Astronomy CN 2012

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					Astronomy

Chapter 22-25
         Warm Up: Sept 7
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRXQsQ
  KGqIU – creepy twinkle
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCjJyiq
  pAuU –cute twinkle
 Compare and contrast each version using
  a Venn Diagram
 Which one do you like more? Why?
 Which one best describes human curiosity
  towards outer space? WHY?         2
                     Time Line
   Create a time to include each of the following
    people (include their discovery).
       Aristotle
       Eratosthenes
       Hipparchus
       Aristarchus
       Claudius Ptolemy
       Nicolaus Copernicus
       Tycho Brahe
       Johannes Kepler
       Galileo Galilei
       Sir Isaac Newton
        What is the Golden Age of
               Astronomy?
   The shift away from
    the idea of a
    Geocentric Universe.
        What is Modern Astronomy?
   Nicolaus Copernicus
    (1473-1543)
       Earth is just a planet
       Universe is sun centered
            Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars,
             Jupiter, and Saturn
                 Circular orbits around sun
   Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
       Used pointers to estimate
        distance
                       Pointers think big
                        protractor
                       Mentor Kepler
        Who was Johannes Kepler
             (1571-1630)?
   Brahe’s observations of Mars
     Noticed that the orbit was not Circular
     Kepler used his Q&A’s to form 3 Laws of
      Planetary Motion
   1st Law
       Ellipse (Oval)
         2   foci
                 Star
             Laws of Planetary Motion
   2nd Law
       Sun sweeps over
        equal areas in the
        same amount of time.
            Close to sun faster
            Away from sun slower
   3rd Law
       Orbital Period (time) of
        planet is proportional
        to distance from the
        sun (P2=d3),
        expressed in AU units
        (1AU = 1.5Million Km)
   Who is Galileo Galilei?(1564-
 Telescope
              1642)
   Behavior of moving objects
       Observation supported Copernicus’s view of the
        universe
          Moons   of Jupiter (4) = Earth is not the center of all
           universal motion
          Planets are circular disc = must be Earth-like
          Venus has phases like the moon = orbits light source
           (sun)
          Moon’s surface not smooth = validated others who
           named areas based on features (Sea of Tranquility)
          Sun has dark regions = tracked movement est.
           rotation period of sun under 1 month
    What is the Law of Universal
            Gravitation?
   Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
     Kepler “some force pushes the planets along their
      orbits”
     Galileo “no force is required to keep an object in
      motion”
          Inertia
   Every body attracts directly proportional to
    mass & inversely proportion to distance2 b/w
    the bodies
          Revised Kepler’s 3rd law (mass)
         What are Earth Motions?
   Rotation
       Spinning on axis (day/night)
          Solar   day
               noon to noon
          Sidereal   day
               Based on a distant star
                  23hr 56 min
                  Distance to the stars change by tiny increments
                  Sun changes by 1° a day
               Earth Motions Cont.
   Revolution
       Moving around another body
         Distance   of the sun to the Earth @150 million km
         Elliptical Orbit
              Perihelion @ January 3
                 147 million km
              Aphelion @July 4
                 152 million km
                Earth Motions Cont.
   Precession
       Change in tilt of axis
            23.5° always the same
            Slow @ 26 000 years
       Changes North Star
            Polaris to Vega
   Nutation
       Wobbling around the axis
       Caused but the moon’s pull
       Slight seasonal change.
   Remember: Galaxies on the move!
What are Axis & Seasons?




Why do different season exist?
Axis & Seasons cont.
        Moon (Satellite) Motions
 Revolution = 1month (29 ½ days)
 Ave. distance = 384 401Km (6%)
     Perigee = closest to Earth
     Apogee = farthest

   Phases of the Moon
     Waxing
     Waning
How do Eclipses work?
          What is Barycenter?
   The center of mass is the balance point
    between two orbiting bodies, like a
    seesaw.
                                The Sun
   Average Star
   Some Stats:
       Diameter = 109
        Earth diameters
       Volume = 1.25
        million times Earth’s
       Mass = 332,000
        times Earth’s
       Density = 1/4th of
        solid Earth
                          Sun Structure
   Structure
       the Solar Interior
       Photosphere
       2 Atmospheric Layers
            Chromosphere
                 Prominences
            Corona
                 Solar Winds
         Solar Flares & Sunspots
   Solar Flares
       Auroras
   Sunspots
     11 year cycle
     Last days to weeks
               The Solar interior
   Nuclear Fusion
       E=mc2
       It takes very little
        hydrogen to make a
        lot of energy.
       Most of the hydrogen
        is not converted to
        energy.
                          Other Stuff
   Scientific Methods Quiz Redo
       A problem is a question to be answered!!!!!
       Answer the QUESTION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
       Do not for get the problem/hypothesis relationship!!!!!
          Example Problem:
          Does the presence of grain-eaters in the desert environment
           cause a decrease in wildflower diversity?
          Example Hypothesis:
           If grain-eaters are eliminated from the environment by a
           fence, then the wildflower diversity will increase by 20%.
                Independent Variable
                Dependent Variable
   Write so anyone knows what you are saying!!!!!!!
                     Other Stuff
   On the Scientific Method Quiz, if your grade is:
       13-14 = Awesome Job!!
       11-12 = Good, but needs some work.
       7-10 = OK, but what are you at a loss about?
       0-6 = Get help before the test Wednesday!!!
   On the Astronomy Quiz, if your grade is:
       19-20 = Stellar Performance!!
       18 = Awesome Job!!
       15-17 = Good, but needs some work.
       9-14 = Ummmhhhh I think you need to study!!!
       Below a 9= Seek help before Wednesday test!!!
    The Golden Age Astronomers

                Aristarchus
                (312-230BC)

Aristotle
(384-322BC)




The Earth
is round.
              1st to believe in
                heliocentric
                  universe

				
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posted:9/29/2012
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