AP Biology Study Guide for Ch. 5 (Biochemistry):
Now that you’ve studied Chapters 1 through 4, you should be able to understand Chapter 5, which is
SUPER IMPORTANT! It’s a lot of memorization (again!): you must KNOW (i.e. be able to recognize a
picture of and name OR be able to sketch if given the name) the structures of a hydrocarbon (methane,
ethane), all of the functional groups (review pp. 64-65), monosaccharides, disaccharides,
polysaccharides, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, phospholipids, steroids, amino acids, polypeptides,
proteins, nucleotides, and nucleic acids. In addition, you should know all the different functions of
The good news is that if you were paying attention in Biology I, this should all be review!
I. SCHEDULE 2012 for Chapter 5
Monday (9/10) Tues Wed Fri
*Finish Ch. 1-4 *Finish Ch. 1-4 *Test Ch. 1-4 *Lecture Ch. 5
*Packet DUE! *Assign FRQ (due
*Flashcards DUE! Wednesday, 9/19)
*Go over Ch. 5 Study Guide
*Assign Reading Guide, Key
Vocab Flashcards, and
*Lecture Ch. 5
Monday (9/17) Tues Wed Fri
*Lecture Ch. 5 *Lecture Ch. 5 *Lecture Ch. 5 *Test Ch. 5
*Review Activity *Review Activity *Packet due!
*Grade FRQs in class *Flashcards due!
*Download Ch. 6 &
ELT REVIEW THURS AM 7 Study Guide and
II. KEEP IN MIND
YOU GOTTA MAKE THOSE FLASHCARDS AND STUDY THEM!!!!
III. KEY VOCABULARY Chapter 5
disaccharide condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis)
fatty acid saturated fat
unsaturated fat phospholipid
amino acid peptide bond
polypeptide disulfide bond
primary structure alpha helix
secondary structure fibrous proteins
pleated sheet tertiary structure
quaternary structure denatured proteins
nucleic acids DNA
free energy (_G) First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics exergonic
Word Roots carb- 5 coal (carboxyl group: a functional group present in organic acids,
consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl
enanti- 5 opposite (enantiomer: molecules that are mirror images of each
hydro- 5 water (hydrocarbon: an organic molecule consisting only of carbon
iso- 5 equal (isomer: one of several organic compounds with the same
molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different
sulf- 5 sulfur (sulfhydryl group: a functional group that consists of a sulfur atom
bonded to an atom of hydrogen)
thio- 5 sulfur (thiol: organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups
con- 5 together (condensation reaction: a reaction in which two molecules
become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small
molecule, usually water)
di- 5 two (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together)
glyco- 5 sweet (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals)
hydro- 5 water; -lyse 5 break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water)
macro- 5 large (macromolecule: a large molecule)
meros- 5 part (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules)
mono- 5 single; -sacchar 5 sugar (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar)
poly- 5 many (polysaccharide: many monosaccharides joined together)
tri- 5 three (triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule)
IV. LEARNING TARGETS Chapter 5
5.1. Describe the structure of a typical monosaccharide such as glucose. Write out a condensation reaction
(dehydration synthesis) between the two given glucose molecules, and explain what is meant by hydrolysis.
5.2. Draw a diagram which shows the similarities and the differences between alpha and beta linkages in
carbohydrate molecules. Explain why the glucose molecules in starch can be used directly for food by
animals whereas those in cellulose cannot.
5.3. Draw a lipid molecule (triglyceride). Point out the carboxyl, or acid, group and the hydrocarbon chains.
Explain the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid. For butter and corn oil,
indicate whether each is considered a saturated or an unsaturated fat. Using a diagram, explain how three
fatty acids can react with glycerol to make a fat.
5.4. Draw a phosopholipid molecule, point out the polar and nonpolar portions of a phospholipid molecule.
Specify which end of the molecule would be soluble in water.
5.5. Draw an amino acid and label the carboxyl group, the amino group, and the R group that are attached to
the central carbon. Be able to tell whether the R group is charged or polar, and therefore hydrophilic, or
nonpolar and hydrophobic.
5.6. Diagram and describe a condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction between two amino acids and circle
the resulting peptide bond. Explain how a polypeptide chain is formed and how it is broken down by
5.7. Discuss the various levels of protein structure - primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Specify the
level(s) of structure shown by fibrous proteins, such as hair, and the levels shown by globular proteins.
Explain why proteins are so sensitive to changes in temperature and pH. Explain how hemoglobin’s
structure fits its function.
5.8. Diagram a simple stretch of DNA (see pg 296-297). Label an individual nucleotide and the five-carbon
sugar, the phosphate group, and the nitrogen-containing base of which it is made; a base from a nucleotide
on one chain bonded to a base on the opposite side; the sugar-phosphate backbones; and the hydrogen
bonds between bases.
5.9. List 3 examples of each of the four main classes of biologically important organic molecules
(carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and the building-block units of which they are composed.