Automatic metal cutting machine using PLC

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Automatic metal cutting machine using PLC Powered By Docstoc

      This metal cutting process is controlled by PLC system. The Base PLC
module has 8 inputs and 6 outputs. The PLC is control the process by hacksaw
assembly with D.C. motor and proximity sensor’s feedback signal. Control buttons
are used for manual operation and SMPS is used for give the power supply to PLC
and whole system. Relay board is used for protective PLC outputs and switching

Block Diagram:

                        PLC based metal cutting system
Advantages of PLC based metal cutting system:

      We can get product consistency.
      Accuracy is high.
      So production rate will maximize.
      Time will save.
      We can save lot of power.
      PLC is a compact size and Box type.
      So wiring and troubleshooting is very easy.
      No need manual interference.
      Prevention of Human accidents.
      Counting the number of pieces is systematic accounting.
PLC- Introduction

      A programmable controller is a digitally operating electronic apparatus
which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions for
implementing specific functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting and
arithmetic, to control through digital or analog input/output, various types of
machines or process.

       Programmable Logic Controllers, programmable controllers, or PLCs are
specialized industrial computers. The PLC accepts inputs from switches and
sensors (measures or senses the system), evaluates these based on a program
(logic), and changes the state of outputs to control a machine or process.


       Initially, programmable logic controllers were used to replace traditional
hard-wired relay logic; however, with its ever increasing functionality it is found in
many more complex applications. PLCs are used in any industrial application
where operating requirements are complex, are constantly changing, or where high
reliability is necessary.
Advantages of PLC

      More complex tasks can be done with a PLC. Hard-wiring, though still
required to connect field devices, is less intensive. Modifying the application and
correcting errors are easier to handle. It is easier to create and change a program in
a PLC than it is to wire and rewire a circuit. Following are just a few of the
advantages of PLCs,

          It controls the whole machine
          Most of wirings are changed by software.
          So troubleshooting is easy
          Save space (compact size)
          Graphical level language (Ladder Diagram) is used for programming.
          So programming easy.
          Fast working (time saving)
          Applications can be immediately documented.
          Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively
          Reliable components make these likely to operate for year before
          Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
          Easy expandable modules available.

      Special functions such as

             Time Delay action
             Counters
             Measuring interval timings are easy
             Looping functions.

      ‘Switched- Mode Power Supply’ is used for give power supply to PLC,
proximity sensor, Relay board and other control buttons.

       A switched-mode power supply (also switching-mode power supply and
SMPS) is an electronic power supply unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching
regulator. While a linear regulator maintains the desired output voltage by
dissipating excess power in a pass power transistor, the SMPS rapidly switches a
power transistor between saturation (full on) and cutoff (completely off) with a
variable duty cycle whose average is the desired output voltage. The resulting
rectangular waveform is low-pass filtered with an inductor and capacitor.

       The main advantage of this method is greater efficiency because the
switching transistor dissipates little power in the saturated state and the off state
compared to the semiconducting state (active region). Other advantages include
smaller size and lighter weight (from the elimination of low frequency
transformers which have a high weight) and lower heat generation due to higher
efficiency. Disadvantages include greater complexity, the generation of high
amplitude, high frequency energy that the low-pass filter must block to avoid
electromagnetic interference (EMI), and a ripple voltage at the switching frequency
and the harmonic frequencies thereof.
Proximity Sensor

This proximity sensor is two types,

         • Inductive proximity sensor
         • Capacitive proximity sensor

      We mount the proximity sensor in clamp unit. So choose the inductive
proximity sensor for detect the cutting highest limit by the hacksaw blade (metal

Inductive Proximity Sensor
       Inductive sensors use currents induced by magnetic fields to detect nearby
metal objects. The inductive sensor uses a coil (an inductor) to generate a high
frequency magnetic field as shown in Figure. If there is a metal object near the
changing magnetic field, current will flow in the object. This resulting current flow
sets up a new magnetic field that opposes the original magnetic field. The net
effect is that it changes the inductance of the coil in the inductive sensor. By
measuring the inductance the sensor can determine when a metal have been
brought nearby.

      These sensors will detect any metals, when detecting multiple types of metal
multiple sensors are often used.
Control Buttons

   We are used control buttons for control the process by manual selection. One
selector switch and three pushbuttons are used for control the following process.

   1.   One selector switch      -      Automatic/Manual mode selection.
   2.   First pushbutton         -      Hacksaw up direction.
   3.   Second pushbutton        -      Hacksaw down direction.
   4.   Third pushbutton         -      Auto start.
   5.   Fourth pushbutton        -      Auto stop.

Digital Inputs and its addressing

   Sl.No.                 Name                             Address
        1            Proximity sensor                         X0
        2      Auto/manual selector switch                    X1
        3         Hacksaw up direction                        X2
        4        Hacksaw down direction                       X3
        5               Auto start                            X4
        6               Auto stop                             X5
Digital Input wiring
       When a sensor detects a logical change it must signal that change to the
PLC. This is typically done by switching a voltage or current on or off. In some
cases the output of the sensor is used to switch a load directly, completely
eliminating the PLC. Two types of outputs from sensors (and inputs to PLCs) are
listed below in relative popularity.

Sinking and Sourcing

      Sinking sensors allow current to flow into the sensor to the voltage common,
while sourcing sensors allow current to flow out of the sensor from a positive
source. For both of these methods the emphasis is on current flow, not voltage. By
using current flow, instead of voltage, many of the electrical noise problems are

      When purchasing sensors and input cards there are some important
considerations. Most modern sensors have both PNP and NPN outputs, although if
the choice is not available, PNP is the more popular choice. PLC cards can be
confusing to buy, as each vendor refers to the cards differently. To avoid problems,
look to see if the card is specifically for sinking or sourcing sensors, or look for a
V+ (sinking) or COM (sourcing). Some vendors also sell cards that will allow you
to have NPN and PNP inputs mixed on the same card.


      When marking power terminals, there will sometimes be two sets of
markings. The more standard is V+ and COM, but sometimes you will see devices
and power supplies without a COM (common), in this case assume the V- is the

       When a PLC input card does not have a common but it has a V+ instead, it
can be used for NPN sensors. In this case the current will flow out of the card
(sourcing) and we must switch it to ground. When we have a PLC input card that
has a common then we can use PNP sensors. In this case the current will flow into
the card and then out the common to the power supply.
PNP Digital inputs wiring
What is a PLC?

      A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC for short, is simply a special
computer device used for industrial control systems. They are used in many
industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on.
Where ever there is a need to control devices the PLC provides a flexible way to
"softwire" the components together.

      The basic units have a CPU (a computer processor) that is dedicated to run
one program that monitors a series of different inputs and logically manipulates the
outputs for the desired control. They are meant to be very flexible in how they can
be programmed while also providing the advantages of high reliability (no program
crashes or mechanical failures), compact and economical over traditional control

PLC History:

      In the late 1960's PLCs were first introduced. The primary reason for
designing such a device was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the
complicated relay based machine control systems. Bedford Associates (Bedford,
MA) proposed something called a Modular Digital Controller (MODICON) to a
major US car manufacturer. Other companies at the time proposed computer based
schemes, one of which was based upon the PDP-8. The MODICON 084 brought
the world's first PLC into commercial production.

            In the mid 1970's the dominant PLC technologies were sequencer
state-machines and the bit-slice based CPU. The AMD 2901 and 2903 were quite
popular in Modicon and AB PLCs. Conventional microprocessors lacked the
power to quickly solve PLC logic in all but the smallest PLCs. As conventional
microprocessors evolved, larger and larger PLCs were being based upon them.
However, even today some are still based upon the 2903.(ref A-B's PLC-3)
Modicon has yet to build a faster PLC than their 984A/B/X which was based upon
the 2901.
How PLCs Work?

      A programmable logic controller is a specialized computer used to control
machines and processes. It therefore shares common terms with typical PCs like
central processing unit, memory, software and communications. Unlike a personal
computer though the PLC is designed to survive in a rugged industrial atmosphere
and to be very flexible in how it interfaces with inputs and outputs to the real

                           PLC Internal Architecture

The components that make a PLC work can be divided into three core areas.

      The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      The Memory section
      The input/output (I/O) Card
The Central Processing Unit

       This is the heart of the PLC. Here we do arithmetic, logical, mathematical
and advanced functions. This execute the program with input data's from the input
buffer and send output data’s to output buffer. This module typically lives in the
slot beside the power supply. Manufacturers offer different types of CPUs based
on the complexity needed for the system.

       The CPU consists of a microprocessor, memory chip and other integrated
circuits to control logic, monitoring and communications. The CPU has different
operating modes. In programming mode it accepts the downloaded logic from a
PC. The CPU is then placed in run mode so that it can execute the program and
operate the process.

The Memory Section
      There are a few basic types of computer memory that are in use today.
a. Working Memory
      RAM (Random Access Memory) - This memory is fast, but it will lose its
contents when power is lost, this is known as volatile memory. Every PLC uses
this memory for the central CPU when running the PLC.
b. Program Memory
      The EPROM is programmed out of the PLC, and then placed in the PLC.
When the PLC is turned on the ladder logic program on the EPROM is loaded into
the PLC and run. This method can be very reliable, but the erasing and
programming technique can be time consuming. EEPROM memories are a
permanent part of the PLC, and programs can be stored in them like EPROM.
Memory costs continue to drop, and newer types (such as flash memory) are
becoming available, and these changes will continue to impact PLCs.
The Input and Output Card

   • Input Interface card is used to connect various types of inputs to PLC i.e.
     from sensors, read switches etc. It collects the data from the field devices
     and sends to PLC memory.
   • Output interface card is used to collect the data from the PLC and actuate the
     respective output device.
Overview of Delta make PLC

Power Supply

       Power supply can be built into the PLC or be an external circuit. The
different voltage levels are,
                        230 VAC/110 VAC
                        24 VDC
                        5 VDC
PLC status

       The lack of keyboard and other input-output devices is very noticeable on a
PLC. On the front of the PLC there are normally limited status lights. Common
lights indicate;

   Power on         - this will be on whenever the PLC has power.
   Program running - this will often indicate if a program is running, or if no
   program is running.
   Error            -this will indicate when the PLC has experienced a major
   hardware or software problem.

       These lights are normally used for debugging. Limited buttons will also be
provided for PLC hardware. The most common will be a run/program switch that
will be switched to program when maintenance is being conducted, and back to run
when in production. This switch normally requires a key to keep unauthorized
personnel from altering the PLC program or stopping execution. A PLC will
almost never have an on-off switch or reset button on the front. This needs to be
designed into the remainder of the system.

Extension Port

   • It used to connect expansion module.
   • In our application if we required more than central unit I/Os, we can
     connect expansion modules

Communication Module

   • It is used to communicate PLC to the programming device.
   • RS232 cable is used for communication purpose

Other Communication

   • Integrated field bus interface CS31bus, 2 wires RS 485. Also for Modbus
     master or slave communication.

       In smaller PLCs the inputs are normally built in and are specified when
purchasing the PLC. For larger PLCs the inputs are purchased as modules, or
cards, with 8 or 16 inputs of the same type on each card. For discussion purposes
we will discuss all inputs as if they have been purchased as cards. The list below
shows typical ranges for input voltages, and is roughly in order of popularity.

                       230 VAC/110 VAC
                       24 VDC
                       5 VDC
      PLC input cards rarely supply power, this means that an external power
supply is needed to supply power for the inputs and sensors. The example in Figure
3.2 shows how to connect an AC input card.


       As with input modules, output modules rarely supply any power, but instead
act as switches. External power supplies are connected to the output card and the
card will switch the power on or off for each output. Typical output voltages are
listed below, and roughly ordered by popularity.

                       230 VAC/110 VAC
                       24 VDC
                       5 VDC
      These cards typically have 8 to 16 outputs of the same type and can be
purchased with different current ratings. A common choice when purchasing
output cards is relays, transistors or triacs. Relays are the most flexible output
devices. They are capable of switching both AC and DC outputs. But, they are
slower (about 10ms switching is typical), they are bulkier, they cost more, and they
will wear out after millions of cycles. Relay outputs are often called dry contacts.
Transistors are limited to DC outputs, and Triacs are limited to AC outputs.
Transistor and triac outputs are called switched outputs.
Operation sequence

       All PLCs have four basic stages of operations that are repeated many times
per second. Initially when turned on the first time it will check it’s own hardware
and software for faults. If there are no problems it will copy all the input and copy
their values into memory, this is called the input scan. Using only the memory
copy of the inputs the ladder logic program will be solved once, this is called the
logic scan. While solving the ladder logic the output values are only changed in
temporary memory. When the ladder scan is done the outputs will updated using
the temporary values in memory, this is called the output scan. The PLC now
restarts the process by starting a self check for faults. This process typically repeats
10 to 100 times per second as is shown in figure

                                  PLC operating cycle

                                 PLC operating cycle
Self test- Checks to see if all cards error free, reset watch-dog timer, etc. (A
watchdog timer will cause an error, and shut down the PLC if not reset within a
short period of time - this would indicate that the ladder logic is not being scanned

Input scan - Reads input values from the input cards, and copies their values to
memory. This makes the PLC operation faster, and avoids cases where an input
changes from the start to the end of the program (e.g., an emergency stop). There
are special PLC functions that read the inputs directly, and avoid the input tables.

Logic solve/scan - Based on the input table in memory, the program is executed 1
step at a time, and outputs are updated. This is the focus of the later sections.

Output scan - The output table is copied from memory to the outputs. These then
drive the output devices.

The Logic Scan

       Ladder logic programs are modeled after relay logic. In relay logic each
element in the ladder will switch as quickly as possible. But in a program elements
can only be examines one at a time in a fixed sequence. Consider the ladder logic
in Figure, the ladder logic will be interpreted left-to-right, top-to-bottom. In the
figure the ladder logic scan begins at the left of rung. At the end of the rung it
interprets the output first.

                               Ladder logic scan
Ladder logic

       Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLCs. As mentioned
before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use
the relay logic diagrams was a strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main
programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and trades
people was greatly reduced.

A ladder diagram (also called contact symbology) is a means of graphically
representing the logic required in a relay logic system

                       Simple ladder diagram with electrical symbol

Anatomy of a ladder diagram:

    The logic in a ladder diagram typically flows from left to right. The diagram
     can be divided into sections called rungs.
    Each rung typically consists of a combination of input instructions.
    These instructions lead to a single output instruction.
    Each input or output instruction is assigned an address indicating the
     location in the PLC memory where the state of that instruction is stored.
     Function block instructions may include one or more addresses to store
     parameters related to the function that they perform.
    A name may also be associated with each address to make the ladder
     diagram easier to interpret.
What is Relay?

      A switch whose operation is activated by an electromagnet is called a

       A relay is a simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a switch.
When a voltage is applied to the input coil, the resulting current creates a magnetic
field. The magnetic field pulls a metal switch (or reed) towards it and the contacts
touch, closing the switch. The contact that closes when the coil is energized is
called normally open. The normally closed contacts touch when the input coil is
not energized

      In this bottle filling system, relays are used for switching the voltage to DC
motor and Solenoid valves.
Digital Outputs and its addressing

   Sl.No.              Name                  Address
     1          Hacksaw up contactor           Y0
     2        Hacksaw down contactor           Y1
     3      Cutting piece ready indication     Y2
     4           Auto run indication           Y3
Output wiring
       A major issue with outputs is mixed power sources. It is good practice to
isolate all power supplies and keep their commons separate, but this is not always
feasible. Some output modules, such as relays, allow each output to have its own
common. Other output cards require that multiple, or all, outputs on each card
share the same common. Each output card will be isolated from the rest, so each
common will have to be connected. It is common for beginners to only connect the
common to one card, and forget the other cards - then only one card seems to

                Output wiring of Automatic Metal cutting system
Variable and its address for PLC programming

Sl.No        Address              Type                    Name

   1            X0               INPUT               Proximity sensor

   2            X1               INPUT         Auto/manual selector switch

   3            X2               INPUT             Hacksaw up direction

   4            X3               INPUT           Hacksaw down direction

   5            X4               INPUT                   Auto start

   6            X5               INPUT                   Auto stop

   6            Y0              OUTPUT            Hacksaw up contactor

   7            Y1              OUTPUT           Hacksaw down contactor

   8            Y2              OUTPUT         Cutting piece ready indication

   9            Y3              OUTPUT              Auto run indication

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