AP Biology Study Guide for Ch. 5 (Biochemistry): September 2012 Now that you’ve studied Chapters 1 through 4, you should be able to understand Chapter 5, which is SUPER IMPORTANT! It’s a lot of memorization (again!): you must KNOW (i.e. be able to recognize a picture of and name OR be able to sketch if given the name) the structures of a hydrocarbon (methane, ethane), all of the functional groups (review pp. 64-65), monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, phospholipids, steroids, amino acids, polypeptides, proteins, nucleotides, and nucleic acids. In addition, you should know all the different functions of these molecules. The good news is that if you were paying attention in Biology I, this should all be review! I. SCHEDULE 2012 for Chapter 5 Monday (9/10) Tues Wed Fri *Finish Ch. 1-4 *Finish Ch. 1-4 *Test Ch. 1-4 *Lecture Ch. 5 *Packet DUE! *Assign FRQ (due *Flashcards DUE! Wednesday, 9/19) *Go over Ch. 5 Study Guide *Assign Reading Guide, Key Vocab Flashcards, and Learning Targets *Lecture Ch. 5 Monday (9/17) Tues Wed Fri *Lecture Ch. 5 *Lecture Ch. 5 *Lecture Ch. 5 *Test Ch. 5 *Review Activity *Review Activity *Packet due! *Grade FRQs in class *Flashcards due! *Download Ch. 6 & ELT REVIEW THURS AM 7 Study Guide and Reading Guides II. KEEP IN MIND YOU GOTTA MAKE THOSE FLASHCARDS AND STUDY THEM!!!! III. KEY VOCABULARY Chapter 5 hydrocarbon monosaccharide disaccharide condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) hydrolysis polysaccharide starch glycogen cellulose polymer fatty acid saturated fat unsaturated fat phospholipid amino acid peptide bond polypeptide disulfide bond primary structure alpha helix secondary structure fibrous proteins pleated sheet tertiary structure quaternary structure denatured proteins nucleic acids DNA adenine thymine guanine cytosine free energy (_G) First Law of Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics exergonic Endergonic RNA Word Roots carb- 5 coal (carboxyl group: a functional group present in organic acids, consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl group) enanti- 5 opposite (enantiomer: molecules that are mirror images of each other) hydro- 5 water (hydrocarbon: an organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen) iso- 5 equal (isomer: one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties) sulf- 5 sulfur (sulfhydryl group: a functional group that consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogen) thio- 5 sulfur (thiol: organic compounds containing sulfhydryl groups con- 5 together (condensation reaction: a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water) di- 5 two (disaccharide: two monosaccharides joined together) glyco- 5 sweet (glycogen: a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy in animals) hydro- 5 water; -lyse 5 break (hydrolysis: breaking chemical bonds by adding water) macro- 5 large (macromolecule: a large molecule) meros- 5 part (polymer: a chain made from smaller organic molecules) mono- 5 single; -sacchar 5 sugar (monosaccharide: simplest type of sugar) poly- 5 many (polysaccharide: many monosaccharides joined together) tri- 5 three (triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule) IV. LEARNING TARGETS Chapter 5 5.1. Describe the structure of a typical monosaccharide such as glucose. Write out a condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) between the two given glucose molecules, and explain what is meant by hydrolysis. 5.2. Draw a diagram which shows the similarities and the differences between alpha and beta linkages in carbohydrate molecules. Explain why the glucose molecules in starch can be used directly for food by animals whereas those in cellulose cannot. 5.3. Draw a lipid molecule (triglyceride). Point out the carboxyl, or acid, group and the hydrocarbon chains. Explain the difference between a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid. For butter and corn oil, indicate whether each is considered a saturated or an unsaturated fat. Using a diagram, explain how three fatty acids can react with glycerol to make a fat. 5.4. Draw a phosopholipid molecule, point out the polar and nonpolar portions of a phospholipid molecule. Specify which end of the molecule would be soluble in water. 5.5. Draw an amino acid and label the carboxyl group, the amino group, and the R group that are attached to the central carbon. Be able to tell whether the R group is charged or polar, and therefore hydrophilic, or nonpolar and hydrophobic. 5.6. Diagram and describe a condensation (dehydration synthesis) reaction between two amino acids and circle the resulting peptide bond. Explain how a polypeptide chain is formed and how it is broken down by hydrolysis. 5.7. Discuss the various levels of protein structure - primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Specify the level(s) of structure shown by fibrous proteins, such as hair, and the levels shown by globular proteins. Explain why proteins are so sensitive to changes in temperature and pH. Explain how hemoglobin’s structure fits its function. 5.8. Diagram a simple stretch of DNA (see pg 296-297). Label an individual nucleotide and the five-carbon sugar, the phosphate group, and the nitrogen-containing base of which it is made; a base from a nucleotide on one chain bonded to a base on the opposite side; the sugar-phosphate backbones; and the hydrogen bonds between bases. 5.9. List 3 examples of each of the four main classes of biologically important organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and the building-block units of which they are composed.
Pages to are hidden for
"AP Bio Study Guide Ch 5 2012"Please download to view full document