Language Personalities by D8S5BET

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 41

									Language
Personalities
EN TI-KRAMPOUEZH

Ar mevel o komz ouzh Soaz.

M.   ― Salud   deoc'h. Petra ho po da zebriñ?
S.   ― Da gentañ, ur grampouezhenn ed-du, gant ognon ha
        tomatez, mar plij.
M.   ― Mat-tre,   ha petra ho po goude?
S.   ― Ur   grampouezhenn gwinizh gant mel.
M.   ― Ha   petra ho po d'evañ? Chistr?
S.   ― N'em   bo ket chistr. Laezh-ribod am bo, mar plij.
M.   ― Kafe   ho po goude?
S.   ― N'em   bo ket. Met ur banne te am bo.
Kurssi koostuu eri aihepiirien teksteistä, jotka on
jaettu lyhyisiin kappaleisiin. Kunkin kappaleen
lopussa on ymmärtämistä testaavia
monivalintatehtäviä. Kappaleisiin sisältyvät myös
sanastot ja kielioppiosuudet. Yhteistä sanastoa
täydentää vielä kattava yleisimpien verbien (yli
600) eri muodot sisältävä luettelo.
 Language Personalities

  How the Interplay of Phonology,
Phonotactics and Morpho-phonology
   Creates a Linguistic Aesthetic
“The liquid vowels of the Polynesian tongues conjure up
visions of loveliness and languor, full moon and bright lagoon.
Contrariwise, the gutturals of the German language sound, to a
non-German, as harsh and forbidding as winter in the Black
Forest.

The swoops and swirls of Persian script seem, to a Westerner,
as voluptuous and sensual as the quatrains of Omar Khayyám.
But Goethe wrote tender and lyrical word-music in German,
and Persian is prosaically utilitarian for keeping the accounts
of Iranian oil companies.

The personality of a language, like that of a man, is the sum of
many things not always apparent to the casual eye or ear.”

                                  — Gary Jennings, Personalities of Language
“While the national language of a people has its own
personality, a Sprachgefühl distinct from even closely
related tongues, it is at the same time a complex of
sublanguages—regional dialects, trade jargons and the
like—each of which has its own idiosyncrasies. Take a
New York stockbroker and an Alabama share-
cropper…or for that matter, any teen-ager and his
grandfather. Each pair speaks one national language,
but with worlds-apart difference.”
—   Džíčet?               ― Did   you eat yet?
—   Nàà.                  ― No.

—   Tskwît.               ― Let’s   go eat.
—   Wadžavin máin?        ― What    did you have in mind?
—   Haubau’tái?           ― How     about Thai?
—   Kêj.                  ― OK.



(SBA)
Supposedly she’s an heiress or something like that.

(Teen)
She’s like s’posed to be a fucking heiress or some shit.
           Phonoaesthetics


Phonasthetics is the reason that Aragorn, having
defeated the evil lord of Mordor, becomes King of
the West and takes the name Elessar Telcontar,
rather than having defeated the evil lord of
Ailuanyemarë and being crowned under the name
Kratchmurg Brogzdoodle.
CONSONANT INVENTORY OF UBYKH
   Qui a dit que les chiens ne
pouvaient pas apprendre à parler?
çççççwçwçwçwçwůůůůůůšwšwšwšwšwšwššššššççççwçwçw




pššššššçççççççkšššššssss
noon      say         Vaughn      come
sum       ma          deer        bun
pa        new         day         we
frond     poo         parole


Noon sum pa frond say ma new poo Vaughn
deer day parole come bun we.


Nous ne sommes pas français, ma nous
pouvons dire des paroles comme “bonne
nuit.”
y            à            somme        te
eu           août         faim         heure
haute        tout         me           ne (n’)
ou           pis          sou          Aix
cette        comme        est-ce?      pleurent
                                       heure

Y eu haute ou cette à août tout pis comme somme
faim me sou est-ce te heure n’Aix pleurent heure.

You ought to set out to become some famous
Western explorer.
Ailles ou ans tout crié te Cannes langue tout.
       CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
        “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Fundamental questions re phoneme inventories:
• Distribution of front vowels vs. back vowels
• Front vowels: To round or not to round? / 2, 9, Y, y /
• Schwa or no schwa?
• /j/ and /w/ onsets (rising diphthongs) after consonants
• “Guttural” sounds? / x, q, X, R, R\, H /
• Affricates or no affricates?
• Glottal stop?
• Secondary articulations or not? palatalization,
  labialization, gemination, rhotacization,
  pharyngealization, ejectivization, aspiration, nasalization
• Exotic phonemes: /K/ /M\/
     CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
      “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG

Phonotactic Patterns and Constraints
• Frequency of front vs. back vowels; should I
  have vowel harmony?
• Frequency of rounded front vowels
• Frequency of /j/ and /w/ onsets following
  consonants
• Frequency of sibilants and other fricatives
• Syllable Structure: CV vs. CVC vs. CCVCC, etc.
• Ratio of open syllables to closed syllables
     CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
      “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Vowels:
  • Diphthongs?
  • Dyssyllabic vowel conjuncts?
  • Allophony: Ubykh has 10 or 11 audible vowel
    phones but only two vowel phonemes.

Consonants:
  • Key concept is phonetic assimilation
  • Complexity and variety of consonant clusters
      CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
       “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG

• Influence of semivowels: diphthongs
• Heterogenous consonant conjuncts , e.g.,
   septiembre – settembre – setembre
• Effect of liquids: Latin root clam- 
    cllam-, llam- ,cham-
• Metathesis and apocope, e.g.,
   pericolo – peligro – perigo
      CREATING A PHONAESTHETIC
       “FEEL” FOR YOUR CONLANG
Morpho-phonology:
• Reduplication, vowel loss (syncope, apocope,
  aphaeresis), epenthesis
• Vocalic mutation: umlaut/ablaut,
  diphthongization, dyssyllabification
• Consonantal mutation: nasal, rhotic, lateral,
  fricativization, voicing/devoicing, gemination
• Sandhi and juncture rules: assimilation again
• Stress shifts
• Tone shifts / tone sandhi
ir ‘to go’        = ( )-ir      = ( ) + INFINITIVE

yendo ‘going’     = ( )-iendo   = ( ) + GERUND

id ‘go!’          = ( )-id      = ( ) + 2nd PLURAL IMPERATIVE




venir ‘to come’

ven ‘come!’       = ven-( )     = ‘come’ + 2nd SG. IMPERATIVE
“¡Ven!”


“¡ !”
Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai.




Ámpyë hêth olwae tarasentela periorië.




Happói yeutta ööhlü traθkãčeł bžöfré.
 Apo ket olua taraskentel brihaprai.




 Pho’ qetlh ûrwagh třašqetnálh gridzo’přââ.


Can you figure out the steps to get to this one?
Wepp’wa hé’èeyat ówàay t’alàaskwenné’ew
i’lispwa’hàay.
Verdurian – Mark Rosenfelder

                   So hepdën pirei esë

Piro esë e fascotene uestu. E so sanno Buyelei, im dáluan
Verdúrë. Eluá, mun racontretu, er lelmo tal fascotene e.

Scúreden, zet ečite fruece er hicete soem bouem pro utron.
Eššane ti-velec atüčy velne ana is can nočín.

Širden, rihe soa dumora domei cum hozënán taë er miran
esë. Oce lyö faše er mis dy eu trodonecî, dy e gašul uestu,
dy deve vagir soi ďiteli com precun feyämán. Nikto řo nime
cuesan eta so lešel šualië, escatelië er vinei lië.
amman îar
by David Bell


i rîellisse életh an alanin erthendelon.
The girl kissed him.

alan életh an nerin erhiron narnen.
He told me a story.

alan életh áni dais cûos erechöiron i daurar.
He killed the tiger with a bow in the forest.
Minhast by Nick Campanilla




Phonology: Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, Persian, Akkadian, Korean.
Grammar/Syntax: Iroquoian, Ainu, Yupik, Georgian, Arabic, Persian,
Basque, Tagalog, Ilocano
Rrldhla
by Tom Corcoran


Estyesh jye lhrrln nal chrr nrr rrpludh egeik
lrrzbagrrn: rmp rhaolh, jye mrlelhrthr nrr ye'rr tu
zdhu estyesh tu rrshle. Estyesh na m'mrlelhrthr
rngrrl trr oimrrzdhye kla chrr'r la'rrstae'in, estyesh
na m'zboi kla trr rgya chrr'r la'rrstae'in.
Hwaerd Raaz
by Durandal Brytting




Hwa! C'prex'rraa, b'lac drrang'loc fece jonte, cadz'dz'
kloc flec ruc gorrontruk te borgarj farex.
You smell dreadful, as if you have spent the last weeks rolling around
in rotting camel corpses and the excrement of elephants.

Hwa! Barc'gl þutte ruc an tomp el c'lodz, þu j'lep
j'mekrunt.
Drown yourself in a vat of mud, you worthless sack of fat.

Hwa! Gowecar spoce p'fπ dzamae un þun blec.
Your hair frightens little children.
Qþyn|gài by Henrik Theiling
     Phonoaesthetics & Music

• Suitability of phonotactical patterns to the
  type of music, e.g.,
   – Samba and Brazilian Portuguese
   – Soukous and Lingala
   – Mbalax and Wolof
     Phonoaesthetics & Music
• On the Conlang front:
  – Christian Vander’s Magma and Kobaian
     Phonoaesthetics & Music
• Poor “fit” between music and language, e.g.,
  – Rap/hip-hop and French
  – Renaissance polyphonic liturgical music and
    Latin

  Loquebantur variis linguis apostoli, alleluia.
  Magnalia Dei, alleluia.
    Phonoaesthetics & Music
• The Ultimate Language for Song
Po vdes nga etja pranë një burimi,
Kur zjarri ndizet, dhëmb mbi dhëmb kërcet,
Djeg zhegu, dridhet buza nga thëllimi,
Në vendin tim jam si në vend të shkretë.
Si krimb i çveshur, veshur porsi mbret,
Mes lotësh qeshem dhe me shpresa rri,
Mua më jep zemër veç dëshpërimi i zi.
Dëfrehem dhe asgjë nuk më gëzon.
I fortë jam — pa forcë, pa fuqi.
Kudo më presin, gjithëkush më zbon.
Language
Personalities

								
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