Minerals 11 12 by HC120929163940

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 20

									Rocks & Minerals
Minerals
       What is a Mineral?
Never Sneeze in Denver, Colorado!

   Naturally Occurring (found naturally in
    nature)

   Solid

   Inorganic (Do not come from living
     things)
       What is a Mineral?
Never Sneeze in Denver, Colorado!

   Definite Chemical Composition: Minerals are
    expressed by a specific chemical formula which
    tells you the types and amounts of elements
    are found in a given type of mineral.
      -Gold (Au)
      -Calcite (CaCO3)
      -Quartz (SiO2)
      -Pyrite   (FeS2)
       What is a Mineral?
Never Sneeze in Denver, Colorado!

   Crystal Structure: Ordered arrangement of
    atoms in patterns that give each type of
    mineral a characteristic crystal shape .
          Naturally Occurring

   Formed by natural processes not in the
    laboratory
                      Solid

   Not gas or liquid
    -H2O as ice in a glacier is a mineral, but
     water is not
                 Inorganic

   Do not come from living things

   Formed by inorganic processes

   Does not contain chains of carbon atoms
    Definite Chemical Composition

   Minerals are expressed by a specific
    chemical formula which tells you the
    types and amounts of elements found
    in a given type of mineral.
   -Gold (Au)
    -Calcite (CaCO3)
    -Quartz (SiO2)
    -Pyrite   (FeS2)
     Crystal Structure
   Ordered arrangement of atoms in
    patterns




       Apatite   Feldspar   Diamond    Quartz
   Minerals have a characteristic crystal shape
    resulting from the atomic packing of the atoms
    when the mineral is forming 8
    Economic Importance of Minerals

   Minerals are in many things we see and
    use everyday such as; glass, cement,
    plaster, iron, gold.

   An ore is a rock that contains a metal or
    economically useful mineral.
             Uses of Minerals

   Minerals are also the source of metals,
    gems, food and medicines.

    A gemstone is a hard, colorful mineral
    that has a brilliant or glassy luster.
    Every American Requires 40,000
    Pounds of New Minerals per Year
at this level of consumption the average newborn infant
   will need a lifetime supply of:
   795 lbs of lead (car batteries, electric
    components)
   757 lbs of zinc (to make brass, rubber, paints)
   1500lbs of copper (electrical motors, wirings
   3593 lbs aluminum (soda cans, aircraft)
   32,700 lbs of iron (kitchen utensils, automobiles,
    buildings)
   28,213 lbs of salt (cooking, detergents)
   1,238,101 lbs of stone, sand, gravel, cement
    (roads, homes, etc.)
Where Do Minerals Come From?
Magma




Evaporation
         How do minerals form?

   Crystallization from magma
   Precipitation (rain, sleet, snow)
   Pressure and temperature
   Hydrothermal solutions (hydro=water,
     thermal = heat)
      How Are Minerals Identified?
Minerals are identified by a combination of properties
that are unique to each type of mineral.

     Color
     Luster
     Hardness
     Streak
     Density
     Crystal Shape
     Cleavage and Fracture (how it breaks apart)
     Other Unique or Special Properties
                       Hardness
   The ability of a mineral to resist being
    scratched
   Resistance to scratching by different items;
    “scratchability”

   Mohs Hardness Scale
          >2 fingernail
             3 penny
    ~5 Steel of a pocket knife
        5.5 Window Glass
        6.6 Steel of a file
        7 quartz crystal
          Mohs Mineral Hardness Scale
1) Talc        Softest
2) Gypsum
3) Calcite               1
                                5
4) Flourite
5) Apatite                              9
                         2
6) Feldspar                     6
7) Quartz
8) Topaz                 3
                                7
9) Corundum                             10

10) Diamond    Hardest
                         4      8
                     Streak
   The color of the powder left when a
    mineral is scratched on a surface
   Determined by rubbing the mineral on a piece
    of unglazed porcelain (streak plate)
                     Luster
   The way a mineral reflects light
   General appearance of a mineral surface in
    reflected light




                        Glassy-Obsidian

								
To top