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									Section II
Contemporary Law Enforcement

                              Chapter 5
         Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
Patrol Officer Responsibilities

      •   Assist citizens
      •   Enforce laws
      •   Investigate crimes
      •   Prevent criminal activity
      •   Keep traffic moving
      •   Maintain order
      •   Resolve conflicts
The Patrol Area

  • The beat includes
     –   Geography
     –   Economy
     –   Personality
     –   Sociology
  • Officers develop a personal stake in the welfare of
    their patrol community.
Three Spheres of Patrol Activity

  1. First responders to calls for service and
     emergencies
  2. Work to apprehend perpetrators of crime
  3. Engage in strategic partnerships with the
     community to address problems of crime and
     disorder
Types of Patrol

  • General patrol
  • Random/preventive patrol
  • Directed/aggressive patrol
General Patrol

  •   Challenges change constantly
  •   Random and reactive
  •   Incident-driven
  •   Focused on rapid response to calls
Random/Preventive Patrol

    • Random patrol
       – Detect/intercept crimes in progress
       – Deter crime by creating an illusion of police
         omnipresence
       – Respond to crime-in-progress calls rapidly
    • Preventive patrol
       – “Noncommitted” time
       – Self-initiated activities
       – Extra patrols used in certain areas
Directed/Aggressive Patrol

      • Focuses on high-crime areas or specific
        offenses
      • Uses crime statistics to plan shift and beat
        staffing
      • Provides more coverage during peak activity
      • Goes well with problem-oriented policing
      • Includes
         – Field interrogation
         – Aggressive traffic enforcement
         – Detection of environmental anomalies
Patrol Activities

  •   First responders
  •   Calls for service
  •   Self-initiated tasks
  •   Administrative duties
Methods of Patrol
     •   Foot
     •   Automobile
     •   Motorcycle
     •   Bicycle
     •   Segway
     •   Horseback
     •   Aircraft
     •   Boat
     •   Special terrain vehicles
Foot Patrol

  • Addresses neighborhood problems before they
    become crimes
  • May help deter burglary, robbery and muggings
  • Decreases levels of fear
  • Increases citizen satisfaction
  • Increases patrol officer job satisfaction
Automobile Patrol
   •   Offers greatest mobility, flexibility and convenience
   •   Allows wide coverage and rapid response to calls
   •   Provides means of transporting equipment and people
   •   The modern patrol car
       –   NCIC
       –   GPS
       –   Visual surveillance and imaging
       –   Dashboard-mounted video camera
       –   ALPR
Traffic Patrol Responsibilities

       • Primary goal
          – Produce voluntary compliance with traffic laws
          – Keep traffic moving safely and smoothly
       • Other responsibilities
          –   Directing and controlling traffic
          –   Providing directions and assistance to motorists
          –   Enforcing traffic laws
          –   Investigating motor vehicle crashes
          –   Providing emergency assistance at crash scenes
          –   Gathering information related to traffic
          –   Writing reports
Selective Traffic Enforcement
   • Police departments cannot enforce all traffic
     regulations at all times.
   • Selective enforcement targets specific areas.
   • Most common violations of traffic laws:
      –   Speeding
      –   Red-light running
      –   Nonuse of seat belts
      –   Aggressive driving and road rage
      –   DUI
      –   Driver distraction
Basic Causes of Traffic Crashes

  •   Human faults and errors
  •   Violations
  •   Attitudes
  •   Road defects
  •   Vehicle defects
Officer Responsibilities at Crash
Scenes
      •   Rendering first aid to victims
      •   Protecting victims from further harm
      •   Reducing involvement of other cars
      •   Summoning emergency services
      •   Protecting victims’ personal property
      •   Securing evidence and investigating the crash
      •   Summoning towing services
      •   Keeping traffic moving
Police departments personnel assignments
Know key duties of Patrol Officers
Know what crime mapping is
Seat belt usage stats?
Patrol types?
Compstat?
NCIC
Effectiveness of preventive patrol

								
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