Guided Notes about the Sun by 8tDh90y


									Guided Notes about the Sun
1. The Sun contains more than
   99 percent of all the mass in
   the solar system. The Sun’s
   mass controls the motions of
   the planets and other
2. The solar interior is gaseous
  throughout because of its high
  temperature. The gases are
  completely ionized, meaning
  that they are composed only of
  atomic nuclei and electrons.
  This state of matter is called
3. The lowest level of the Sun’s
  atmosphere is the photosphere.
  This is the visible surface of the
  Sun. Most of the light emitted
  by the Sun comes from this
4. Above the photosphere is the
  chromosphere, which is normally
  visible only during a solar eclipse
  when the photosphere is blocked.
  The chromosphere appears red
  because it emits most strongly in a
  narrow band of red wavelengths.
5. The top layer of the Sun’s
  atmosphere is the corona, which
  extends several million kilometers
  from the top of the chromosphere.
  The corona is so dim that it can
  only been seen when the
  photosphere is blocked, such as
  during an eclipse.
6. Gas from the corona of the Sun flows
   outward at high speeds and forms the
   solar wind. The charged particles are
   deflected by the Earth’s magnetic field
   and form 2 huge rings called the Van
   Allen belts. The particles collide with
   gases in the Earth’s atmosphere,
   causing them to give off light that we
   see as the aurora.
7.   The Sun’s magnetic field
     disturbs the solar
     atmosphere periodically and
     causes new features known
     as sunspots.
8.    Sunspots appear darker
     than the surrounding areas
     on the Sun because they are
     cooler. Sunspots typically
     last two months.
9. Solar flares are violent
  eruptions of particles and
  radiation from the surface of
  the Sun. Often, the released
  particles escape the surface of
  the Sun in the solar wind and
  Earth gets bombarded with
  particles a few days later.
10.Within the core of the Sun,
  where the pressure and
  temperature are extremely
  high, fusion occurs. Fusion is
  the combining of lightweight
  nuclei, such as hydrogen, into
  heavier nuclei.
11.In the core of the Sun, helium
  is a product of the process in
  which hydrogen nuclei fuse.
  The mass lost in the fusion of
  hydrogen to helium is
  converted to energy, which
  powers the Sun.
12. The Sun consists of about 70.4 percent
   hydrogen, and about 28 percent helium,
   measured by mass, along with a small
   amount of other elements. The Sun’s
   composition represents that of the
   galaxy as a whole. Hydrogen and helium
   are the predominant gases in stars, as
   well as in the entire universe. All other
   elements are in very small proportions
   compared to hydrogen and helium.

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