Romanization Greek by uIjyV4i

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									      This romanization system supersedes the one which was approved by the BGN and the PCGN
in 1962. It corresponds to the system devised by the Hellenic Organization for Standardization and
approved for international use at the Fifth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of
Geographical Names in 1987.


                Greek                                 Romanization            Example


1.     A    α       Α   α                                  a          Άρ τ α              rta



       Α    α                                                        Ακ τ α ί
                   Αι   αι                                 ai                          Akta o
       ι    ι                                                            ο



       Α    α                                                        Νε ρ ά ϊ
                   Αϊ   αï                                 a                          Ner da
       ϊ    ϊ                                                           δ α



                              before   β , γ , δ ,
                                                                     Μα υ ρ ο
                             ζ , λ , μ , ν , ρ ,           av                       Mavrovo ni
                                                                     β ο ύ ν ι
                                   and all vowels


       Α    α
                   Αυ   αυ
       υ    υ                 before   θ , κ , ξ ,
                                                                     Να ύ πλ
                             π, σ, τ , φ, χ ,              af                          N fplio
                                                                        ι ο
                               ψ     and word final




                              when α is stressed           ay        Τ α ϋγ ε τ
                                                                          ´          Taӱgetos
                                                                                        ´
                        or when υ occurs               ο ς
                           with dieresis




2.   Β   β   Β    β                            v    Βό λ ο ς     V los



                                                    Γ α ρ ά ζ

                                                    ο Γ ο υ ρ    Gar zo
                       before all vowels and
                                                    ι ά Άγ ν     Gouri
                       consonants other than   g
                                                    α ν τ α Γ     gnanta
                         γ , ξ , and χ
3.   Γ   γ   Γ    γ                                 λ υ φά δ     Glyf da

                                                        α



                                                    Αγ χ ί α
                       before   ξ   and    χ   n                Anch alos
                                                      λ ο ς



     Γ   γ                                          Λό γ γ ο
             Γγ   γγ                           ng                L ngos
     γ   γ                                              ς



     Γ   γ                                          Λα γ κ ά
             Γκ   γκ                           gk               Lagk da
     κ   κ                                             δ α



                                                    Δέ ν δ ρ
4.   Δ   δ   Δ    δ                            d                 D ndra
                                                        α
                                                                  Ερ έ τ ρ
5.   Ε   ε   Ε    ε                                     e                            Er tria
                                                                    ι α



     Ε   ε                                                        Ηρ ά κ λ
             Ει   ει                                    ei                           Ir kleio
     ι   ι                                                         ε ι ο



     Ε   ε                                                        Μα ρ ι ν
             Εϊ   εϊ                                    e                           Marin ka
     ϊ   ϊ                                                        έ ϊ κ α



                        before   β , γ , δ ,
                                                                  Ρε ύ μ α
                       ζ , λ , μ , ν , ρ ,             ev                           R vmata
                                                                    τ α
                           and all vowels




                        before   θ , κ , ξ ,
     Ε   ε                                                        Λε υ κ ά
             Ευ   ευ   π, σ, τ , φ, χ ,                 ef                          Lefk da
     υ   υ                                                          δ α
                         ψ , and word final



                        when     ε   is stressed

                        or when      υ   occurs        ey                    rare

                            with dieresis




                                                   Romanization            Example
                                                     Ζε μ ε ν
6.    Ζ   ζ   Ζ    ζ                            z                      Zemen
                                                        ό



                                                     Ηρ ά κ λ
7.    Η   η   Η    η                            i                      Ir kleio
                                                      ε ι ο



                         before   β , γ , δ ,

                        ζ , λ , μ , ν , ρ ,     iv              rare

                            and all vowels




                         before   θ , κ , ξ ,
      Η   η
              Ηυ   ηυ   π, σ, τ , φ, χ ,        if              rare
      υ   υ
                          ψ , and word final



                         when η is stressed

                         or when   υ   occurs   iy              rare

                             with dieresis




                                                     Θε σ π ι
8.    Θ   θ   Θ    θ                            th                     Thespi s
                                                       έ ς



9.    I   ι   Ι    ι                            i    Ί ρ ι α              ria



10.   Κ   κ   Κ    κ                            k    Κα λ α μ          Kalam ki
                                                         ά κ ι



11.   Λ   λ   Λ    λ                               l    Λί μ ν η     L mni



                                                        Μα ρ α θ
12.   Μ   μ   Μ    μ                               m               Marath nas
                                                        ών α ς



                                                        Μπ έ χ ρ
                        initially and word final   b                B chros
      Μ   μ                                               ο ς
              Μπ   μπ
      π   π

                               medially            mp   Τέ μ πη      T mpi



                                                        Νε σ τ ά
13.   Ν   ν   Ν    ν                               n                Nest ni
                                                          ν η



      Ν   ν
              Ντ   ντ                              nt   Ντ ί α        Nt a
      τ   τ



14.   Ξ   ξ   Ξ    ξ                               x    Ξά ν θ η     X nthi



15.   Ο   ο   Ο    ο                               o    Όθ ο ς        thos



      Ο   ο   Οι   οι                              oi   Δε λ φο      Delfo
      ι   ι                                                              ί



      Ο   ο                                                           Δο ϊ ρ ά
                 Οϊ   οϊ                                    o                            Do r ni
      ϊ   ϊ                                                             ν ι



                                                                      Βο ύ ν α
                                                           ou                           Vo nargo
                                                                       ρ γ ο
      Ο   ο
                 Ου   ου
      υ   υ
                           when ο is stressed, or

                              when υ occurs                 oy                   rare

                                 with dieresis




              Greek                                    Romanization            Example


                                                                      Πα ύ λ ο
16.   Π   π      Π    π                                     p                            P vlos
                                                                         ς



                                                                      Μπ έ χ ρ
                            initially and word final        b                           B chros
      Μ   μ      Μ    μ                                                 ο ς

      π   π      π    π

                                   medially                mp         Τέ μ πη            T mpi



17.   Ρ   ρ      Ρ    ρ                                     r         Με ρ ό π           Mer pi
                                           ι



18.       σ       σ                s    Άσσο ς         ssos

      Σ       Σ

          ς       ς   word final   s    Σά μ ο ς     S mos



                                        Τί ρ υ ν
19.       τ       τ                t                 T ryntha
                                          θ α


      Τ       Τ
                                        Πέ ν τ ε
          ν       ν
                                   nt   Βρ ύ σε    P nte Vr ses
          τ       τ
                                           ς



20.   Υ   υ   Υ   υ                y    Υλ ί κ η       Yl ki



                                        Φι λ ο θ
21.   Φ   φ   Φ   φ                f                 Filoth i
                                          έ η



                                        Χα ρ α υ
22.   Χ   χ   Χ   χ                ch               Charavg
                                          γ ή



23.   Ψ   ψ   Ψ   ψ                ps   Ψα ρ ά        Psar
                                                                          Ωρ ωπ ό
24.     Ω     ω      Ω       ω                                 o                             Orop s
                                                                               ς




                                                NOTES
1.
     Stress is shown in Greek by the use of the acute accent. This mark will be represented in roma-
     ni-zation by an acute accent, e.g., Αθήνα → Athína, Ντία → Ntía. If the stressed vowel is written
     as a sequence of two vowel characters in Greek, the second vowel character would usually carry
     the accent. In romanization the acute accent would in these cases similarly be placed over the se-
     cond vowel letter, e.g., Οινούσσες → Oinoússes, Οίτη → Oíti.

     When a syllable containing one of the combinations αυ, ευ, or ηυ carries the stress, this is usually
     marked in Greek on the character υ. When these character combinations are romanized av, af, ev,
     ef, iv or if, the stress should be placed on the preceding vowel letter, e.g., Αύρα → Ávra, Γαύριο
     →
     Gávrio, Καλλιπεύκα → Kallipéfka. When the character combinations αυ, ευ, ηυ or ου are ro-
     manized ay, ey, iy or oy, and the stress is found in Greek on the character υ, then in romanization
     the stress would be marked on the letter y.

     Stress accents are sometimes omitted in Greek, for example, in words and names printed wholly
     in uppercase characters, but in romanization the stress should always be determined and marked
     with an acute accent. Usually there is no stress above the vowel character of monosyllabic words,
     e.g., Κως → Kos. In Greek abbreviations, any accent which may be found should not be roman-
     ized.

2. The dieresis should be shown in romanization where it occurs in Greek, e.g., Μαρινέϊκα →
   Marinéïka, Αχαΐα →         a.

3. In some older maps and publications employing an older form of the Greek language, certain
   accents and non-alphabetical characters may be encountered. These should be treated as follows:


          Greek accent                           Representation in romanization


            (acute accent)                         (acute accent)
       (grave accent)                       (acute accent)




    ~ (circumflex accent)                   (acute accent)




Any other marks and accents not previously mentioned should be ignored.

								
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