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ADVANCED NETWORKING CONCEPTS

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ADVANCED NETWORKING CONCEPTS Powered By Docstoc
					ACCEL IT ACADEMY
WELCOMES
U
ALL
  ADVANCED
NETWORKING
WHAT IS A NETWORK?

 A NETWORK IS NOTHING BUT
 CONNECTING TWO OR MORE
 COMPUTERS TOGETHER INORDER TO
 SHARE INFORMATION
CLASSIFICATION OF
NETWORKS
   LOCAL AREA NETWORK

   METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK

   WIDE AREA NETWORK
TYPES OF LAN
   PEER TO PEER NETWORK

   SERVER CLIENT NETWORK

   HYBRID NETWORK
PEER TO PEER NETWORK
   NETWORK OF COMPUTERS CONNECTED
    USING CLIENT OPERATING SYSTEMS

EG: WINDOWS 98
   WINDOWS XP PROFESSIONAL
SERVER-CLIENT NETWORK
   NETWORK OF COMPUTERS ARE
    FORMED USING BOTH SERVER AND
    CLIENT OPERATING SYSTEMS.HERE THE
    SERVER IS THE MAIN COMPUTER THAT
    IS USED TO CONTROL & MAINTAIN THE
    ENTIRE NETWORK
HYBRID NETWORK
   IT IS NOTHING BUT THE COMBINATION
    OF SERVER-CLIENT NETWORK & PEER-
    PEER NETWORK. i.e. THE COMBINATION
    OF SERVER OPERATING SYSTEMS &
    CLIENT OPERATING SYSTEMS ARE USED
    TO FORM A NETWORK
REQUIREMENTS TO FORM A
NETWORK


   NIC (NETWORK INTERFACE CARD)
   CABLES
   CONNECTING DEVICES
   SERVER MACHINE
   CLIENT MACHINES
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD
   NIC CARD IS A ADD-ON CARD WHICH IS USED
    TO CONVERT DIGITAL SIGNAL INTO
    ELECTRICAL SIGNAL & ELECTRICAL SIGNAL
    INTO DIGITAL SIGNAL.
   WITHOUT NIC CARD WE CANNOT FORM A
    NETWORK, BECAUSE IP ADDRESSES ARE
    ASSIGNED TO A PC BY MEANS OF NIC CARD
    DRIVERS.
   NOT ONLY LOGICAL ADDRESS , PHYSICAL
    ADDRESS IS ALSO GIVEN TO A PC BY MEANS
    OF NIC CARD
TYPES OF ADDRESS
   PHYSICAL ADDRESS

   LOGICAL ADDRESS
PHYSICAL ADDRESS
   IT IS A ADDRESS WHICH IS ASSIGNED BY
    THE NIC CARD MANUFACTURES AND
    NOT BY US.
   IT’S A 48 BIT ADDRESS (6 BYTES).
   IT’S A HEXA-DECIMAL ADDRESS.
   IT CAN BE ALSO TERMED AS ETHERNET
    ADDRESS OR HARDWARE ADDRESS OR
    MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL ADDRESS.
   PHYSICAL ADDRESS

PHYSICAL ADDRESS IS A ADDRESS WHICH I S GIVEN THE BY THE IEEE
     & NIC CARD MANUFACTURERS
IT’S A 48 BIT HEXA DECIMAL ADDRESS WHICH WILL BE ASSINGED IN
     THE NIC CARD.
PHYSICAL ADDRESS CAN BE CALLED AS MEDIA ACCESS CONTROL
     ADDRESS (MAC) OR ETHERNET ADDRESS OR HARDWARE
     ADDRESS.

00.     10.       AA.       01.      10.     AO
|       |       |       |        |         |
00000000 00010000 10101010 00000001 00010000 10100000
|       |         |       |        |       |
8         8         8        8        8      8

6 * 8 = 48 BITS ( 6 BYTES)
LOGICAL ADDRESS
   TYPES OF LOGIAL ADDRESS
   CLASS A
   CLASS B
   CLASS C
   CLASS D
   CLASS E
ADDRESS RANGE
   CLASS A ( 1 TO 126)
   CLASS B (128 TO 191)
   CLASS C (192 TO 223)
   CLASS D (224 TO 239)
   CLASS E ( 240 TO 255)
            OCTET

255.    255.        255.       255 (DECIMAL )
  |      |            |      |       |
OCTET OCTET             OCTET OCTET (BINARY)
  |      |          |        |
11111111 11111111   11111111 11111111
  |      |            |      |
8 BITS 8 BITS       8 BITS 8 BITS

        4 * 8 = 32 BITS
Private & public address range
   Private address range

Class A : 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255

Class B : 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255

Class C : 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255
CONNECTING DEVICES
   HUB
   SWITCH
   BRIDGE
   ROUTER
HUB
   HYPER USER BUS IS A CONNECTING DEVICE
    WHICH IS USED TO CONNECT MORE THAN
    TWO SYSTEMS, THAT IS USED WITH 10 BASE T
    & 100 BASE T CABLES.
   MOST HUBS HAVE FROM 5 TO 24 PORTS
   HUB IS CALLED AS A MULTIPORT REPEATER.
   WHEN AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL SIGNAL IS
    RECEIVED ON A PORT , THE SIGNAL IS
    REAMPLIFIED OR REGENERATED AND
    FORWARDED OUT ALL SEGMENTS EXCEPT
    THE SEGMENT FROM WHICH IT WAS RECEIVED
SWITCH & BRIDGE
   A DEVICE RESPONSIBLE FOR MULTIPLE
    FUNCTIONS SUCH AS
    FILTERING,FLOODING & SENDING
    FRAMES BY MEANS OF MEDIA ACCESS
    CONTROL ADDRESS
   BOTH SWITCHES AND BRIDGES ARE
    SIMILAR IN FUNCTIONING,BUT THE ONLY
    DIFFERENCE IS SWITCHES HAVE MORE
    NO OF PORTS THAN BRIDGES , THAT’S
    WHY SWITCHES ARE CALLED AS A
    MULTIPORT BRIDGE.
ROUTER
   ROTUER IS A DATA TERMINAL
    EQUIPMENT WHICH IS USED TO
    CONNECT DIFFERENT NETWORKS BY
    USING ROUTING AND ROUTED
    PROTOCOLS.
   EG: A ROUTER CAN CONNECT
    192.168.0.1 & 193.168.0.2
SUBNETTING
    WHAT IS A SUBNET?
    SUBNET IS NOTHING BUT SPLITTING A LARGER
     NETWORK INTO SMALLER ONES.

   WHAT IS THE BENEFIT OF SUBNETTING?

    WE CAN ASSIGN IP ADDRESSES FOR VARIOUS
     DEPARTMENTS USING A SINGLE NETWORK
     AND TO AVOID BROADCASTING
DEFAULT SUBNET MASK
   CLASS A : 255.0.0.0

   CLASS B : 255.255.0.0

   CLASS C : 255.255.255.0
FORMULA TO SUBNET

2 power A = X
(2 power B ) -2 =Y

A denotes the no of one’s
B denotes the no of zero’s

X denotes the no of subnets
Y denotes the no of hosts per subnet
SUBNETTING A NETWORK
 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.240
HERE THE MASK VALUE IS 240
THEREFORE
TOTALLY WE HAVE 256 IPS FOR A SINGLE
  NETWORK ( 0 – 255)
WE HAVE TO SUBTRACT THE MASK VALUE FROM
  THE TOTAL NO OF IPS
 ie 256-240
    =16
 255.255.255.240
             |
          11110000
             |
we have 4 no of one’s & 4 no of zeros
EXAMPLE FOR SUBNETTING
   TAKE CLASS C NETWORK:
 EG :192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 ( DEFAULT SUBNET MASK IS USED)
WE CAN ASSIGN 254 HOST IP ADDRESSES USING CLASS C NETWORK.
 ie 192.168.0.0 - NETWORK ADDRESS
   192.168.0.1 – FIRST USABLE IP ADDR
   192.168.0.2 – SECOND ,, ,,
   192.168.0.3 – THIRD ,, ,,
   …
   …
   …
 192.168.0.253
 192.168.0.254 – LAST USBLE IP ADDRESS OF THIS NETWORK
 192.168.0.255 – BROADCAST ADDRESS

    THE NEXT ADDRESS RANGE WILL BE

192.168.1.0
192.168.1.1
   2 power 4 , ie 16 subnets
   (2 power 4),14 hosts per subnet

Therefore 192.168.0.0 first sunetwork
         192.168.0.1 first usable ip addr
         ….
         …
        192.168.0.14 last usable ip addr
        192.168.0.15 is the broadcast addr
        192.168.0.16 is the second subnet
        192.168.0.17 first usable ip addr I

        ..
        …
ROUTING
   IP ROUTING IS THE PROCESS OF
    MOVING PACKETS FROM ONE NETWORK
    TO ANOTHER NETWORK USING
    ROUTERS
PROTOCOLS
   ROUTING PROTOCOL:
    A ROUTING PROTOCOL IS USED BY ROUTERS
    TO DYNAMICALLY FIND ALL THE NETWORKS IN
    THE INTERNETWORK AND TO ENSURE THAT
    ALL ROUTERS HAVE THE SAME ROUTING TABLE
    , A ROUTING PROTOCOL DETERMINES THE
    PATH OF A PACKET THROUGH AN
    INTERNETWORK.
    EXAMPLES:
    RIP,IGRP,EIGRP,OSPF.
PROTOCOLS
    ROUTED PROTOCOL:
     A ROUTED PROTOCOL CAN BE USED TO
     SEND USER DATA (PACKETS).ROUTED
     PROTOCOLS ARE ASSINGED TO AN
     INTERFACE AND DETERMINE THE
     METHOD OF PACKET DELIVERY.
    EXAMPLES:
    IP AND IPX
TYPES OF ROUTING
   STATIC ROUTING

   DEFAULT ROUTING

   DYNAMIC ROUTING
CABLES
    TYPES:

   CO-AXIAL CABLE

   TWISTED PAIR

   FIBER OPTIC
(CO-AXIAL CABLE
TYPES OF CO-AXIAL CABLE

  10         BASE          2 (Thinnet)
   |           |            |
Data         Base band    185
Transmission Technology   meters
Speed

 10           BASE            5 (Thicknet)
  |             |             |
Data
Transmission Base Band      500
Speed        Technology     meters
TWISTED PAIR CABLE
   TYPES

   UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)
   STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)

    furthur it can be classified into
    10 Base T & 100 Base T
COLOUR CODINGS IN THE
TWISTED PAIR CABLE
   TOTALLY THERE WILL BE FOUR PAIRS OF
    WIRES (i.e) 8 WIRES.THEY ARE
   ORANGE WHITE (TX)
   ORANGE (TX GND)
   GREEN WHITE (RX)
   BLUE WHITE
   BLUE
   GREEN (RX GND)
   BROWN WHITE
   BROWN
DTE & DCE

    DATA TERMINAL EQUIPMENT
    EXAMPLE: SYSTEM , ROUTER

    DATA COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT
    EXAMPLE: HUB ,SWITCH,BRIDGE.
CRIMPING
CRIMPING IS THE PROCESS WHICH IS
 USED TO CONNECT THE WIRES AND THE
 JACK (RJ-45) USING CRIMPING TOOL

TYPES

STRAIGHT CRIMPING
CROSS CRIMPING
ROLLED CRIMPING
STRAIGHT CRIMPING
   STRAIGHT CRIMPING IS USED TO CONNECT DTE AND DCE
    [(i.e) system to hub or system to switch.]

   DIFFERENT TYPES OF DEVICES ( DTE & DCE) ARE
    CONNECTED USING STRAIGHT CRIMPING.

   ORANGE WHITE   ------------       ORANGE WHITE
   ORANGE         --------------     ORANGE
   GREEN WHITE    --------------     GREEN WHITE
   BLUE WHITE      --------------    BLUE WHITE
   BLUE            -------------     BLUE
   GREEN             ------------    GREEN
   BROWN WHITE       -------------   BROWN WHITE
   BROWN             ------------    BROWN
    CROSS CRIMPING
 CROSS CRIMPING IS USED TO CONNECT THE
  SAME TYPE OF DEVICES (DTE & DTE OR DCE &
  DCE). (i.e.) system to system & router to router.
ORANGE WHITE             -----------   GREEN WHITE
ORANGE                   _______       GREEN
GREEN WHITE              _______       ORANGE WHITE
BLUE WHITE               _______       BLUE WHITE
BLUE                     _______       BLUE
GREEN                     _______      ORANGE
BROWN WHITE              ________      BROWN WHITE
BROWN                     ________     BROWN
ROLLED CRIMPING
   ROLLED CRIMPING IS USED TO CONNECT
    ROUTER TO ROUTER.

ORANGE WHITE     ---- BROWN
ORANGE           ----- BROWN WHITE
GREEN WHITE     ----- GREEN
BLUE WHITE      ------ BLUE
BLUE           ------- BLUE WHITE
GREEN          ------- GREEN WHITE
BROWN WHITE    -------- ORANGE
BROWN            ------- ORANGE WHITE

				
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Description: A Basic Concept about ADVANCED NETWORKING. Fundamendals