The six question approach to designing a
field and/or online recruitment strategy
to reach Latin@s
Understand socialization: what is social structure, what are social
groups, and the definition of strong and weak ties.
Cultural Script: Latino/Hispanic Cultural Values, Beliefs and
Explain the 6 question approach to develop a social media
To illustrate how effective client interaction on social media
platforms are key to good engagement.
Breaking down the “Socials”
What is Socialization?
What is Social Structure?
What are Social Groups?
What are Social Ties?
Understanding the Similarities and Differences
Cultural Script: Latino/Hispanic Cultural Values,
Beliefs and Characteristics.
Importance of Family: Family is the primary social unit and source of support. Family goes
beyond parents and siblings, it includes the extended family (cousins, uncles, aunts, etc).
Respect: It indicates appropriate behavior towards others based on age, gender, social and
economic position and authority. Formality is seen as a sign of respect. Use of suffixes are very
important such us: Señor/Don, Señora/Dona.
Personalismo: Latinos/Hispanics tend to stress the importance of personalismo, personal rather
than institutional relationships. Person to Person contact it’s very important to develop trust . It’s
very common that Latino clients find uncomfortable to leave messages in office voicemails.
Trust: “Confianza” is built on mutual respect over time. Showing personal interest in Hispanics
individual may help establishing trust.
Machismo: Hispanic Families are characterized by traditional gender roles. Men are expected to
be rational, strong, authoritarian, independent and strong. Women are expected to be submissive,
dependant as well as take care of children and household.
Cultural Script: Latino/Hispanic Cultural Values,
Beliefs and Characteristics
Fatalism: Many Hispanics believe that events are meant to happen because of fate, because of
power and that they can not control it. Many clients will say “It’s my cross to bear”, or “If God
wishes so”. This may prevent them to seek for help.
Espiritismo: In Latino/Hispanic culture spiritual healers play an important role in helping people
with physical as well as mental concerns. Curanderas, espiritistas, Santeria.
Religion: In general Latino/Hispanics are very religious. The church serves as a guide for
perceptions and behaviors, influencing decisions and judgments. The church is often an important
source for social support and interaction.
Belief in Bewitching: Some Latino/Hispanics believe that bewitching is often the cause of a change
in behavior or illness. Bewitching involves the use of magical acts and supernatural powers either
by humans or supernatural beings. This may simply involve the casting of a spell.
Personal space: Personal space tends to be closer, Latino/Hispanic cultures are more open to
physical contact and less aware of personal space
Time orientation Latino/Hispanics are generally more concerned with the present than with the
future or planning ahead. Often times Latinos need to be reminded the day before of an appointment
What are the
Understanding Client Socialization
Social structure observe target
population’s behavior patters both
in real life and within social
Social Groups Assess which
groups do they belong to if any
and figure out if they mostly
primary, secondary or reference
Social Ties Assess the types of
relationships individuals have with
others in their social networks
(real and virtual).
In the real world & virtual space
1. Review and summarize local epi-data
2. Define priority target population
3. Gather information from agency clients
4. Survey those who have contact with priority
5. Interview gatekeepers & conduct field observations
6. Interview members of priority populations
7. Conduct focus groups
7. Integrate and summarize information.
8. Pilot intervention
9. Make additional changes to the intervention.
The implementation of specific strategies used
to bring persons at risk for HIV infection or
transmission into an HIV prevention
Core Elements for Recruitment:
Use information from multiple sources to describe common
characteristics of Target population
Develop/deliver appropriate messages for the population,
intervention, and setting
Recruit for specific services
Track completion of referrals to monitor the effectiveness of
the referral strategy
Revise strategies or venues as appropriate.
A SIX QUESTION
Your Audience’s Profile
A SIX QUESTION APPROACH
Agencies developing a recruitment and retention social media
strategy should answer the following six questions related to their
• Who is being targeted through the recruitment?
- Defining your recruitment objective
• Which/Where is the most appropriate place (physical
or virtual) to recruit clients?
• When should recruitment be done?
• What messages should be delivered during
recruitment? for retention?
• How should the messages be delivered?
• Who is the most appropriate person to do recruitment?
WHO is being targeted:
HIV Prevention Programs are designed with a target population that’s
based on: gender, age, risk exposure to or transmission of HIV,
surveillance data; This could be as follows:
African American MSM, age range 21 – 51+,
Latino MSM, age range 21 – 51+, IDU
Young MSM, age range 18 – 24, HIV+
African American Women, age range 21 – 45+. HIV+
WHO is being targeted through the recruitment?
SEGMENTATION OF TARGET POPULATION
Is simply creating a more specific profile of your target population.
Establishing characteristics. These may include demographic, social
and cultural features such as:
Sexual activity, sexual role
Drug use pattern,
relationship to another person, etc.
Characteristics can also include virtual social interaction and access to
Internet monthly, weekly, daily activity
Smart phone “hook up” applications
Creating our Audience’s Profile.
Segmentation starts by giving a range of characteristics to our
assigned target population.
Age Range: 21-30,31-40, 41-50, 50+
Single / with partner
HIV +, HIV-, Unknown
Education High School, GED, Some College, etc.
Owns smart phone
Language: English, Spanish, Bilingual
Create a profile of who will be your target audience on cyberspace
Think of all potential characteristics of your assigned target audience,
including online activity.
Select from those characteristics and formulate a create a target
If new segmented target population seems too complex, revise and
eliminate potential challenging characteristics.
Characteristics of your new segmented target
population will inform the questions that follow:
the which, the when, the what, the how and the
Define Your Objectives
1. Goals and objectives need to be specific and measurable.
Make them SMART!
2. Since social media is not direct marketing, some examples of social
media objectives can be to:
o Provide information
o Highlight program
o Encourage a health behavior
o Reinforce health messages
o Encourage interaction
Example of a SMART Objective
Does your objective have a clear
Can you measure success of this objective? Yes! I
target date? Yes – the objective is
can measure the success of this objective by
scheduled to be completed by
administering pre and post test surveys to program
December 31, 2008
By December 31, 2012, increase knowledge of safer sex strategies by
60% in fifty (50) Latino MSMs, ages 15-35, who are currently at risk for
HIV and are not linked with a primary healthcare provider.
Attainable/ Achievable Does the objective clearly define the
Is this goal action oriented and contain “do-able” outcome indicator, number of
steps? Yes! Given the time frame set, the project participants targeted and target
can provide an educational workshop once per population? Yes! The program is
month from July – December 2008 and have a measuring knowledge of safer sex
reasonable group size of 8-9 participants per strategies, is aiming for a 60% increase
workshop. in knowledge and is targeting a total of
Relevant / Realistic
Is this goal realistic to complete given the time
frame? Yes! The program is confident that they will
be able to recruit 50 participants and provide 6
educational workshops in the time provided.
WHERE/WHICH and WHEN?
Assessing the most appropriate social media tools to recruit clients.
To conduct a Field and Virtual Community Mapping would be
the ideal first steps. This mapping process will help identify:
In the Field In the Virtual Realm
1. Who is our target 1. The internet sites that
population target population
1. Where can our target social network tools
population be found they use to socialize or
meet partners, chat,
2. What are the needs of get information.
our target population
2. When and which of
3. What’s the best way to these virtual sites are
market services to our people more receptive
target population to what you are offering
Getting the data…
Field and virtual community mapping
• Observation: field and web (exploring)
• Spot interviews: field and online
• Surveys: field and web-based
• Key Informant Interviews.
Field and online via chat, emails, skype with:
* Websites/Social media
tools developers if possible
• Web Analytics (also used for evaluation)
Important Aspects of Observation
• Record what you see; the time,
date, location and weather.
• Pay attention to groups of people in
• Observe during different times of
• Describe what you see in your notes
– don’t interpret until later.
• Identify areas for walk-through or
• Have a reason for being there.
• Look at the big picture.
• Hot Spots
• Be safe!!
Web site navigation and
Use Search engine tools to locate websites
* Best if you use key words in your search.
i.e. “Gay men networking sites”
“Looking for men on the DL”
“M4M Hook Ups”
If sign up is required, do so to be able to navigate the
Sign up at different times to assess level of activity and
the audience. Some users’ profile provide you with
Write down your findings and discuss with staff.
Use web analytics for the sites/social media tools you
found could be the best for your intended objective.
Practicing Field and Social Media Observation:
Another option: online surveys
In identifying venues, also look at factors such
Important as: confidentially, safety, stigma, trust, drug use
Provide you with the information you need to make better decisions
about your online activity and/or which website/social media tools
best fit your program or objective.
Website Specific Analytics (your Oganizations’ Website)
Search Engines Analytics
Social Media Analytics
Mobile Application Analytics
WHICH/WHERE and WHEN?
Depending on your research, you will choose where would be the most
appropriate place to conduct recruitment, or which social media tool will
be best to recruit and engage your audience. This is the tactic matrix!
Could be one or a combination.
Who, Where and When…
Our Audience’s Profile.
- Male, MSM
- 21 – 26
- HIV + Daily use
- Latino: 1st generation
- Spanish Speaking
- Part time work
- Part time school
- Enjoys clubs/bars
- Female, single
- 25 – 35
- HIV unknown
- Latina: 2nd generation
- English Speaking Hourly
- Sexually active use
- Part time work
- Enjoys outdoors
WHAT & HOW
messages should be delivered during: Engagement
Once you know who is your target audience, where online could
they be found and at what times, USE the same information to
create your messages.
From the who, where and when: What can help us design our
Characteristics of Effective Messages
Clear Personally relevant
Consistent Appropriately appealing
Credible Culturally relevant
Attention-getting Conveyed through appropriate
Developed in a variety of
Suggest a next step formats
Messages should be chosen that effectively address barriers to accessing
and using services.
Using the 4Ps of Marketing
Social marketing uses concepts from commercial
or testing? What is the benefit?
Fits lifestyle – where
will the behavior
change take place?
4. Message Development
Is your target
Be careful when selecting your images and developing your messages…
is the most appropriate person to do recruitment
Once we have crafted a
Recruitment strategy in
terms of who is the target
population, where and when
to find them; the messages
and medium we are going to
use, we now need to think
WHO will be delivering this
Peer vs. Staff
Willing to Follow Protocols
– Availability to respond to client’s
– Agency or Program Messaging
– Appropriateness of message, person
– Accessibility for clients
– Time commitment daily
When creating protocols….
Bringing it all together
• Formative assessment can be conducted in the “real world” and in a virtual
space as well.
• A recruitment plan that also uses social media starts with a full understanding
of who your target population is and how they socialize and seek for
information in both, the real and virtual world and how they navigate/use this
• With the rise of new technology, recruitment plans that incorporate both real
and virtual interaction is nowadays key to successful outreach and retention
• Since technology is always changing, so will your social media recruitment
tactic. It is an dynamic process, therefore constantly conduct assessment,
process and outcome evaluation and quality assurance.
• Social Media are tools that help you stay in touch with your clients. They
are also a gateway to access a diverse number of social networks. These
tools can be a vehicle to disseminate your social marketing campaigns.
• There are some DOs and DON’Ts we are familiar with when doing Outreach.
Same applies to social media. When using social media tools, it is important
to keep in mind the difference between personal and professional use. Clear
protocols will help differentiate these roles. Keep in mind the client’s privacy
Capacity Building Assistance Division
Latino Commission on AIDS
24 West 25th Street, 9th Floor
New York, NY 10010