Communities Support Military Families by wuzhenguang


									Communities Support
  Military Families
       Impact of Overseas
     Contingency Operations
• Has changed the face of military service,
  especially for those in the National Guard
  and Reserves
• Mobilization and deployment are at record
  high levels for all components of the military
• National Guard and Reserve families have
  different needs than traditional military
        Impact of Overseas
      Contingency Operations
• For the National Guard and Reserves, their
  primary occupation is not one of service
  member and some families might not consider
  themselves military families.
• Geographically dispersed from others in the
  same circumstances (not necessarily located
  near a military installation).
• Family identity changes from civilian to military
  with one letter or phone call.
        Goal of the Program
• Encourage community members to be
  good neighbors in support of the military
  families in their midst.
• Caring neighbors and community groups can
  make a huge positive difference in the lives and
  mental health of families of deployed and
  returned service members.
        Learning Objectives
• Build knowledge of the structure and mission
  of the military services
• Become aware of the presence and needs of
  military families
• Reach out as individuals with empathy to meet
  nearby families’ specific needs
• Assist communities to meet the needs of
  military families in practical ways.
        Flow of the Program
• Introduction: Meaning of deployment, and the
  unique issues of military families and the
  communities in which they live
• Structure of the U.S. Armed Forces
• Comparison of civilian and military cultures
• The deployment cycle and family reactions
• Suggested ways to support military families
Definition of Deployed Reserve
      Military Personnel
            In military terms, Reserve
            service members are taken
            from their reserve status to
            active duty status to fulfill a
            requirement that the full-time
            active duty force cannot
            complete alone.
  Unique Issues for Military
 Families,Youth, and Children
• Lack of community awareness of and
  support for military family needs
• Lack of preparedness within the family to
  recognize and meet the needs of the
  remaining parent or adult relative,
  children, and youth when a member is
 Department of
Defense Overview
U.S. Army
Army Component Structure
           Active Component*

         Regions        Geographically Dispersed


          Reserve Component

   National Guard      Army Reserve

       States            Regions
Army National
       Overview of
    Army National Guard
• Army National Guard is one
  component of the total U.S. Army.
• ARNG is composed of civilians who
  serve their country on a part-time
• The ARNG has a dual mission, e.g.,
  state and federal.
          Overview of
       Army National Guard
• In peacetime, governors command the Guard
• During wartime, the President of the United
  States can activate the National Guard.
• When federalized, Guard units are led by the
  commander of the theatre in which they are
      Army Reserve Overview
• Train alongside Army active duty soldiers to
  the same standards.
• Activated for a federal mission.
• Deliver sovereign options for the defense of
  the United States of America and its global
  interests – to fight and win America’s wars.
   Army Reserve Units

Seattle         Spokane


                                                                                                        Madison                          Buf f alo Sy racuse
                                                                                                                          Detroit                                    Boston
                                                                                         Des Moines          Chicago
                                                                                                                    Fort Way neAkron                        Bridgeport
                                  Salt Lake City                               Lincoln
                                                                                                                          Columbus                    Philadelphia
                                                                                       Kansas City                    Cincinnati                Arlington
                                                        Colorado Springs                             St. Louis
  Fremont                                                                    Wichita                                                            Richmond
       Fresno                                                                                                                                     Chesapeake
                          Las Vegas                                             Tulsa                                  Knoxv ille
           Bakersf ield                                          Amarillo   Oklahoma City
                                                   Albuquerque                                                     Chattanooga Charlotte
                                                                                               Little Rock
              Anaheim             Glendale                       Lubbock                                              Atlanta
                 San Diego                                                   Arlington Shrev eport
                                                                                                   Jackson           Columbus
                                                   El Paso

                                                                            Austin                Baton Rouge                   Jacksonv ille

                                                                             Corpus Christi                                St. Petersburg

                                                                                                                                    Fort Lauderdale
U.S. Marine Corps
Marine Corps Community
  Service Installations
            Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, Arizona
            Marine Corps Base Barstow, California
            Marine 29 Palms, California
            Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California
            Marine Corps San Diego, California
            Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California
            Mountain Warfare Training Center, California
            Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, Georgia
            Marine Corps Base Hawaii
            Headquarters Camp Fuji, Japan
            Marine corps Air Station Iwakuni, Japan
            Marine Corps Base Camp Butler, Okinawa
            Marine Forces Reserve Louisiana
            Kansas City, Missouri
            Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North
            Marine Corps Base Lejeune, North Carolina
            Marine Corps Air Station New River, North Carolina
            Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South
            Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina
            Marine Corps Base Camp Allen,
            Marine Corps Base Quantico,
            HQ’s Battalion Henderson
U. S. Navy

                Navy Region Structure                                                                                                Naval
                                                                                                                                     Navy Yard
                                                                                                CNR Mid-Atlantic
                                            CNR Northwest                                       - NSA Norfolk
                                            - Naval Base Kitsap                                 - NSS Norfolk Naval Shipyard*
                                            - NAS Whidbey Island                                - NAVSTA Norfolk
                                            - NAVSTA Everett                                    - NAS Oceana
                                                                                                - WPNSUPPFAC Yorktown             CNR Europe
                                            - NAVMAG Indian Island
                                                                                                - NAB Little Creek                - NSA Naples
                                                                                                - NSA Mechanicsburg               - NAS Sigonella
                                                                                                - NAS/JRB Willow Grove            - NSA Souda Bay
                                                                                                - NSGA Sugar Grove                - NAVSTA Rota
                                                                     CNR Midwest
                                                                                                - NAS Brunswick                   - JMF St. Mawgans
                                                                     - NAVSTA Great Lakes
                                                                     - NSA Crane                - NAVWPNSTA Earle
                                                                     - Mid South                - SUBASE New London
                                                                                                - NSY BOS Portsmouth
CNR Japan                                                                                       - NAVSTA Newport
- CFA Okinawa                                                                                   - NAVAIRENGSTA Lakehurst
- CFA Yokosuka                                                                                  - NSU Saratoga Springs
- CFA Sasebo               CNR Hawaii
- NAF Atsugi               - NAVSTA Pearl Harbor
                           - PMRF Barking Sands                                                                                 CNR NDW
- NAF Misawa
                                                                                                                                - NSA Washington
- NSF Diego Garcia
                                                                                                                                - NSA North Potomac
                                    CNR Southwest                                                                               - NSA South Potomac
CNR Marianas (Guam)                                                                                                             - NSA Patuxent River
                                    - SUBASE San Diego
- Guam (CNF Marianas SA)                                                                                                        - NSA Annapolis
                                    - NAVSTA San Diego
                                    - NAVBASE Ventura County            CNR Southeast
                                    - NAF El Centro                   - NAS Jacksonville        - NSA Orlando
                                    - NAS Lemoore                     - NAVSTA Mayport          - NAVSTA Pascagoula
CNR Korea                                                             - SUBASE Kings Bay        - NAS Pensacola
                                    - NAS Fallon
- CFA Chinhae                                                         - NAVWPNSTA Charleston    - NAS Whiting Field
                                    - NAVWEPSTA Seal Beach
                                    - NAS North Island                - NAS Key West            - NAVSTA Ingleside
Singapore AC                        - NAWS China Lake                 - CBC Gulfport            - NAS Corpus Christi
                                    - NSA Monterey                    - NAVSTA Guantanamo Bay   - NAS Kingsville
CNR SW Asia                                                           - NSA Panama City         - NAS/JRB Fort Worth
- NSA Bahrain                                                         - NSA Athens              - NAS/JRB New Orleans
                                                                      - NAS Atlanta             - NSA New Orleans
                                                                      - NAS Meridian            - NA Puerto Rico
Navy Reserve
U.S. Air Force
 Air Force Structure
           Active Component

         Major Commands     Geographically Dispersed


          Reserve Component

Air National Guard        Air Force Reserve Command

States       Major    3 Numbered Air Forces
                             36 Wings
Air National Guard
       Air National Guard Locations


                       Air National Guard Units

                                     Puerto Rico
Air Force Reserve
        Air Force Reserve Units
36 Wings and 4 Groups – 11 Reserve Bases – 52 Tenant Bases
U.S. Coast Guard
U.S. Coast Guard Reserve
Coast Guard Locations
        U.S. Coast Guard
The mission of the U.S. Coast Guard
blends military, humanitarian, and civilian
law-enforcement capabilities.
Five fundamental roles:
• maritime safety
• maritime security
• maritime mobility
• national defense
• protection of natural resources
Operation: Military Kids
— The Concept
• Responds to the needs of the military youth whose parents
  have been deployed in support of overseas contingency
• Infrastructure developed by 50 OMK state teams that work to
  build the community capacity of local community support
  networks to provide services that support child and youth of
  military families.
• Delivered in local communities through collaboration with
  military partners, Cooperative Extension family and consumer
  sciences and 4-H programs, Boys & Girls Clubs, the Military
  Child Education Coalition, The American Legion, child care
  resource and referral agencies, and other community agencies
  serving youth at national, state, and local levels.
          Operation: Military Kids
               State Team
OMK State Team Roles and Responsibilities:
  • Create a diverse and highly functioning
    state team
  • Establish local community support
  • Provide OMK Ready, Set, Go! trainings
  • Coordinate delivery of “Speak Out for
    Military Kids” trainings and events
  • Implement Hero Pack Project
  • Loan resources and portable computer
    lab for use with military audiences
Military Culture
          What is Culture?
• “Culture” is the knowledge, experience, values,
  ideas, attitudes, skills, tastes, and techniques
  that are passed on from more experienced
  members of a community to new members.
• Examples of culture are rules for building
  relationships and living with others, ways of
  managing health, acceptable gender roles, hand
  and body gestures, dressing and grooming,
  recreation, and choices of rewards and
Identify Your
Elements of Military Culture

• Mission of the military
• Military values
• Unique cultural aspects
• Issues for military families and children
          Mission of the Military
• The mission of the Department of Defense is
  to provide the military forces needed to deter
  war and to protect the security of the
• The Army’s mission is to fight and win our
  nation’s wars by providing prompt, sustained
  land dominance across the full range of
  military operations and spectrum of conflict in
  support of combatant commanders.
              Military Values
    Army                  Air Force
• Loyalty        •Integrity First
• Duty
• Respect        •Service Before Self
• Selfless       •Excellence in All We Do
• Honor           Navy & Marine Corps
• Integrity      •Honor
• Personal       •Courage
         What is Purple?

• We use the color purple because
  purple symbolizes “joint” in the military
  world, meaning “all services.” In the
  world of color, if you combine Army
  green, Air Force blue, Marine red, and
  Navy blue you get purple.
      Military Culture: Symbols
• Uniforms
• Military salute
• Service flags
• Respect for the flag of the United States of
• Military ranks
• Special symbols for each branch
• Hooah!
  How Does Military
Culture Affect Families
and Children of Reserve
  Service Members?
           Transition Issues
Military children and youth are vulnerable during
major life changes, such as:
   • Moving due to permanent change of station
   • Parental absence due to long-term
     temporary duty
   • Mobilization and deployment
   • Remaining parent less accessible due to
     family tasks
   • Graduating to junior/high
     school/postsecondary education
     Social Issues and Needs
• Adjusting to new or temporary family
• Managing new situations, especially being
  “suddenly military”
• Accommodating physical changes
• Making new contacts
• Acclimating to new places
• Coping with changing schools, sports leagues,
  or other out-of-school activities
Emotional Issues and Needs
    • Need to know they are loved and cared
      for, regardless of their age.
    • Emotional issues include:
      — Sadness             — Excitement
      — Anger               — Anticipation
      — Vulnerability       — Confidence
      — Loneliness          — New Challenges
      — Lack of sense of belonging
    Educational Issues and Needs
• Reorienting to new classmates, teachers, schedules,
  and inconsistencies in school requirements and
  offerings, such as:
•   Immunization requirements
•   School calendars/scheduling
•   Entrance and exit testing
•   Course content and sequencing
•   Discipline
•   Graduation requirements
•   Special education qualification and services
•   Records/credit transfers
       Benefits of Transition
• Make friends with other military youth
• Make friends from other parts of the country
• Become more responsible
• Adapt more easily to change and become
  more flexible
• Experience firsthand what is read/taught in
  social studies
• Depend on family for safety, security, and
The Emotional Cycle
  of Deployment
  The “New” Emotional Cycle of Deployment
• Each stage is characterized by time frame and
  specific emotional challenges
• Failure to negotiate successfully can lead to
• Seven distinct stages:
   –   Stage One: Anticipation of Departure
   –   Stage Two: Detachment & Withdrawal
   –   Stage Three: Emotional Disorganization
   –   Stage Four: Recovery & Stabilization
   –   Stage Five: Anticipation of Return
   –   Stage Six: Return Adjustment & Renegotiation
   –   Stage Seven: Reintegration & Stabilization
              Stage One:
       Anticipation of Departure
• Timeframe: When family members receive orders
• Increased feeling of stress in home
• Reality of change ahead is “sinking in”
• Denial & anticipation of loss
• Focus is on completing family pre-deployment activity
• Members may feel more emotional
• In case of multiple deployments . . . new cycle may
  begin before family has had time to renegotiate shared
  vision from last deployment
               Stage Two:
        Detachment and Withdrawal
• Timeframe: Last week before service member leaves
• Service member is focused on preparing for mission and may
  distance self from family
• Anger, arguments may occur as family prepares to protect
  themselves from “hurt” of separation
• Communication may be difficult
• In preparation for loss, family may begin to act like the service
  member is already gone
• Multiple deployments can result in need to repeatedly create
  distance; to feel “numb” and avoid emotional connection
              Stage Three:
        Emotional Disorganization
• Timeframe: 1-6 weeks into deployment
• Life without the service member may initially feel
• Routines change, responsibilities may be added
• Kids may feel . . .
    –   Numb and not interested in doing much
    –   More irritable than usual
    –   Have difficulty concentrating – particularly at school
    –   Wish things would go back to “normal”
    –   Surprised because things seem to be moving more smoothly
        now that the service member is gone
                Stage Four: Recovery,
• Timeframe: Usually between weeks 3 and 5 after deployment
• Family finally starts to settle into routine of life without the
  service member
• Coping with changes can be positive for kids
   – May enjoy new found responsibilities
   – Sense of independence
   – Relief that family is functioning well

• Coping with changes can be challenging for kids
   – Difficult time accepting changes
   – Stressed, depressed, and having difficulty getting things done
   – Feel unsupported and worried how will make it through

• Most of the time there is a mixture of both responses!
   Stage Five: Anticipation of Return
• Timeframe: About 6 weeks before the service member returns
• Homecoming is coming!
• Family is happy, excited, and feeling a
      boost of energy
• Trying to make everything “perfect”
       for the return
• Sense of relief that the service member will be home, combined
      with worries about whether or not they will be the same
• If the service member came home on leave at some point during
        deployment, that experience may be what family members
   – Positive Leave Experience = Positive Homecoming
   – Challenging Leave Experience = Challenging Homecoming
        True or False: The Myth of the
            Perfect Homecoming
•If you love one another, reunions   • It may take some time for the
  are easy                             returning service member to
• Angry feelings should never          adjust
  accompany reunions                 • If they really love each other,
• First few days following             spouses/significant others will not
  homecoming are often mix of          change during absence
  relief, happiness, and anxiety     • Re-established intimacy will
• It’s perfectly natural for           flourish if given time to grow
  communication to be strained at    • Service members never feel let
  first                                down/lonely following deployment
• Children may not feel              • There is no such thing as a perfect
  automatically comfortable with       homecoming
  the returning parent
 Stage Six: Return Adjustment and
• Timeframe: About 6 weeks after the service member
  returns, after initial joy and relief have diminished
• During time of separation the service member and all family
  members have changed
• Changes may hold pleasant surprises or may cause conflict
• Family members may feel overwhelmed by the service
  member attempts to get to know everyone again
• Everyone needs space and time to readjust
• Entire family must begin to renegotiate how household will
  look now that everyone is together again
        Stage Seven: Reintegration &
• Timeframe: Up to 6 months (and beyond) after the service
  member returns
• Family continues to adjust to having the service member home
• A “new normal” is established regarding routines and
• Members may begin to feel secure, relaxed, and comfortable
  with one another again
• If readjustment challenges resurface, support is important. . .
  It’s okay to ask for help if you need it!
              Other Post-deployment
               Stress-Related Issues
•Combat Stress—Natural result of heavy mental and emotional
work when facing danger in tough conditions; physical symptoms
(headaches, racing heart, fatigue, anger) generally get better with
rest and replenishment
•Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—Possible response when
deployment has occurred to war zone, natural disaster site, or
urban riot location: physical, mental, and emotional symptoms that
require professional assistance
•Secondary Traumatic Stress—Possibly experienced by family
members upon return of soldier; stress resulting from helping or
wanting to help a suffering or traumatized person
Suggested Healthy Responses by Adults
• Educate self on the impact of deployment on
  children/youth and families
• Reflect what you see and hear in terms of their
  behavior to help them with understanding
• Be patient, understanding, caring, and firm with
  consequences for misbehavior
• Help children/youth identify, accept, and express
  what they are feeling
• Model constructive ways of dealing with strong
  or challenging emotions such as anger, grief, loss,
  or sadness
             Basic Needs for
             Healthy Growth
• Safety and structure
• Belonging and membership
• Closeness and several good relationships
• Gaining competence and mastering skills
• Independence
• Self-awareness: The ability and the opportunity to act
  on that understanding
• Self-worth: The ability and opportunity to contribute
• Other basic needs?
                    References and Resources
•   Ames, B., Smith, S., Holtrop, K., Blow, A., Hamel, J., MacInnes, M., & Onaga, E. (2011). Meeting the needs of
    National Guard and Reserve families: The vital role of Extension. Journal of Extension, 49 (5), Article Number

•   Army Reserve Family Services. Available at

•   Distribution of Military personnel by state and by selected Locations. Available at

•   Drummet, A. R., Coleman, M., & Cable, S. (2003). Military families under stress: Implications for family life
    education. Family Relations, 52 (3), 279-287.

•   Ginsburg, K. R. (2011). Building resilience in children and teens. (2 nd edition) Elk Grove Village, IL: American
           Academy of Pediatrics.

•   How to help military families as a family, friend, or neighbor. (2008).West Lafayette, IN: Military Families
          Research Institute at Purdue University. Available at

•   Huebner, A. J., Mancini, J. A., Gowen, G. L., & Orthner, D. K. (2009). Shadowed by war: Building community
          capacity to support military families. Family Relations, 58. 216-228.

•   Military Child Education Coalition. (2004). How communities can support the children and families
             of those serving in the National Guard or Reserves. Available at

•   National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) of the U.S. Department of Veterans’
           Affairs. Available at
               References and Resources
•   National Council on Family Relations. (2004, April). NCFR policy brief: Building strong communities for
    military families. Available at

•   Operation Military Homefront. (2010). Defense Manpower Data Center. Available at

•   Operation Military Kids. Available at

•   Pincus, S. H., House, R., Christenson, J., & Adler, L. E. (June, 2001).The emotional cycle of deployment: A
    military family perspective.       Army Medical Department Journal, Quarterly Report No. A597093.
    Available at

•   Richardson, A., Chandra, A., Martin, L. T., Setodji, C. M., Hallmark, B. W., Campbell, N. F., Hawkins, S. A., &
    Grody, P. (2011).   Effects of soldiers’ deployment on children’s academic performance and behavioral
    health. Monograph. Santa Monica, CA:              RAND Corporation. Available at

•   U. S. Coast Guard. Available at and /
   Thank you for your attention!
This PowerPoint® presentation and accompanying handouts and activities are
adapted for use in this program by permission of Darrin W. Allen, Director of
the National 4-H/Army Youth Development Project, from Chapters One, Two,
Five, and Six of the Operation: Military Kids Ready, Set, Go! Training Manual (8th
edition, 2010).
Carole Gnatuk, Ed.D.
Senior Extension Specialist for Child Development
Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service

March 2012

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