HITLER�S GOALS by 8tDh90y

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 25

									                 HITLER’S GOALS
Rearm
Take back
Saar Basin
and Upper
Silesia
Absorb and
remilitarize
Rhineland
Control Polish
Corridor




                   Expand German Territory through military conquest
LEBENSTRAUM
(LIVING SPACE)
  • Based on Hitler’s racial theory
    that the Aryan “race” was
    superior to all others and
    therefore had the right and
    obligation to assert its will on
    the “inferior” Slavic people of
    the East

  • Planned to conquer Eastern
    Europe and use it for German
    settlements and agriculture.
    Slavic people of region would
    serve German master race as
    slaves
CAUTIOUS AT FIRST
     • Hitler was close-mouthed about his
       long-term plans in early years
        – Because German was militarily
          weak
        – Wanted to avoid confrontation
          with France and GB
     • Carried out foreign policy with
       patience and resourcefulness
        – Retained Weimar diplomatic
          corps
        – Publicly declared he had no
          intention of rearming and only
          wanted peace
        – Would only take “legal steps” to
          “break the chains of Versailles”
               EASTERN EUROPE
                   • Signed non-aggression treaty with Poland
                      – January 29, 1934
                      – Had no intention of adhering to treaty
                         • Wanted to use it to defeat France’s
                           strategy of isolating Germany by
                           creating military alliances with
                           countries of Eastern Europe
                   • Stalin interpreted treaty as German plot to
                     gather allies for future war with Russia
                      – Sought security by joining League of
Joseph Pilsudski        Nations and signing defense treaty
                        with Czechoslovakia
            BENITO MUSSOLINI
• Hitler and Mussolini had much in
  common

• One possible source of contention
  was Austria
  – Hitler wanted to annex it
  – Mussolini wanted to take over
    the Tyrol region
  – Both men therefore viewed each
    other with suspicion at first

• Mutual suspicion was overcome by
  the fact that Italy and Germany
  were natural allies since they both
  shared France as an enemy
MUSSOLINI’S ACTIONS
     • Attacked and conquered Albania
     • Attempted to turn Somalia into
       gigantic Italian army base
     • Routinely used poison gas and
       public executions to solidify Italian
       rule in Lybia
     • Worked to increase international
       tensions
        – Violated Kellogg-Briand Pact
        – Funneled secret arms to Germany
          and trained German pilots
        – Supported right-wing terrorist
          groups in Yugoslavia
                  AUSTRIA 1934
• Hitler orchestrated the murder of
  Englebert Dolfuss in 1934
   – Right-wing dictator of Austria
   – Wanted to maintain Austrian
     independence from Germany
   – Had banned the Nazi Party in Austria

• Austrian Nazis killed Dolfuss and tried
  to seize control of country

• Coup failed and Kurt Schuschnigg
  emerged as leader of country
   – Right-wing Catholic politician
   – Committed to maintaining Austria
     independence
                       LESSONS
• Hitler learned that is was unlikely
  that GB, France, and Italy would
  mount a concerted response to
  German takeover of Austria
• Foreign policy therefore entered
  a more dangerous phase
   – Announced he was increasing
     army to 500,000 men, would
     institute the draft, and the
     airforce had been rebuilt
   – Promised to uphold Treaty of
     Locarno and respect
     territorial integrity of Austria
     INVASION OF ETHIOPIA
• Ethiopia invaded in
  October 1935 by Italian
  army
   – To avenge defeat of
     1896

• Used modern weapons
  against Ethiopian
  forced who still
  primarily used spears
  and bows and arrows

• Invasion was
  encouraged by Hitler
               RAMIFICATIONS
• Haile Selassie appealed to the
  League of Nations
• League imposed economic
  sanctions against Italy
   – But left sanctions weak by
     excluding oil from list of
     embargo products
   – Did not close Suez Canal to
     Italian ships heading for
     Ethiopia
• Over 500,000 Ethiopians killed in
  fighting (only 5000 Italian
  casualties). Country falls in May
  1936.
• Mussolini had blatantly defied
  the League of Nations and had
  gotten away with it
RHINELAND
   • Hitler moved troops into the
     region in March 1936
      – In violation of Versailles
        Treaty

   • Claimed he would have
     withdrawn if the French had
     responded
      – But the French did not
        respond

   • Hitler claimed that this move
     was needed to help Germany
     defend itself from possible
     aggression from France and
     Soviet Union
REARMAMENT
     • Hitler then speeded up
       pace of rearmament
        – By 1938, rearmament
          absorbed 52% of all
          state expenditures
          and 17% of German
          GNP
        – GB and France
          forced to modernize
          their armed forces
     • Germany had
       advantage in resulting
       arms race
SPANISH CIVIL WAR:
  BACKGROUND
  • Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator
    in 1923
     – Forced to resign in 1930
  • Coalition of republicans and socialists set
    up Spanish Republic in 1931
     – Prime minister Manuel Azana
       antagonized conservatives and army
     – Azana falls from power in September
       1933
  • Left-wing government set up in 1935
     – Undermined by the Falange
        • Paramilitary fascist group headed
          by General Francisco Franco
  • Government declares Falange illegal
     – Sparked military insurrection against
       the Republic and start of civil war
                 WEAKNESSES
• Fragility of governing coalition
  hindered an effective response
   – Anarchist peasants in
     Catalonia and Aldalusia
     launch social revolution
       • Moderate socialists and
         even communists feared
         this act would
         compromise their efforts
           – Withheld supplies and
             ammunition from them
             and bickered among
             themselves
SPANISH CIVIL WAR I
      • Savage conflict
         – At least 600,000 people killed
            • Mostly civilians
            • At least 200,000 republicans
              executed by fascists
                – “fiestas of death”

      • Foreign volunteers helped
        republicans
         – Abraham Lincoln Brigade
         – Not especially effective

      • Western Democracies provided no
        official help to republicans
         – With the exception of the Soviet
           Union
         SPANISH CIVIL WAR II




• Mussolini helped Franco
   – Sent 100,000 soldiers
   – Italian planes destroy republican supply lines
• Hitler used Spain as a military training ground
   – Sent planes, guns, munitions, and other supplies
   – German advisors trained fascist pilots
   – German pilots ran bombing runs
       • Destroyed Basque town of Guernica
       • Inspired famous Picasso painting of same name
• Franco won in January 1939
        FORMATION OF “AXIS”
• Italy and Germany sign pact in
  October 1936
   – Agreed that Germany’s
      interests lay in the east
      while Italy could have the
      Mediterranean region
• Mussolini now copied Hitler
   – Ordered soldiers to goose-
      step
   – Adopted Nazi salute
   – Began campaign against
      Italian Jews
                       JAPAN
• Japanese army had million men
  (and two million reserves) and
  2000 fighter planes by 1930
• Began conquest of Manchuria in
  1931
• Feared Soviet Union might block
  military expansion in Asia
   – Signed friendship treaty with
     Germany in 1936
   – Called “Anti-Comintern” Pact
   – Began full-scale war against
     China shortly thereafter
• Angered by Japanese
  aggression, the U.S., GB, and
  France impose embargo on oil
  and other raw materials on Japan
  in 1940
                CHAMBERLAIN
• Hitler confides to generals his plan to
  absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia by
  1938
   – Encouraged by new Conservative
     prime minister of GB, Neville
     Chamberlain
      • Believed annexation of Austria and
        Sudetenland was inevitable
      • Feared that war with Germany
        would jeopardize Britain’s colonies
      • Saw German ambitions towards the
        German-speaking parts of Austrian
        and Czechoslovakia in keeping with
        the spirit of nationalism
                  ANSCHLUSS
• Schuschnigg announces a
  referendum on the
  question of Austrian
  independence from
  Germany
   – In response to Hitler’s
     pressure to legalize
     Austrian Nazi Party
• Hitler responds by
  ordering German troops
  into Austria (March 12,
  1938)
   – Greeted by cheering
     crowds
   – Nazis then arrest 70,000
     people and begin
     harassing Jews
   – Austria is unified with
     Nazi Germany
MUNICH: BACKGROUND
     • Eduard Benes tries to get support
       from Soviet Union and France to
       resist Hitler’s demand for the
       Sudetenland region of
       Czechoslovakia
        – USSR would not help unless
          France did first
        – France would not help without
          British support
        – GB did not intend to provide
          support

     • Neville Chamberlain flies to
       Germany on September 5, 1938
        – Agrees to convince the French
          and Czechs to accept Nazi
          annexation of Sudetenland
        – Hitler promises to make no more
          territorial demands
     APPEASEMENT AT MUNICH
• On September 19, GB and France
  virtually force Czech government to
  agree to give up Sudetenland to Hitler
• Chamberlain returns to Germany on
  September 22
   – Informs Hitler that remainder to
     Czechoslovakia be protected by
     joint agreement
   – Hitler refuses and threatens war
• Chamberlain and French president
  Eduard Daladier meet again with Hitler
  at Munich in late September
   – Agree to German annexation of
     Sudetenland in exchange for
     Hitler’s “promise” to leave rest of
     Czechoslovakia alone
           POST-MUNICH
• Hitler invades
  Czechoslovakia on
  March 16, 1939
• Hitler demands that
  Lithuania give him
  port city of Memel
• Hitler demands that
  Poland give him
  Danzig and control
  of the Polish
  Corridor
                ROAD TO WAR
• GB signs pact with Poland,
  guaranteeing Polish
  independence in the event
  of German attack (April 16,
  1939)
• Draft reinstituted in GB
  (April 26)
• France already committed
  to defend Poland
• Hitler thought they were
  bluffing but was willing to
  fight a general war if
  necessary
WAR
• Hitler orders army to prepare for
  invasion of Poland on April 3,
  1939
• Hitler signs formal military
  alliance with Mussolini (May
  1939)
   – Pact of Steel
• Germany and Soviet Union sign
  “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact” on
  August 23, 1939
   – Stalin got free hand to deal
      with eastern Poland, Latvia,
      Lithuania, and Poland as he
      saw fit
   – Stalin promised not to
      interfere with German invasion
      of Poland
• German invasion of Poland
  begins on September 1, 1939

								
To top