First Annual Oregon Robotics Tournament by 9Poq16Eo


									  Oregon Robotics Tournament
  and Outreach Program
   II. Coaching/Mentoring
   Techniques Workshop for
       Mindstorms  NXT

Opening doors to the worlds of science
  and technology for Oregon’s youth
   Instructor Contacts
Ken Cone
(503) 725-2918          Jim Ryan
Terry Hamm              971-215-6087
(503) 720-5157
                        Roger Swanson
Dale Jordan
ORTOP Project Administrator

       Cathy Swider
      (503) 725-2920

Today’s Goals
   Focus on being a coach or mentor using
    Mindstorms NXT robotics kits
   I hope you leave:
       Feeling more comfortable about your role
       Having some more tools in your bag of
       Understanding better what it takes to solve
        a challenge.
       Having gotten your questions answered
   Have some fun!!
   Review our Mission
   Forming your team
   Equipping your team
   Managing your team
   Use NXT Robots from last week to program
    more with the Mindstorms NXT Software

            We’re asking
             you to help
Our Mission      us!
   Program not just about building robots and
    competing in tournaments
       Teach skills
            Specific technical skills
            General life skills
       Show that technical problem solving can be fun
       The youngsters do the work – Coaches’ Honor
        Code and Team Promise
   Open up the possibility of technical careers
   One secret opportunity
Forming Your Team

    Where Teams Come From
   School Based
       In class: Perhaps 45 minutes a day
       After school: Perhaps 1.5 hours; 2 to 4 times a week
       Special block: Several hours once a week
   Club Based
       Probably after school or evening
   Independent team
       After school, evenings, or weekends
   We encourage you to find and include
    youngsters that normally would not have this
Not a Drop-In Program
   This is a project oriented program
   Parents and team members need to
    understand the commitment required
   Team members need to be available on
    a consistent basis to move their parts of
    the project forward from the first
    meetings through the season-end
FIRST® TeamUp Program
   A program at FIRST® to help teams find
    team members or place extra
    youngsters on teams in their area.
   Pay attention to the caveats and
    disclaimers noted at the site.

Where to Meet
   Large enough space to handle the
    number of youngsters on the team
   Space for challenge field setup – 4’x8’
   Access to a computer
   Storage space between meetings
       Challenge table
       Partially built robot
       LEGO parts

Team size
   High initial interest may fade
   Sub-teams of 2-3 can work in parallel
       Experiment with prototypes
       Learn programming techniques
       Work on the project
   Maximum team size allowed is 10
   5 to 7 team members is probably ideal

You Need Adults, Too!
   Coach – The person in charge
       Organizes the team
       Does not need to be a techie
   Mentor – The technical guru
       Provides technical advice
       Provides the technical basics
   One person can play both roles
       But, don’t go it alone
       Recruit other adults to supervise sub-teams
Coach – The Person in Charge
   Single point of contact for team
   Understands the FLL and ORTOP programs
   Management expertise more important than
    technical expertise
       Point of contact for FIRST® and ORTOP info
       Recruits the team
       Registers the team
       Arranges for equipment
       Schedules meetings
       Sets the philosophy and instills team spirit
       Is a good role model
Coach – Need to know
   Responsible for ensuring the Team knows the Rules
    and Requirements for the current year’s Challenge
   Found on FLL Web site (linked from ORTOP)
   Four key elements:
       “Robot Game”
            Includes Field Setup, Missions, and Rules
       “Robot Game Updates”
            Provides detailed interpretations and rule changes for missions and
             game rules.
            Update frequently through the season, until Friday of Tournament
       Project
            Generate and share an innovative solution to the Challenge theme
       Core Values
            Rubrics contain judging areas                                      15
Coach: Set Team Goals
   Scale to experience level of team
   Samples
       Learn to program (...learn to use subroutines)
       Learn about (topic of year)
       Participate in tournament
       Complete at least 1 mission (more for experienced
       Everyone participates
       HAVE FUN!

Mentor – The Technical Advisor
   Technical Advisor to assist the coach
   Facilitates both robot design and
    programming skill sets
   Helps set achievable goals
   Encourages structured problem solving
       Follow typical engineering project models
       Experiment with one variable at a time
   Graduates of FLL can work as mentors
General Advice to All Adults
   This is the kids’ project, not yours
   Be a good role model
   Keep a positive attitude
   Encourage teamwork and insist on
    mutual respect
   Don’t over emphasize “winning” –
    demonstrating a solution at a
    tournament is success
   Have fun
FLL Core Values
   We are a team.
   We do the work to find solutions with guidance from
    our coaches and mentors.
   We know our coaches and mentors don’t have all the
    answers; we learn together.
   We honor the spirit of friendly competition.
   What we discover is more important than what we
   We share our experiences with others.
   We display Gracious Professionalism™ and
    Coopertition™ in everything we do.
   We have fun.
Equipping Your Team

Minimum Resources to Start
   A robotics kit
   A computer with Windows XP, Vista, or
    Windows 7 (with Windows 7 use the latest
    NXT software V2.1)
   A place to meet and practice
       Classroom
       Family room
       Garage
       Community Room
    Additional Materials
   2012 FLL “Senior Solutions” Field Setup Kit
    (FSK) (only available from FLL)
   Each team must have access to a FSK
        Mission Model Set
        Field Mat
   Practice table (design on FLL website)
             Click on Field Setup link
        4’x8’ bottom
        2x4 railing around the sides (extra 2x4 thickness on
         one side for some Field Setup kit models)
        Overhead light is no longer required             22
Robotics Kit Info
   NXT-based kits
       $420 if ordered during FLL registration
       Ship to registered teams starting in mid-May
       OK to purchase a retail kit or order directly from

Robotics Kit Info – NXT-Based
   FLL NXT -- $420
       Only from FIRST®
       Complete kit with two tubs and sorting trays
       NXT software
   LEGO Education NXT Base Set -- $279.95
       Fewer parts with one tub and sorting trays
       No software
   LEGO Retail -- $279.99
       Fewer parts with no sorting trays
       Includes NXT software                           24
Differences between Kits
         Part      FLL Kit   Retail Kit     Education Kit
NXT                  1            1              1
Motors               3            3              3
Touch Sensors        2            2              2
Light Sensors        1            0              1
Sound Sensors        1            0              1
Distance Sensors     1            1              1
Color Sensors        0            1              0
Rechargeable        Yes      No batteries        Yes
NXT Software        Yes          Yes          No -- $80
Sorting Trays      2 boxes       No             1 box
Part Count         1,000+        612            431
Price               $420        $280            $280
    Allowed NXT Robot Parts
   NXT controller (1)       New rules for Senior
   Motors (3)               Solutions
   As many sensors as you like but only from
    this set – touch, light, color, rotation,
   They must all be LEGO-manufactured
    MINDSTORMS sensors
   Note: The HiTechnic color sensor is not allowed
   A color sensor comes in the retail kit but not in
    the other two
Team Uniforms??
   Many teams do something for the
       Team shirts, hats, etc
       Theme clothing
   Team sponsor advertising on a T-shirt,
    etc. is OK
   Helps adults keep track of team

   Let’s Take a Break

As your first hands-on exercise for this
workshop, your instructor will explain
        the Can-Do challenge
CanDo Challenge Discussion
   Simple project, but good learning tool
   Unexpected things happen – cans get caught
    under the wheel, it goes the “wrong” direction
   Take it in smaller steps – “Let’s see what
    happens before it hits a can”
   Mechanical problems may do you in
   Clarify the “rules” – know the requirements
   Experiment – “Just go try it. We can rework
   Keep it simple
9/29/2012        NXT Robotics Techniques - 2009   29 29
Managing Your Team

Meeting Organization
   How often and how long to meet
       Most teams meet 1-3 times per week
       After school, evenings, weekends as team desires
       Some add extras as get closer to end
       > 1 hr (set up and take down)
       < 3 hrs (attention span)
   At least 2 adults present during meetings –
    can use parents who take turns
   Set ground rules -- E.g. don’t turn kids loose
    to walk home by themselves after dark
   Refreshments / snacks ??
Team Kick-off Meeting
   Every child brings parent/guardian
   Set expectations with both
   Send kids off to build with LEGO parts
       Get assistant to help
       Build with instructions, like the
        Constructopedia or ORTOP assembly
       Something they can all do at once
   Explain the real situation to the parents
Parent Involvement
   Explain program/FLL philosophy
       Success = Participation
   Explain team rules (attendance, respect, ...)
   Discuss participation commitment for
   Review costs and funding sources
   Communicate about tournaments
   Solicit help
You Have A Team, Now What?
(Time Management)
 Divide the season

     Build A Foundation
     Address the Challenge
     Get It Done
     Practice like the Tournament

(Approx) Field Challenge Timeline
Assume 12 week season (24 meetings)
 4 weeks: Build Foundation

 6 weeks: Complete Challenge

 2 weeks: Practice / Minor changes

 You may need to adjust these

  suggestions based on the time you
  have available to meet with your team

(Approx) Research
Project Timeline
   1 wk: Basic Research
   2 wks: Narrow and Select Project Topic
   1 wk: Focused Research
   6 wks: Conduct Project / Prepare
   2 wks: Practice and Present to Others
   These tasks run concurrently with the
    Field Challenge Timeline on the previous
Build a Foundation
   Introduce techniques and concepts
       Build or bring demos
       Discuss advantages and disadvantages
       Let kids figure out how to apply concept to
   One approach: use 5-10 minutes at start of
    each meeting to introduce concepts
       Pick 1-2 subjects per session
       Can be more for first meetings / new teams
       May stop about ½ way thru season –
            a bit late to incorporate new concepts unless they are
             stuck                                                 37
Foundation: Sample Concepts
   Pick one or two new subjects per session
       Structural strength: bracing vs. snapped pieces
       Gear ratios: torque vs. speed
       Traction: tracks vs. wheels
       Friction: tires vs. skids
       Programming techniques: linear vs. loops vs.

Foundation: Mechanics
   Robot basics: have team build 2-3 different
    robots with instructions
       e.g. one per meeting
       Discuss “+”, “-” of designs
       Team decides/combines for challenge robot
       Gives team general robot building and design
        tradeoff experience
   Build Field Kit
       Dedicate 1 meeting, divide up elements
       Ad hoc extra meeting for leftovers
Foundation: Divide and conquer
   Three basic robot functions:
       Locomotion: how the robot moves
            Concepts: motors, gears/pulleys, wheels/tracks, friction,
       Navigation: how it knows where to go
            Concepts: time, sensors (rotation, touch, light,
       Robotic Action: function it performs
            Concepts: pushing, grabbing, lifting , dumping

Foundation: Programming
   Introduce basic programming
       Can use Workshop handouts
   Introduce sensors
       If meetings start before Challenge is announced,
        can use mini-challenges to introduce concepts
       Calibration of light sensor

Foundation: Structured
Problem Solving
Teach them elements of structured approach to
  solving large problems
   Defining problem
   Brainstorming
   Evaluating alternatives
   Choosing alternative
   Implementing
   Evaluating & testing

Address the Challenge
   Pick up all information about the
    challenge from FIRST® website when
    details announced on August 28th
       Missions
       Rules
       Field setup
       Game Rulings (grows during the season)
       Project

Address the Challenge
   Team must learn mission and rules:
       Send home copy and learn missions and
       Discuss and test understanding at later
        team meetings
       Can overlap with ‘build foundation’
       You might want to find a “rules expert”
        among your team members
Address the Challenge
   Have team group missions
       Members brainstorm/generate prioritized
            Can prioritize group by ease, location, or points
            Can group by program or trips out of base
       Individuals present and team selects which
        to start with
            Refer to team goals for how many to try
            Can add more if finish 1st set and still have time

Address the Challenge
   Team decides how to divide responsibilities
       A) Builders / Programmers
       B) Mission based (build/program by mission)
       C) ??
       Need duplicate coverage for illness/absences
   Probably want area specialists (build,
    program, research, etc.) BUT
   Recommended ground rule: Everyone
    contributes to all aspects of team’s work

Get It Done
   Introduce “design rule” concept
       Shared, agreed upon design constants e.g.
            Motors B/C drive and motor C is on right
            Which end is ‘forward’
            Light sensor is always in port ‘3’
   Programs need to share inputs/outputs
   Attachments need to go together
       Base robot with quickly interchangeable attachments, or
       Attachments can’t interfere with those for other missions
   Target being done early (time for debug/rebuild)

Practice Like the Tournament
   Field Competition Runs          (tournament rules)

       Start with individual missions/groups, then
        all together
       2 ½ min, 2 members at the table at once
       Practice working under time pressure
            Switching between missions, programs
       Try to limit big last minute changes to

Practice Like the Tournament
   Judging Panels    (Robot Design, Project, Core Values)

       Use Coach Handbook rubrics
       Parents as judges
       Work on smooth, clear delivery
       Ask a variety of questions
       Practice teamwork exercises

Final Advice: Budgeting Resources
   Physical resource effectiveness limits:
       No more than 2 (3 max) at one keyboard
       No more than 2-3 building one item
       Can’t research presentation and program
        robot on same computer at same time
   Consider time sharing
       2 computers, one robot kit; divide team
            1/3 building, 1/3 programming, 1/3 researching
            Rotate during meeting
Final Advice:
Set Expectations For a Positive Tone

   Encourage risk taking
       It’s OK to fail – they are learning
       Key is to manage the risk
   Encourage experimentation
   Expect failure – focus on what is
    learned as a result
   Problem solving takes time – Edison’s
    experience with light bulb filament
Final Advice
   Keep Meetings Fun
       Usually means hands on LEGO building every meeting
   Be flexible
       Help keep them on task, but ultimately it is their project
       The journey is as important as the result
   Watch for teaching moments
       Engineers need ‘hard skills’
            Mechanical Design, Programming, Analysis, Problem Solving,
             Experimentation, and Documentation
       AND ‘soft skills’
            Timeliness, Teamwork, Tact and Compromise, Confidence,
             Courtesy, Perseverance, and Planning

With All the Focus on the
Robot and the Challenge…

   Don’t Forget the Judging
Robot Design Judging
   Panel of “experts” interviews teams
       Robot design: Creativity and robustness
       Programming: Creativity and robustness
   Prepare the team to:
       Give a 1 minute overview of their robot design
        noting “sources of inspiration” (Under review)
       Answer questions about the design of the robot
        and its program
       Demonstrate at least one mission on the challenge
   Bring a printout of the program
    Project Judging
   Another good learning opportunity
        Research skills and presentation skills (remember
         the marketing kid? )
        Good engineering requires research and
   Must be a live presentation
   Format – includes setup time
        5 minute presentation, 5 minute interview
        Posterboards, skits, models, Powerpoint (not the
         best format, can waste time with setup), . . .
Core Values Judging
   A separate 10 minute judging session
   Teams will do a surprise teamwork
   Teams will bring a Core Values “tri-fold”
    or poster with them and give a short,
    less than 2 minutes, presentation on the
   Judges interact with teams to evaluate
    how the teams meet the FLL Core Values
Core Values Poster
FLL Core Values Team
   Tournament officials observe teams
    during tournaments at all activities
   Looking for exceptional positive or
    negative demonstrations of FLL Core
    Values throughout the day
   Observations can impact a team’s score
    either positively or negatively
        Hand out FLL Core Values Team
             Observation sheets
FLL Core Values Best Practices
   Youngsters design, build, and program their
   Youngsters are responsible for project work
   ORTOP rule: During tournament, no adult may
    touch the computer keyboard, mouse, robot,
    robot attachments, or project materials.
   ORTOP rule: No adult may give specific
    verbal directives on programming and building
    or during table competition at a tournament.
   Tournament guidelines should be in effect at
    team meetings.
What if …?
   Teams may use software or mechanical
    designs that they find on the Internet
   Good engineers build on the design work of
    others and don’t reinvent the wheel
   We encourage the use of our building
    instructions to get your team started with its
    first robot
   But, there are responsibilities that go with
Use of Third Party Materials
   Team decides what to use and why
    they want to use it
   They must be able to explain how the
    software or mechanical design works
    and why they included it
   They must give credit to any such third
    party material that they use (Bring your
    “sources of inspiration” list to the Robot
    Design judging)
      Sources of ideas
   Constructopedias/Manuals/Guides
   NXT Software Tutorial:
   FIRST Team Resources page:
   Minnesota FLL – High Tech Kids:
Names of Parts
   Google: lego part names
 (Pick a Brick)

 Final Hands-On Exercise
  Discuss and program a simple line
following algorithm that will follow the
 circle on the Can-Do Challenge mat.
Contact Us
 Web site:
 Phone: 503-725-2920


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