amou
        from                 hours        rt                                                       modat              drink
                    port                                                                                                                      did         ties              nt
                                                                                                     ion
61.1    61.2       61.3     61.4       61.5         61.6    61.7       61.8    61.9                61.10     61.11 61.12        61.13   61.14            61.15    61.16   61.17   61.18   n




61.19   61.20      61.21    61.22      61.23        61.24   61.25      61.26   61.27               61.28     61.29 61.30        61.31   61.32            61.33    61.34   61.35   61.36




61.37   61.38      61.39    61.40      61.41        61.42   61.43      61.44   61.45               61.46     61.47 61.48        61.49   61.50            61.51    61.52   61.53   61.54




61.55   61.56      61.57    61.58      61.59        61.60   61.61      61.62   61.63               61.64     61.65 61.66        61.67   61.68            61.69    61.70   61.71   61.72




        43
Site visited                   Originated From                            Mode of transport                       Cur. = Currency

Livingstone Victoria Falls /   Mosi Oa Tunya         =1                   Plane             =1                    Dollar             =1
Mosi Oa Tunya             =1   South Luangwa         =2                   Car               =2                    Euro               =2
South Luangwa             =2   Lower Zambezi /Lake Kariba= 3              Coach             =3                    Pound              =3
Lower Zambezi                  Kafue                 =4                   Taxi              =4                    Rand               =4
/Lake Kariba              =3   North Luangwa         =5                   Other mode of transport:                Kwacha             =5
Kafue                     =4   Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika= 6                Please specify                          Yen                =6
North Luangwa             =5   Kasanka               =7                                                           Other currency: Please specify
Nsumbu /                       Lusaka                =8                   Type of accommodation
Lake Tanganyika           =6   Mfuwe                 =9
Kasanka                   =7   Ndola                 = 10                 Camp site         =1
Other site visited:            Chirundu              = 11                 Tented chalet     =2
Please specify                 Nakonde               = 12                 Built chalet      =3
                               Mwami                 = 13                 Rondervel         =4
                               Kasumbalesa           = 14                 Hotel room        =5
                               Kazungula             = 15                 Friends & Family = 6
                               Katimamulilo          = 16                 Other type of accommodation:
                               Other: Please specify                      Please specify

Activities

Walking safari            =1               City / Village / Market tour       =8                     Canoeing /
Traditional safari        =2               Golf                               =9                     Kayaking / Rafting       = 14
Elephant back safari      =3               Jet boats                          = 10                   Quad-biking              = 15
Horse / Elephant riding   =4               Helicopter flight                  = 11                   Wind-surfing /
River cruise              =5               Light aircraft flight                                     Paragliding / waterskiing       = 16
Fishing                   =6               (Vintage biplane)                  = 12                   Bungee jumping /
Museum / Aquarium                          Micro-lights flight /                                     Gorge swinging           = 17
/ Crocodile farm tour     =7               Ultra-lights flight                = 13                   Tandem parachuting       = 18
                                                                                                     Other                    = 19
                                                                                                     Please specify:




44
                 F. PERCEPTIONS ABOUT NATIONAL PARKS

62       There are many reasons why conservation of wildlife and natural landscapes in
national parks might be regarded as important for society. Please choose the one you
feel is most important to you personally.
Circle one only.
People who visit benefit directly (recreation, enjoyment, education,
                                                                             1
etc)
People who do not visit can benefit indirectly (documentaries, books
                                                                             2
etc)
It ensures that we all have the option of visiting in the future             3
It is important for the sake of the animal and plant life, regardless of
                                                                             4
its current or future use
It is important for the local population (part of their culture and
                                                                             5
identity)
It is important for future generations                                       6
It contributes to the country economy through local livelihoods,
                                                                             7
employment, tourism, business, etc
Other reason:
Please specify:
63    Approximately how many wildlife parks have you visited in the last 5 years,
anywhere in the world and in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Record number of parks in Sub-Saharan Africa

Record number of parks anywhere in the world

64      Approximately how many natural sites of outstanding beauty, excluding wildlife
parks, have you visited in the last 5 years, anywhere in the world?

Record number of sites




45
65      I am now going to read out a number of features of a visit to Zambian natural
sites.
Please rank them using a scale that ranges from 1 = ‘very bad’ to 5 = ‘very good’, to
classify the quality of each of these features, according to the experience you had.
        1                 2                    3               4                  5

                                                                      
Insert answer code from the scale.
Record Site code           1         2             3    4          5        6         7

Wildlife: abundance of
species
Wildlife: diversity of
species
Landscape quality

Congestion: number
of people on site
Cleanliness (lack of
litter on site)
Information on site

Organised excursions

Accommodation

Food/drink

Facilities for children

Diversity of activities

Friendliness of staff

Shopping
opportunities
Personal safety

Value for money

Transport experience
to/from park
Overall experience


Site visited

Livingstone Victoria Falls /Mosi Oa Tunya= 1           North Luangwa                    =5
South Luangwa                           =2             Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika         =6
Lower Zambezi /Lake Kariba              =3             Kasanka                          =7
Kafue                                   =4             Other site visited: please specify




46
66        What features would you like to see improved or introduced?
Record site
            Record improvement or introduction
visited
      1

      2

      3

      4

      5

      6

      7

Site visited
Livingstone Victoria Falls /                          North Luangwa                    =5
Mosi Oa Tunya                    =1                   Nsumbu / Lake Tanganyika         =6
South Luangwa                    =2                   Kasanka                          =7
Lower Zambezi /Lake Kariba       =3                   Other site visited: please specify
Kafue                            =4
67        Do you plan to visit Zambian natural sites again in the future?
Circle one only.
Yes                                                                                1
No                                                                                 2

68      If the park(s) you visited had been closed to tourism this year and you had
known this in advance, what would you have done instead?
Circle one only:
Visit other natural sites in Zambia
                                                                                   1
68.1 Please specify:
Visit other places (not natural sites) in Zambia
                                                                                   2
68.2 Please specify:
Visit other natural sites in other countries
                                                                                   3
68.3 Please specify:
Visit other places (not natural sites) in other countries
                                                                                   4
68.4 Please specify:
Stay at home                                                                       5




47
                                G. VALUATION SECTION


  IF THE TOURIST HAS EVER VISITED LIVINGSTONE, THEN PROCEED
     IF NOT SKIP TO THE SOUTH LUANGWA NATIONAL PARK SUB
                            SECTION

                             LIVINGSTONE SUB SECTION
Identify and circle entry fee paid by
Entry fee/person/day                    Citizens        Residents       Non-residents
Victoria Falls and Mosi Oa Tunya        K 40,140         K 50,220          US$ 15


While staying in Livingstone, you can see the Victoria Falls, watch wildlife in Mosi Oa
Tunya, and cruise at sunset on the Zambezi River. The current price charged to access
this site is (see table). I am going to ask you several questions related to how much
this experience is worth to you.
First imagine the following situation. While you were planning your trip to Livingstone
you learned that the entry fee had increased. What is the maximum fee you personally
would be prepared to pay to visit Livingstone (Show the payment card)? This is the
amount above which you would choose not to visit this park at all.
69     Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are
unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things. Please also
assume you would not change the duration of your visit.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency

Dollar              =1
Euro                =2
Pound               =3
Rand                =4
Kwacha              =5
Other currency
Please specify:

IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE CURRENT FEE: GO TO
                         QUESTION 71
70      What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more than the
current fee to visit Livingstone?




48
71       Now imagine another situation. There have been proposals to improve the
quality of the visit to Livingstone for tourists and raise more revenue for natural
resources management. These include:
i/ increasing the abundance of animals in Mosi oa Tunya National Park; The visitors
will be then sure to see elephants, zebras, giraffes, antelopes and monkeys during
each visit they make. The number of big cats will also be increased, so that people can
expect to see at least one of them during a week stay.
ii/ Enhancing the beauty of Victoria Falls and Zambezi River. The path to the Victoria
Falls will be better paved and rest places will be built. The government will also limit
the use of water for electricity production purposes. The falls will then look more like
that (Show the picture) than what you can currently see.
What is the maximum fee you personally would be prepared to pay to visit Livingstone
in this case? (Show payment card). Please assume you would not change the duration
of your visit. Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are
unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency

Dollar            =1
Euro              =2
Pound             =3
Rand              =4
Kwacha            =5
Other currency
Please specify:


IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE PREVIOUS MAXIMUM
        WILLINGNESS TO PAY, GO TO NEXT PARK VISITED
72     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more to visit
Livingstone if the changes described had been implemented?




49
              SOUTH LUANGWA NATIONAL PARK SUB SECTION

   IF THE TOURIST HAS EVER VISITED SOUTH LUANGWA NATIONAL
                      PARK, THEN PROCEED
IF NOT SKIP TO THE LOWER ZAMBEZI NATIONAL PARK SUB SECTION

Identify and circle entry fee paid by
Entry fee/person/day                    Citizens        Residents       Non-residents
South Luangwa National Park             K 25,020         K 31,320          US$ 20


The South Luangwa National Park is acknowledged as one of the greatest wildlife
sanctuaries. The concentration of game there is among the most intense in Africa.
Whilst staying in South Luangwa National Park, you can experience a walking safari,
that allows you to get as close as possible to elephants, hippos or even lions. The
current price charged to access this site is (see table). I am going to ask you several
questions related to how much this experience is worth to you.
First imagine the following situation. While you were planning your trip to South
Luangwa National Park you learned that the entry fee had increased. What would be
the maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit South Luangwa National
Park (Show the payment card)? This is the amount above which you would choose not
to visit this park at all.
73     Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are
unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things. Please also
assume you would not change the duration of your visit.


Record the fee                               Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.1.c Please specify:

IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE CURRENT FEE: GO TO
                         QUESTION 75
74      What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more than the
current fee to visit South Luangwa National Park?




50
75      Now imagine another situation. There have been proposals to improve the
quality of the visit to South Luangwa National Park for tourists and raise more revenue
for natural resources management. These include:
Increasing the abundance of animals in South Luangwa National Park. The visitors will
be then sure to see elephants, zebras, giraffes, antelopes and monkeys during each
visit they make. The number of big cats will also be increased, so that people can
expect to see at least one of them during a week stay.
What would be the maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit South
Luangwa National Park in this case? (Show payment card). Please assume you would
not change the duration of your visit. Please do not agree to pay an amount that you
cannot afford, that you are unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other
things.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.3.c Please specify:


IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE PREVIOUS MAXIMUM
        WILLINGNESS TO PAY, GO TO NEXT PARK VISITED

76     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more to visit
South Luangwa National Park if the changes described had been implemented?




51
               LOWER ZAMBEZI NATIONAL PARK SUB SECTION

     IF THE TOURIST HAS EVER VISITED LOWER ZAMBEZI NATIONAL
                         PARK, THEN PROCEED
        IF NOT SKIP TO THE KAFUE NATIONAL PARK SUB SECTION

Identify and circle entry fee paid by
Entry fee/person/day                     Citizens        Residents      Non-residents
Lower Zambezi National Park             K 25,020 K       K 31,320          US$ 20


The Lower Zambezi National Park is one of the most spectacular park in Africa where
you can get close to game that wanders around. You can see enormous herds of
elephants, lions and leopards amongst a profusion of birdlife. The current price
charged to access this site is (see table). I am now going to ask you several questions
related to how much this experience is worth to you.
First imagine the following situation. While you were planning your trip to Lower
Zambezi National Park you learned that the entry fee had increased. What would be the
maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit Lower Zambezi National Park
(Show the payment card)? This is the amount above which you would choose not to
visit this park at all.
Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are unsure
about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things. Please also assume you
would not change the duration of your visit.
77     Please assume you would not change the duration of your visit. Please do not
agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are unsure about, or that you
feel would be better spent in other things.

Record the fee                                Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.1.c Please specify:


IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE CURRENT FEE: GO TO
                         QUESTION 79
78      What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more than the
current fee to visit Lower Zambezi National Park?




52
79       Now imagine another situation. There have been proposals to improve the
quality of the visit to Lower Zambezi National Park for tourists and raise more revenue
for natural resources management. These include:
i) Road improvement (show the pictures) and increase in the number of lodges.
ii) Increasing the abundance of animals in Lower Zambezi National Park; The visitors
will be then sure to see elephants, zebras, giraffes, antelopes and monkeys during
each visit they make. The number of big cats will also be increased, so that people can
expect to see at least one of them during a week stay.

What would be the maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit Lower
Zambezi National Park in this case? (Show payment card). Please assume you would
not change the duration of your visit. Please do not agree to pay an amount that you
cannot afford, that you are unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other
things.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.3.c Please specify:

IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE PREVIOUS MAXIMUM
        WILLINGNESS TO PAY, GO TO NEXT PARK VISITED

80     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more to visit
Lower Zambezi National Park if the changes described had been implemented?




53
                       KAFUE NATIONAL PARK SUB SECTION

  IF THE TOURIST HAS EVER VISITED KAFUE NATIONAL PARK, THEN
                            PROCEED
                   IF NOT SKIP TO QUESTION 90

Identify and circle entry fee paid by
Entry fee/person/day                    Citizens          Residents       Non-residents
Lower Zambezi National Park             K 20,160          K 25,200           US$ 15


The Kafue National Park is the second largest national park in the world, and about the
size of Wales. You have seen really rare antelopes like Sable and Roan, you did
probably photograph zebras, thousand of red Lechwes. The wealth of game on the
plains is also a big attraction for predators, leopards, cheetahs and up to 20 lions. The
current price charged to access this site is (see table). I am now going to ask you
several questions related to how much this experience is worth to you.
81      First imagine the following situation. While you were planning your trip to
Kafue National Park you learned that the entry fee had increased. What would be the
maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit Kafue National Park (Show
the payment card)? This is the amount above which you would choose not to visit this
park at all.
Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are unsure
about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things. Please also assume you
would not change the duration of your visit.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.1.c Please specify:

IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE CURRENT FEE: GO TO
                         QUESTION 83
82      What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more than the
current fee to visit Kafue National Park?




54
83      Now imagine another situation. There have been proposals to improve the
quality of the visit to Kafue National Park for tourists and raise more revenue for
natural resources management. These include:
i) Improve the accommodation supply with more bush camps
ii) Open new areas for tourist visit that will allow you see different landscapes and
more wildlife.
What would be the maximum fee you personally are prepared to pay to visit Kafue
National Park in this case? (Show payment card). Please assume you would not
change the duration of your visit. Please do not agree to pay an amount that you
cannot afford, that you are unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other
things.

Record the fee                               Currency




Currency
Dollar             =1
Euro               =2
Pound              =3
Rand               =4
Kwacha             =5
Other              =6
I.3.c Please specify:

IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS MORE THAN THE PREVIOUS MAXIMUM
           WILLINGNESS TO PAY, GO TO QUESTION 85

84     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay any more to visit
Kafue National Park if the changes described had been implemented?




55
                   FOR NON-RESIDENT/FOREIGNERS ONLY:
85       Finally, consider a third situation. In Zambia, tourists mainly visit three nature-
based sites Livingstone, South Luangwa, Lower Zambezi. Suppose that the
government is considering doubling the number of such tourism sites by also
equipping Kafue National Park, Kasanka and Lake Tanganyika. This will imply re-
stocking some of the wildlife that has been lost to poaching in these sites and
providing adequate tourist facilities.
The additional sites have some distinguishing features. Kafue will be the largest
wildlife area in Africa. Kasanka will provide tremendous bird watching opportunities
and Lake Tanganyika is the deepest lake in the world and harbour a huge crocodile
population, some of them are reaching more than 6 meters length. These sites will
provide different attractions and experiences not found in Livingstone, South
Luangwa, or Lower Zambezi.
If this project takes place, it would then increase the choice of natural destinations for
tourists in Zambia. While part of the expenses would be funded by international donor
organizations, it is most likely that funds would still have to be raised in the country.
One option would be to set a conservation tax for every tourist entering the country.
What is the maximum conservation tax you personally would be prepared to pay, per
person, on arrival in Zambia, in order to have the option of visiting these three
additional sites? (Show payment card) Please do not agree to pay an amount that you
cannot afford, that you are unsure about, or that you feel would be better spent in other
things.

Record the fee                                 Currency




Currency

Dollar            =1             Rand               =4            Yen                =6
Euro              =2             Kwacha             =5            Other currency:
Pound             =3                                              Please specify

         IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS NOT ZERO GO TO SECTION H
86     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay for the re-stocking
and re-opening of 3 additional national parks?




                                  GO TO SECTION H




56
                               FOR RESIDENT ONLY:
87       Finally, consider a third situation. In Zambia, tourists mainly visit three nature-
based sites Livingstone, South Luangwa, Lower Zambezi. Suppose that the
government is considering doubling the number of such tourism sites by also
equipping Kafue National Park, Kasanka and Lake Tanganyika. This will imply re-
stocking some of the wildlife that has been lost to poaching in these sites and
providing adequate tourist facilities.
The additional sites have some distinguishing features. Kafue will be the largest
wildlife area in Africa. Kasanka will provide tremendous bird watching opportunities
and Lake Tanganyika is the deepest lake in the world and harbour a huge crocodile
population, some of them are reaching more than 6 meters length. These sites will
provide different attractions and experiences not found in Livingstone, South
Luangwa, or Lower Zambezi.
If this project takes place, it would then increase the choice of natural destinations for
tourists in Zambia. While part of the expenses would be funded by international donor
organizations, it is most likely that funds would still have to be raised in the country.
One option would be to raise an additional tax to be added on the electricity bill (just
like the National Broadcasting tax).
What is the maximum conservation tax you personally would be prepared to pay in
order to have the option of visiting these three additional sites? (Show payment card)
Please do not agree to pay an amount that you cannot afford, that you are unsure
about, or that you feel would be better spent in other things.

Record the fee                                 Currency




Currency

Dollar            =1             Rand               =4            Yen                =6
Euro              =2             Kwacha             =5            Other currency:
Pound             =3                                              Please specify




57
           IF THE AMOUNT INDICATED IS NOT ZERO GO TO SECTION H
88     What are the main reasons why you are not willing to pay for the re-stocking and re-
opening of 3 additional national parks?
                              H. MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS
Finally, these are the last few questions.
89     What will you remember most vividly about your visit to Zambian natural sites? This might
be a good or a bad thing!




Record memory




90       Last of all, what did you think of this questionnaire?
Circle all that apply:
Interesting                                                                           1
Too long                                                                              2
Difficult to understand                                                               3
Educational                                                                           4
Unrealistic/ not credible                                                             5
Other opinion
Please specify
This is the end of the interview!
Thank you very much for your co-operation.




59
                             INTERVIEWER DECLARATION

(SIGN EACH QUESTIONNAIRE)


Date:


This interview was conducted face to face with a respondent who is unknown to me


Please print your name:


Signature:




60

				
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