Political Socialization by CLO4YG0

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									Political Socialization




                           Unit 3
                   AP Government
 Many people
      +
Many opinions
      =
     Many
  viewpoints
Political Ideology

    What we believe and why…
    Political Ideology Definitions
        A comprehensive, integrated set of views
         about government and politics
        A coherent set of ideas of on how people
         should live together
        A plan of action for applying these ideas
1. Our Ideology Comes from Our…
Political Culture

   Political Culture is the widely shared
    beliefs, values and norms concerning the
    relationship of citizens to government and
    to one another.
   Name some of the beliefs shared by
    most Americans….
Did you name these?
   Liberty
   Democracy
   Political Equality
   Individualism
   Justice and the Rule of Law
   Capitalism and Free Enterprise
   Nationalism, optimism, and idealism
       “The American Dream”
    2. Our Ideology Comes from our… Political
    Socialization

   Political Socialization:
       The process by which we are taught and develop our
        individual and collective political beliefs
       A lifelong process by which people form their ideas about
        politics and acquire political values. The family,
        educational system, peer groups, and the mass media all
        play a role. While family and school are important early in
        life, what our peers think and what we read in the
        newspaper and see on television have more influence on
        our political attitudes as adults.
   Name some factors that influence our Political
    Socialization…
Did you name these?
   Family***
   Peers
   Race and ethnic differences
   Religious differences
   Gender
   Social and economic differences (SES)
   Sectional/regional differences
   Education Level
   Age
     Can be linked to Historical events (e.g., Pearl
      Harbor, Vietnam, Watergate, September 11 and
      War on Terror)
   Media influences
Political ID Card
 Place yourself on the classic
  spectrum!
 Make an ID Card that represents
  YOU!
 You’ll need:

   1-3 3x5 index card

   Creativity!!
Family

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Family
   Our first political ideas are shaped within the family.
       Parents seldom “talk politics” with their young children
        directly, but casual remarks made around the dinner table
        or while helping with homework can have an impact.
   Family tradition is particularly a factor in party
    identification, as indicated by the phrases “lifelong
    Republican” and “lifelong Democrat.”
   The family may be losing its power as an agent of
    socialization, however, as institutions take over
    more of child care and parents perform less of it.
Compare the Child’s Party with
     the Parents’ Party
 Child's party    Parent       Parent       Parent
                 Democrat   Independent   Republican

   Democrat        66%         29%           13%


 Independent       27%         53%           36%



  Republican       7%          17%           51%
Peers

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Peers
   Although peer pressure certainly affects
    teenagers' lifestyles, it is less evident in
    developing their political values.
       Exceptions are issues that directly affect them,
        such as the Vietnam War during the 1960s.
   Later, if peers are defined in terms of
    occupation, then the group does exert an
    influence on how its members think
    politically.
       For example, professionals such as teachers or
        bankers often have similar political opinions,
        particularly on matters related to their careers.
School

 What do we mean???
 How important??
School
   Children are introduced to elections and voting when
    they choose class officers, and the more
    sophisticated elections in high school and college
    teach the rudiments of campaigning.
       Political facts are learned through courses in American
        history and government, and schools, at their best,
        encourage students to critically examine government
        institutions.
       Schools themselves are involved in politics; issues such as
        curriculum reform, funding, and government support for
        private schools often spark a debate that involves students,
        teachers, parents, and the larger community.
Race and Ethnic Differences

 What do we mean???
 How important??
    Race and Ethnic Differences
   Self-interest plays a significant role in attitudes on racial policies.
     Racial and ethnic minorities tend to favor affirmative action
        programs, designed to equalize income, education,
        professional opportunity, and the receipt of government
        contracts.
     Because such policies make it easier for members of minority
        groups, such as African Americans and Hispanics, to get good jobs
        and become affluent, group members naturally support them at a
        high rate.
   Polls taken before and after the verdict in the O.J. Simpson criminal
    trial showed that an overwhelming majority of African Americans
    believed that the former football star was innocent, while whites felt
    he was guilty by a similar majority.
     These results reflect deep differences between the two groups in
        their perceptions of the judicial system and the role of the police in
        society.
Race and Ethnic Differences
   Supporters defend affirmative action as a way to
    eliminate ongoing racial discrimination, make up for
    historical discrimination, and/or increase diversity in
    businesses and institutions.
   Americans of European, Asian, or Middle Eastern
    descent, by contrast, are much more likely to see
    such programs as reverse discrimination that
    punishes them for their ethnic backgrounds.
       A similar pattern is seen in political party affiliation.
   Beginning with the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt,
    African Americans switched their allegiance from the
    Republicans, the “party of Lincoln,” to the Democrats
Religion

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Religion
   The concept of the separation of church and state does
    not prevent religion from acting as a force in American
    politics.
   Strongly held beliefs affect the stand individuals take on
    issues such as public school prayer and state aid to
    private or parochial schools.
   Religion can also determine attitudes on abortion and
    gay and lesbian rights, irrespective of other factors.
   It is important to recognize, however, that the major
    religious groups in the United States—Protestant,
    Catholic, and Jewish as well as the growing Islamic—
    have their own liberal and conservative wings that
    frequently oppose each other on political issues.
Gender

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Gender
   Gender gap, a term that refers to the varying political
    opinions men and women hold, is a recent addition to
    the American political lexicon.
       Unmarried women hold political views distinct from those of
        men and married women, views that lead them to support
        the Democratic party at a disproportionate rate.
       Studies indicate that more women than men approve of
        gun control, want stronger environmental laws, oppose
        the death penalty, and support spending on social
        programs.
       These “compassion” issues are usually identified with the
        Democratic party.
SES
 What do we mean???
 How important??
Social/Economic Differences (SES) and
Education Level
   Americans generally favor a limited
    government and emphasize the ability of
    everyone to succeed through hard work.
   Low-income Americans tend to endorse a
    stronger economic role for the federal
    government than do wealthier Americans,
    particularly by supporting programs such as
    welfare and increases in the minimum wage.
SES/Education Level
   Wealthier Americans are the ones who mostly
    pay for social programs, and they naturally
    want to hold down their tax burden.
       Nevertheless, even low-income Americans are
        less likely to consider redistribution of wealth a
        valid governmental task than are adults
        socialized in other industrialized countries
        (such as European nations).
   This belief in individual responsibility may
    overcome a worker's self-interest in endorsing
    large social programs.
Region

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Region
   The region of the country a person lives in can affect
    political attitudes.
       The Southern states tend to support a strong defense
        policy, a preference reinforced by the presence of many
        military installations in the region.
       The South's traditional conservatism was recognized in
        Richard Nixon's so-called Southern strategy, which began
        the process of strengthening the Republican party in the
        region.
       Moreover, issues that are vital in one particular region
        generate little interest in others—agricultural price supports
        in the Midwest or water rights and access to public
        lands in the West, for example.
       Questions about Social Security and Medicare have an
        added importance in the Sunbelt states with their high
        percentage of older adults.
Age
 What do we mean???
 How important??
Age
•Think of the different views between a 25 year
old father and a 70 year old grandfather!
   •Elderly tend to oppose increases in public
   school spending while supporting Social
   Security & Medicare increases.
   •Strong political lobby in the AARP
•While some younger people concerned that
Social Security won’t be around when they
retire, favor changes, public school financing,
etc. many are apathetic and disconnected
Events

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Events
•Events like Watergate, the Vietnam
War, Iran/Contra affair, Whitewater,
and assorted corruption within
Washington has led to a distrust of those
in Washington among some age groups.
Media

 What do we mean???
 How important??
Media Influences
•Much of our political information comes from the
mass media: newspapers, magazines, radio, and
television.
   •The amount of time the average American family
   watches TV makes it the dominant information
   source.
•TV not only helps shape public opinion by
providing news and analysis, but also its
entertainment programming addresses important
contemporary issues that are in the political arena,
such as drug use, abortion, and crime.
Much more to come in Unit 3!

								
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