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Strands by wuzhenguang


									                                                                       NATURAL SCIENCES
                                                                CONTENT DEMARCATION FOR GRADES 4 – 9
                                                                                      LIFE AND LIVING
 STRANDS                   GRADE 4                          GRADE 5                          GRADE 6                             GRADE 7                            GRADE 8                  GRADE 9
Life and living   Water: the important role of      Ecosystems-biotic actors-      Explore ecosystem-different        Different food types-proteins,          Photosynthesis,             The chemistry of
                  water in the ecosystem            plants, animals-producers,     types of ecosystems e.g. grass     fats, carbohydrates, minerals,          Importance of               photosynthesis,
                  The impact of water shortage      consumers-primary and          land, Karoo, valley bush-veld,     vitamins, water.                        photosynthesis,             Products,
                  and water quality(make a          secondary, decomposers         rocky shore, pond, dam, rivers     Absorption of food                      Requirements for            importance
                  water filter, make rain gauge     A biotic factors-water, air,   Food chains and food webs.         Requirements for photosynthesis         photosynthesis
                  and measure, recall               soil, temperature and its                                                                                 Process of                  Energy transfer in
                  information about                 effects on biotic factors      How animals move-vertebrates       Storage organs in plants-roots,         photosynthesis              an ecosystem
                  consequences of water                                            and invertebrates-locust, snail,   stem, leaves
                  shortages or polluted water,                                     earthworm, crab.                                                                                       Cell-unicellular,
                  describe how indigenous                                                                             Interaction in the environment-         Life processes-nutrition,   multi-cellular
                  cultures kept water safe and                                     Nutrition in animals-              ecosystems-food chain ,food web         digestion, respiration,     (examples)
                  pure in the past                                                 heterotrophs- herbivores,                                                  excretion, circulation,     Structure of plant
                                                                                   carnivores, omnivores,             Classification of animals-              healthy living              and animal cell
                  Living things-characteristics,                                   saprophytes, parasites             vertebrates and invertebrates-                                      Functions of
                  Green plants-parts of the                                                                           different classes,                      Energy flow in an           different parts
                  plant, functions of the various                                  Digestive system in humans-        Characteristics                         ecosystem                   Comparison of
                  parts, factors that help plants                                  different parts and functions                                              Food relationships-food     plant and animal
                  to grow-                                                                                            Cell-animal and plant cell -            chains and food webs        cell
                  (water,sunlight,soil,air)                                                                           structure and functions                 Competition, predators
                  Differences between plants                                                                                                                  Balance of ecosystem        Tissues, organs and
                  and animals.                                                                                        Life processes-breathing system,        Decomposition               systems in plants
                  Sun as a source of energy.                                                                          excretion-elimination of waste,                                     and animals
                  Animals cannot make their         Adaptation of plants to                                           Importance of water-kidney, skin,       Animal behavior
                  own food-feeding habits of        various climatic conditions-   Animals living together in a       stomata                                 patterns-feeding,
                  different                         dry land/desert, marshy/wet    variety of social patterns-         Circulatory system-structure and       reproduction                Sexual
                  animals(herbivores&               land                           colonies(bees, ants) packs,        functions.                                                          reproduction-
                  carnivores),types of food,         Adaptations of animals in     prides, troops, herds, with        Reproduction in plants-                 Taking care of the          puberty, sex cells,
                  food groups and healthy           their habitats- dry            examples                           pollination fertilization, fruits and   environment-plants,         fertilization
                  living, balanced diet,            land/desert, marshy/wet land                                      seeds                                   vegetables,
                  Vegetative reproduction-                                                                                                                    Medicinal plants
                  growing new plants from

                                                                                     Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                                                          1
                                                                        LIFE AND LIVING
STRANDS           GRADE 4                          GRADE 5                    GRADE 6                         GRADE 7            GRADE 8                 GRADE 9
          Different habitats of animals-   Food relationships in the                                                       Adaptation of organisms Diseases-Diabetes,
          vertebrates and invertebrates    ecosystems-simple food                                                          in the ecosystems-         HIV & AIDS, heart
          and the characteristics to       chains                                                                          vertebrates, invertebrates diseases, STD’s and
          adapt to these habitats.                                                                                                                    preventive
                                           Compare habitats of                                                                                        measures
                                           different animals and
                                           adaptations                                                                                               Interactions in the
                                           Sense organs and its                                                                                      pollution-water, air,
                                           functions                                                                                                 land
                                                                                                                                                     role of man in the
                                                                                                                                                     recycling of matter-
                                                                                                                                                     nutrient cycles-
                                                                                                                                                     nitrogen and carbon
                                                                                                                                                     Variation in
                                                                                                                                                     Extinction of
                                                                                                                                                     species by human
                                                                                                                                                     activities and
                                                                                                                                                     through natural
                                                                                                                                                     Alien plants
                                                                                                                                                     Habitat destruction
                                                                                                                                                     Biodiversity-loss of

                                                                       Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                                     2
                                                                             MATTER AND MATERIALS
 STRANDS             GRADE 4                         GRADE 5                            GRADE 6                               GRADE 7                        GRADE 8                   GRADE 9
Matter and   Three phases of matter-solids    Substances that dissolve in     Temporary changes and                Different types of solutions        The particle model of        Properties and uses
materials    ,liquids & gases.(examples)     water ( sugar, salt,             permanent changes                    Solubility-solvent, solute.         matter-neutrons and          of matter-
             ice, water & water vapour       coffee),solutions,               Contraction, and expansion,                                              electrons                    states/phases
             Melting temperature &           pure substances, impure          melting, evaporation                 Phases of matter-properties-        atoms and molecules
             boiling temperature             substances, mixtures and         condensation and solidification      physical changes-melting,                                        Useful gases-
             Water cycle(clouds,rain,hail,   compounds                        Solubility of substances-solvents,   evaporation, condensation,          Introduction to periodic     oxygen, hydrogen,
             and snow)                       Separation of mixtures-          solutes                              solidification, diffusion, and      table                        carbon-dioxide
             Temporary and permanent         sorting, filtration, magnetic    Rate of solubility(heating,          heating by conduction               Elements and
             changes to materials            and non magnetic                 mixing)                              crystalline structure/              compounds                    The particle model
                                             substances                       Properties of materials-hardness,    compressibility/ non-                                            of matter-atoms and
                                                                              flexibility, thermal conductivity    compressibility                     Chemical reactions-          molecules
                                                                              & electrical conductivity            Acids and bases, indicators         metals non-metals            Balancing of
                                                                              The density of substances-mass,      Household acids and bases, salts    Equations                    equations
                                                                              volume, units of measurements        and neutral solutions               Elements from
                                                                                                                                                       compounds-                   Compounds
                                                                                                                   Reactions and changes of                                         Acids and bases-
                                                                                                                   materials-acids and bases-          decomposition of
                                                                                                                                                       compounds                    reactions with
                                                                                                                   characteristics,                                                 metal and metal
                                                                                                                   Household acids & bases             Acidic and alkaline
                                                                                                                                                       solutions                    oxides, hydroxides
                                                                                                                   Indicators                                                       and carbonates
                                                                                                                   Neutralization                      Corrosion of iron
                                                                                                                   Products of neutralization          Reaction of oxygen with      Reactions between
                                                                                                                                                       food                         oxygen and metals
                                                                                                                   Origin of raw materials.                                         & non-metals
                                                                                                                   Radiation-dark coloured and light    Gases-oxygen, nitrogen,     Structure, reactions
                                                                                                                   coloured substances                 hydrogen-reactions with      and changes of
                                                                                                                   Conductors,                         other elements,              materials
                                                                                                                   Resistors                           chemical equations           Chemical reactions-
                                                                                                                   Pure substances and mixtures                                     endothermic and
                                                                                                                   Methods of separation of            Magnetism-                   exothermic
                                                                                                                   mixtures-physical separation-       electromagnetism             reactions
                                                                                                                   filtration, distillation,           magnetic fields, polarity,
                                                                                                                   evaporation, chromatography         magnetic substances,         Extracting useful
                                                                                                                                                       electrically charged         materials from raw
                                                                                                                   Measurement: length, mass, area,    materials, (electrostatics   materials-iron,
                                                                                                                   volume, density, flotation                                       gold, platinum,
                                                                                                                   Magnetism-magnetic fields,

                                                                                Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                                                          3
                                                                           ENERGY AND CHANGE
 STRANDS             GRADE 4                          GRADE 5                          GRADE 6                              GRADE 7                       GRADE 8                  GRADE 9
Energy and   Energy –what is energy           Use of energy               Systems which store energy-            Energy transfer and systems         Heat transfer             Forces-physical
change                                                                    Electric cells, stretched springs,     Types of energy-potential energy,   Electricity-source of     contacts,
             Types of energy-heat energy,     Systems which store energy- Food and chemicals                     kinetic energy                      heat energy, light        Field forces –
             light energy                     Energy from food-chemical                                          Uses of energy, examples of         energy transfer of        magnetic, electrical,
                                              energy                      Electric circuit                       energy transfer and systems-        energy through            gravitational forces
              Sources of energy-wind, fire,                               Conductors, non-conductors,            electrical, gravitational,          conduction, convection
             sun, animals, falling water      Solar energy                cells, main supply                     mechanical, chemical, nuclear,      and radiation             Newton’s laws-
                                                                                                                 solar, biomass, optical (light).    How to control            1,2and 3
                                              Safety rules for using energy Transfer of energy-resistors-                                            conduction, convection    Systems made to
                                                                            bulbs, heating wires, solenoids,     Fossils, fossil fuels               and radiation to reduce   transfer energy-
                                                                            motors                                                                   wasteful heat transfer    electrical,
                                                                                                                 Renewable         (wind, sun and    How to improve            mechanical & solar
                                                                            Energy transfers through-            water) and non renewable (fuels,    conduction, convection    energy.
                                                                            expansion, contraction, melting,     coal, gas and oil) sources of       and radiation to          Transfer of light
                                                                            evaporation, condensation,           energy.                             increase useful heat      energy
                                                                            solidification.                                                          transfer                  Light-absorption,
                                                                                                                 Wood as a source of energy and                                refraction, reflection,
                                                                            Sound-transfer of energy by          its renewability                    Electricity generating    light
                                                                            vibration through solid, liquid or                                       systems and
                                                                            gas.                                 Heat transfer-conduction,           connections               Conservation of
                                                                                                                 convection, radiation                                         energy
                                                                                                                                                     Generation of             Sustainable use of
                                                                                                                                                     electricity               energy
                                                                                                                                                     Impacts on the            Generation systems-
                                                                                                                                                     environment               electrical energy
                                                                                                                                                     Advantages &              from energy sources-
                                                                                                                                                     disadvantages             coal, nuclear
                                                                                                                                                                               reactions, burning
                                                                                                                                                     Electrical connections,   gas and falling
                                                                                                                                                     costs, importance         water.
                                                                                                                                                                               of coal, omission of
                                                                                                                                                                               carbon dioxide
                                                                                                                                                                               Global warming

                                                                              Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                                                          4
                              ENERGY AND CHANGE
STRANDS   GRADE 4   GRADE 5           GRADE 6                         GRADE 7      GRADE 8      GRADE 9
                                                                                             How to save energy
                                                                                             Design of buildings
                                                                                             and appliances
                                                                                             Cost of electricity
                                                                                             and how to reduce
                                                                                             Alternative sources
                                                                                             of energy
                                                                                             Wood as a source
                                                                                             of energy
                                                                                             Planting of trees for
                                                                                             sustainable use of

                               Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                     5
                                                                           EARTH AND BEYOND
  STRANDS             GRADE 4                        GRADE 5                           GRADE 6                              GRADE 7                        GRADE 8                 GRADE 9
Earth and   Solar system                    Sun, moon, earth               Weather in different parts of the     Solar system                      Gravity and the position   Planet earth-
Beyond      Planet earth in the solar       Weather-temperature, wind      country, seasons in relation to the   Celestial motion                  of planets in the orbit    structure-
            system-sun, inner planets       direction, speed,              rotation of earth                     Phases of moon                    Sun as a major source of   lithosphere, mantle
            outer planets                   precipitation                  Effect of different climate on        Eclipses                          energy, how it affect      Lithospheric plates
            Day and night                   Annual seasonal changes        habitats                              Tides and phases of moon and      plant growth
            Rotation of earth on its axis   Changes in rainfall, average   Shape and position of moon-           eclipses                          Wind                       Atmosphere and
            Moon and its shape –quarter,    wind direction                 cultural beliefs, traditions and                                        Oceans                     weather-
            half and full moon.             Length of day and night        special occasions                     Atmosphere –layers of the         Water currents             composition,
            Earth –solid rocks, soil,       Average maximum and            Stars-position over the year          atmosphere                        Atmosphere and weather     properties and role
            water, gases in the             minimum temperatures           Recognition of stars by different     Atmospheric gases                 Human activities           Space explorations,
            atmosphere                      Water cycle-hydrosphere,       cultures                              Properties of atmosphere at       altering the composition   SALT-benefits,
            Weather changes, seasons        atmosphere and lithosphere     Names of star patterns                different elevations to protect   of atmosphere-             Mar’s investigation
            The planets,Continents,         Erosion,                       Stars for navigation and for          earth from harmful radiations     companies, technologies,   Impacts of human
            oceans                          Land forms                     calendars                                                               building dams              in the atmosphere
                                            Composition of soil-           Different types of rocks-igneous,                                       Change in weather          Geological events-
                                            weathered rocks                sedimentary and metamorphic                                             patterns                   earthquakes,
                                            Formation of soil              types                                 Mining-in different provinces     Long term changes in       volcanic eruptions
                                            Properties of soil             Origin of rocks                       Significance of mining to man     rainfall and climate       Constructive forces
                                            Water retention                History of rocks                      Advantages and disadvantages                                 Crustal formation
                                                                           Water resources                       Safety and environmental          Global warming-cause       Deposition of
                                                                           Catchment areas                       impacts.                          and effect                 sediments
                                                                           Care and management of                                                  Greenhouse effect          Destructive forces-
                                                                           catchment areas                                                         Ozone layer                weathering, erosion
                                                                           Factors affecting the quality of                                        Relationship between       land forms, fossils
                                                                           water resources and catchment                                           climate and atmosphere     Fossil fuels-coal,
                                                                           areas                                                                   Natural events-Elnino,     gas, oil-how it is
                                                                           fossils                                                                 tsunami etc                formed
                                                                                                                                                   Climatic conditions        Mining-local
                                                                                                                                                   affecting plants and       examples-coal for
                                                                                                                                                   animals in different       energy,
                                                                                                                                                   regions                    raw materials for
                                                                                                                                                                              legislation controls
                                                                                                                                                                              of mining, safety,

                                                                             Natural Sciences Content Demarcation Grades 4 – 9                                                                       6

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