Latitude and Longitude
The location of any place on Earth can
be described using latitude and
• Line of Latitude—reference lines that run
parallel to the equator’s plane. Lines are
measured as an angle from the equator of
the Earth (0°) to the North Pole (90° North)
or to the South Pole (90° South).
• The Equator is O degrees latitude.
Lines of Longitude
Line of Longitude—reference lines that run
from the North Pole to the South Pole. Lines
are measured as an angle from the Prime
Meridian (0°) to 180° East or to 180° West.
Prime Meridian—marks the point of
0° longitude and divides the Eastern
and Western Hemispheres.
► Equator—marks the point of 0° latitude
and divides the Northern and Southern
The word hemisphere means “ half of a
There are four major hemispheres:
Northern, Southern, Western, and
A globe is a model of the earth that shows
the earth’s shape, distance, and directions
as they truly relate to one another.
A scale is the relationship between distance on
a map and actual distance of the earth.