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AARREC                CRS                      HT                   MDM                  TGH
ACF                   CWS                      Humedica             MEDAIR               UMCOR
ACTED                 Danchurchaid             IA                   MENTOR               UNAIDS
ADRA                  DDG                      ILO                  MERLIN               UNDP
Africare              Diakonie Emergency Aid   IMC                  NCA                  UNDSS
AMI-France            DRC                      INTERMON             NPA                  UNEP
ARC                   EM-DH                    Internews            NRC                  UNESCO
ASB                   FAO                      INTERSOS             OCHA                 UNFPA
ASI                   FAR                      IOM                  OHCHR                UN-HABITAT
AVSI                  FHI                      IPHD                 OXFAM                UNHCR
CARE                  Finnchurchaid            IR                   PA (formerly ITDG)   UNICEF
CARITAS               French RC                IRC                  PACT                 UNIFEM
CEMIR INTERNATIONAL   FSD                      IRD                  PAI                  UNJLC
CESVI                 GAA                      IRIN                 Plan                 UNMAS
CFA                   GOAL                     IRW                  PMU-I                UNOPS
CHF                   GTZ                      Islamic RW           PU                   UNRWA
CHFI                  GVC                      JOIN                 RC/Germany           VIS
CISV                  Handicap International   JRS                  RCO                  WFP
CMA                   HealthNet TPO            LWF                  Samaritan's Purse    WHO
CONCERN               HELP                     Malaria Consortium   SECADEV              World Concern
Concern Universal     HelpAge International    Malteser             Solidarités          World Relief
COOPI                 HKI                      Mercy Corps          SUDO                 WV
CORDAID               Horn Relief              MDA                  TEARFUND             ZOA
                                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................. 1

2.     CHANGES IN CONTEXT & HUMANITARIAN NEEDS ................................................................. 4

3.     PROGRESS TO DATE ................................................................................................................... 6

4.     SECTORS & CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES ...................................................................................... 8
     4.1      CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES ............................................................................................................ 8

     4.2      SECTOR SUMMARIES ............................................................................................................... 10

5.     FUNDING ...................................................................................................................................... 23

6.     CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................... 25

ANNEX I.             PROJECTS REMOVED, ADDED OR REVISED .......................................................... 26

ANNEX II.            LIST OF ACRONYMS ................................................................................................... 28

Please note that appeals are revised regularly. The latest version of this document is
                    available on

                                            SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

The 2008 UN and Partners Work Plan for Sudan outlines humanitarian and development programmes
for a country deeply scarred by decades of man-made conflict and natural disasters. Three years
have passed since Sudan’s warring factions signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) to
end the war between north and south. In that time, there has been considerable progress towards
building sustainable peace; so too has there been considerable conflict. While large swathes of the
country continue to progress away from humanitarian need towards recovery and development, others
remain embroiled in fighting, and until that stops, millions will continue to suffer and to rely on
humanitarian aid.

As this Mid-Year Review shows, 2008 has already been a year of several successes: across Sudan,
roads have been built, mines cleared, millions of children vaccinated and dozens removed from armed
groups. More than 85,000 displaced Sudanese have been assisted by the UN to return home from
North Sudan and neighbouring countries, while around 3.4 million people received food. Hundreds of
teachers, lawyers, police, government officials, judges, parents and children have been taught new
skills and given training on subjects like human rights, gender inequalities, child protection, budget
planning, AIDS, mine risk and conflict resolution. The need to manage Sudan’s resources has moved
up the agenda as a component of sustainable development: their depletion not only makes people
more reliant on aid, but also aggravates the fundamental causes of conflict. On all these issues,
coordination between the UN and Partners, government parties, civil society and donors has improved
and supported progress across Sudan.

Yet alongside these reports of progress, continuing violence has not only compounded the misery of
millions of Sudanese but increasingly complicated the delivery of vital humanitarian aid. The first six
months of 2008 have seen several worrying developments. In Darfur, conflict is deepening. Another
200,000 people have been displaced so far this year, taking the total number of displaced and
vulnerable to around 4.3 million. Camps are over-crowded; water in short supply; consecutive bad
harvests and rising food and fuel prices have heightened malnutrition. Of great concern to the
humanitarian community is that it is increasingly the target of violence. This year, 12 humanitarian
workers have been killed in Sudan, eight of them in Darfur. More than 140 have been abducted and
more than 170 vehicles hijacked. The United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)
remains under-deployed and ill-equipped to protect civilians, and insecurity has cut off thousands of
people from much-needed aid. The UN’s decision to raise security levels both in Darfur and the rest of
North Sudan, taken after this report was compiled, may also impact future operations and planning.

Violence has extended beyond Darfur. An attack on Omdurman by Darfur-based rebels in May
brought that battle almost to the capital, leading to a security clampdown in Darfur and the tightening
of restrictions that make the UN and Partners’ task there all the more difficult. The brutal attack on
UNAMID in Darfur and possible security and political implications due to the announcements from the
International Criminal Court remain of serious concern. Heavy fighting in Abyei, also in May, forced up
to 60,000 people to flee their homes, creating an emergency need that diverted funds, materials, and
energies needed elsewhere. The violence in Abyei did not come out of nowhere: continued boundary
disputes, disregard for oil revenue sharing agreements and the lack of an interim administration have
all taken their toll. While the UN and Partners were able to respond quickly to May’s crisis, rebuilding
Abyei will cost more than US$ 13 million. Security across the Three Areas of Abyei, Southern
Kordofan and Blue Nile has deteriorated in the first part of the year and is of real concern; the border
region is a tinderbox, and without high level attention is likely to flare.

The Mid-Year Review offers a good opportunity to review strategic approaches and priorities as the
UN and Partners begin to plan for 2009. While previous Work Plans reported on humanitarian
assistance and recovery and development, 2008 saw the introduction of a new category: early
recovery, intended to highlight the gradual transition towards long-term, sustainable solutions. In
2009, the Work Plan will present only humanitarian and early recovery portfolios while a separate
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) will plan for recovery and development;
in preparation, this Mid-Year Review focuses on those first two categories. While the transition
towards development remains a goal, it is clear that humanitarian needs have not diminished.
Humanitarian and early recovery funding requirements rose by $81 million to $1.95 billion in the first

1 All dollar signs in this document are United States dollars. Funding for this appeal should be reported to the Financial Tracking Service
(FTS,, which will display its requirements and funding on the CAP 2008 page.

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

half of the year, the most significant increases driven by rising food prices, growing need for
transportation and greater support to refugees. At the same date, $1.03 billion had been received –
more than half of which was to support Darfur – leaving a shortfall of $911 million. In the absence of
political solutions, it is difficult to predict anything but an increase in humanitarian needs.

                             SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                     Basic facts about Sudan

   Sudan is the largest country in Africa, covering 2.5 million square km. It is bordered by Egypt
    to the north, Libya, Chad and the Central African Republic to the west, Ethiopia and Eritrea to
    the east, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Kenya to the south.

   The country has been torn apart by conflict since independence in 1956. In January 2005, a
    CPA formally ended 22 years of war between the northern government in Khartoum and the
    south-based Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), and introduced a quasi-federal
    system of governance. The CPA requires national elections in 2009 and a referendum on
    self-determination for the south in 2011.

   A conflict between rebels based in Darfur and the government flared in 2003. A peace deal
    was signed in 2006, including only some of the rebel factions. It has not been upheld.

   A peace agreement with eastern armed groups was signed in October 2006.

   Sudan’s population is ethnically and culturally diverse. The climate is tropical in the south, arid
    desert in the north; the rainy season, ranging from April to November, varies by region. The
    capital is Khartoum.

   There are 25 states within Sudan. For Work Plan purposes, these are organised into seven
    planning regions: Khartoum and other Northern States, Eastern States, Southern Sudan,
    Darfur, Abyei, Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile.

   Recent UN estimates suggest the population is around 37 million, with 30% living in the
    capital Khartoum and the six next largest cities: Port Sudan, Kassala, Omdurman, El Obeid,
    Wad Medani, Gedaref and Juba. Juba is the capital of Southern Sudan.

   The Sudanese economy has expanded rapidly in recent years, due to the peace between
    north and south and new petroleum exploitation. The average annual rate of gross domestic
    product (GDP) growth increased to 6.2% for 1995-2005, with the highest growth rates
    occurring in the last five years.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

The UN and Partners Work Plan for Sudan proposes humanitarian and development programmes. In
2008, a new category was introduced to highlight the transition towards longer-term, sustainable
solutions and as a result programmes are now organised along three distinct but complementary lines:
humanitarian assistance, early recovery and recovery and development. This shift in approach will be
consolidated as the country moves towards 2009, when the Work Plan will focus entirely on
humanitarian and early recovery programmes; those activities concentrating on recovery and
development will be dealt with in a separate UNDAF. In preparation for this, the Mid-Year Review
therefore focuses on progress made in humanitarian and early recovery portfolios across the country,
and excludes recovery and development. The cornerstone of humanitarian efforts remains that the UN
and Partners are strongly positioned to save lives, provide essential services, maintain human dignity
and ensure emergency preparedness. The early recovery efforts act as a catalyst for long term
capacity building, allowing all humanitarian actors to bring attention to those activities which lay the
foundations for recovery and bolster the ability of Sudanese and international partners to collaborate
on lasting development and peace.

Events on the ground in the first half of the year have tested this direction. Armed conflict in Abyei and
Southern Kordofan, renewed fighting in Darfur, a rebel attack on Omdurman and rising international
food and commodity prices have all stretched resources and challenged the humanitarian community.
The 10 May Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) assault on Omdurman, on the outskirts of
Khartoum, the outbreak of fighting in Abyei three days later, and the 8 July attack on UNAMID can
both be understood as symptoms of wider trends, and as such are key to understanding changing
dynamics affecting humanitarian operations. The targeted attack on UNAMID peacekeeping forces in
early July in Darfur is an alarming example of the volatility of the region and the requirement to remain

Security within Darfur has deteriorated in recent months due to fighting between government forces
and rebel factions, clashes between rebel groups, inter-tribal violence and escalating banditry. The
civilian populations continue to be targeted in violation of international humanitarian and human rights
laws. The attack on Omdurman came after weeks of aerial bombing of communities in Northern Darfur
and in a context of stalled peace talks and splintering rebel movements. It established JEM – which
did not sign the failed 2006 Darfur Peace Agreement – as a military leader among factions and a
threat to national security. As a result, national security restrictions have increased in Darfur, along
with bureaucratic restrictions on the humanitarian community. As the sector reports that follow in
chapter three illustrate, insecurity and government restrictions have limited the work of the
international community, even as they increase the need of Darfuris. There are 200,000 newly
displaced people this year; the total of those displaced and needing life-saving assistance is estimated
to be 4.3 million. The protracted conflict in Darfur – now in its sixth year – is compounding misery by
over-subscribing basic services and the vulnerable water table in Darfur camps. Consecutive poor
harvests, cuts to food assistance and soaring food and fuel prices have pushed malnutrition rates still
higher, while administrative delays in clearing and publishing morbidity, malnutrition and mortality
studies have made it all the harder for the humanitarian community to respond effectively. Another
significant change in context is the relentless targeting of humanitarian workers. In the first six months
of the year, combatants have killed eight humanitarian workers in Darfur and kidnapped 139; 41
drivers contracted by the World Food Programme (WFP) are still missing. Humanitarian vehicles are
hijacked or stolen on an almost daily basis. UNAMID’s protection of civilians and humanitarian
operations mandate is highly welcomed, but the force is under-deployed and few benefits have been
realised; it has itself been the target of deadly attacks. As of a May report to the Security Council,
civilian deployment was 1,474 (of 5,569) and uniformed personnel 7,019 (of 27,000). This Mid-Year
Review was compiled before the UN decided to raise its security levels in both Darfur and the rest of
North Sudan, and it is too early to tell what impact that move will have on agencies’ operations and
planning. But it is clear that the increasingly precarious situation in Darfur requires the international
community to reformulate strategies for relief, and intensifies the need to find a peaceful solution to the

May’s violence in Abyei, which destroyed the town and uprooted some 60,000 people from their
homes, also comes against a backdrop of protracted tensions throughout the region bordering
Southern Sudan. Delays in implementing the Abyei protocol have been cited as a concern in each
Work Plan since 2005. Recovery opportunities will remain limited until the border dispute is resolved,
an interim administration is in place and oil revenue sharing agreements adhered to. Continued under-

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

funding of development programmes, local disputes and untenable returns have destabilised parts of
Southern Kordofan and other key states along the southern border. Conflicts in Heglig, Kharasana and
Abyei are indicative of tensions that have the potential to flare. Fortunately, the rapid humanitarian
response to the Abyei crisis prevented further suffering to the displaced and the host communities,
and the UN has welcomed an agreement to resolve the issues that fomented the violence, signed in
June by both the SPLM and the National Congress Party (NCP). But in addition to the $9 million
required for immediate humanitarian assistance, it will cost an estimated $10 million to rebuild the
destroyed town, and $3.5 million to reconstruct UN and non-governmental organisation (NGO)
premises destroyed in the assault on the town. As the international community slowly rebuilds a
services presence in Abyei, the disintegration of border areas requires vigilance on the part of the
international community if further violence is to be avoided. The Third Sudan Consortium held in Oslo
in May observed a significant challenge promoting peace and stability along the border of the Three
Areas, and statistical surveys including the Sudan Household Survey indicate significant poverty and
vulnerability in these areas which bore the brunt of conflict during Sudan’s 22-year civil war. While
donors have pledged funds, plans to assist have yet to be implemented. Greater support is needed,
particularly in parts of former Western Kordofan where there is no sustained UN presence and only
one international NGO.

While the broad priorities in each sector and planning region remain the same as they were when the
2008 Work Plan was written, the UN and Partners continue to rapidly adapt to the shifting context
described above. The completion of the first phase of a census in May shows promise, as is the
passing of an electoral law, intended to ready Sudan for elections next year. But unless significant
political progress is also made in Darfur and the Three Areas, the increased insecurity and bubbling
tension are likely to significantly impact the delivery of humanitarian assistance going forward. There
are also signs that the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) – whose 22-year war with the Ugandan
government has killed tens of thousands of people – has been increasingly active in Southern Sudan.
Peace talks with the LRA came close to a deal earlier this year, but rebel leader Joseph Kony
ultimately failed to sign. Since then, reports of attacks on civilians and clashes with Southern
Sudanese forces – which the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) denies – have raised the
spectre of further violence and disruption to the south.

Decades of civil war and natural disasters have left millions of Sudanese without homes or livelihoods.
While the environmental, social, economic and political consequences of protracted crisis vary from
region to region, the dynamics of conflict have implications beyond their battlefields. Humanitarian,
early recovery and development concerns often overlap, and the UN and Partners’ vision of a
coordinated effort requires increasing levels of cooperation between sectors, and between regions.
The sector reports which follow underline this message, many of them reporting significant progress in
attempts to share information, cooperate in planning and work together at every level.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

The 2008 Work Plan identified seven strategic priorities: to support peace agreements, to facilitate the
transition from humanitarian aid to recovery and development via the new category of early recovery,
to maintain lifesaving humanitarian assistance to Darfur, to help governments and local NGOs build
capacity for the long term, to implement flexible and effective funding mechanisms, to manage
information and to prepare for emergencies.

Dealing with each in turn, progress made towards achieving these priorities is as follows:

Peace Agreements
The two CPA priorities highlighted in the 2008 Work Plan were the census and preparation for 2009
elections. After many delays, the enumeration part of the census was carried out in May. This census
is a necessary precursor to holding free and fair elections, and its completion can be taken as a
positive step towards the end goal of democracy. However, access to some areas was hindered by
violence, and it will only be possible to gauge the census’ impact once results have been processed
and published. Preparations for the elections, including establishing the necessary legal architecture,
have been slow in coming, but in early July, parliament passed an election law. While its passing is a
step in the right direction, momentum must be maintained if elections are to take place on schedule.
Sudan must now urgently establish a National Election Commission, and other laws relating to media
and national security will need to be enacted if elections are to be free and fair. The implementation of
the Abyei protocol – which includes the boundary demarcation process – is a third CPA benchmark
yet to be achieved. At the time of writing, it is hoped that arbitrators based in The Hague could begin
work within months to resolve the dispute over Abyei’s borders; the need to do so is pressing. Delays
in implementing the CPA have been cited since the 2005 Work Plan; the longer the delay, the greater
the risk of instability.

Transition from humanitarian, through early recovery, to recovery and development
The 2008 Work Plan created an early recovery category to allow for a more accurate description of
transition dynamics. As sectors and planning regions become increasingly able to demonstrate
incremental transition, Sudan’s governments and NGOs should find it easier to assume greater
responsibility for basic service delivery. This dynamic should be strengthened in 2009, which will see
the launch of the UNDAF focusing entirely on early recovery and recovery and development. As a
result, the 2009 Work Plan will narrow its focus to humanitarian and early recovery portfolios.

The 2008 Work Plan aimed to continue assisting the vulnerable in Darfur, while, where possible,
supporting projects that look beyond humanitarian aid to more sustainable solutions. The priority
remains unchanged, but the situation on the ground has dictated a continued focus on delivering
emergency aid. As the conflict moves into its sixth year and with no political solution in sight, Darfur
remains a key challenge as the Work Plan breaches the second half of the year. Deteriorating
security and bureaucratic impediments have made it harder to deliver aid; in April alone, the World
Food Programme (WFP) reported that it was unable to reach 56,000 people in Western and Southern
Darfur. An additional 200,000 people are estimated to have been displaced this year, and the total
number of people displaced and vulnerable is around 4.3 million out of a total population estimated at
six million. A cut back in funding to the Humanitarian Air Service will further reduce the ability of aid
workers to reach those in need. The worsening situation in Darfur is discussed in greater detail above
(page four) and illustrated by the sector reports which follow, many of which cite access, insecurity and
bureaucratic restrictions as the key challenges of the past six months. The increased risk to both
civilians and aid workers may require a reformulation of strategies moving forward.

Capacity Building
Much of the thrust of capacity building comes under the recovery and development umbrella and is
therefore beyond the remit of this paper. However, both the humanitarian and early recovery
portfolios require the UN and Partners not only to deliver basic services, but also to build collaborative
partnerships with local authorities, NGOs and state governments, facilitating the transfer of knowledge
and supporting transition away from emergency aid towards sustainable development. As illustrated
in the sector summaries which follow, efforts to coordinate and cooperate have continued with vigour
so far in 2008, and remain a priority. Throughout the sectors, there is evidence of training initiatives –
the first six months of the year have seen teachers, education planners, judges, police, state officials,
politicians, traditional leaders and communities learning the skills they will need to improve public

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

service delivery across Sudan. Key challenges include limited resources, uneven development across
the regions, and the difference in needs for men and women. A more detailed account of
achievements follows in the section on cross-cutting issues.

Funding Mechanisms
Since its launch late last year, the Work Plan’s humanitarian and early recovery funding requirement
has increased by $81 million, due to factors including rising food costs and the expansion of
Humanitarian Air Services. As of mid-June, $1.03 billion had been contributed towards the Work
Plan’s humanitarian and early recovery portfolios, leaving a shortfall of $911 million. The sector and
regional breakdowns are reported in the section five.

The variety of programmes and regional needs require a range of funding options. Pooled
mechanisms such as the Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF) and the Central Emergency Response
Fund (CERF) have continued to be successful in allocating funds for time-critical humanitarian
activities. As of mid-June, 10% of the overall secured funding for humanitarian and early recovery
came from the CHF, though the impact was disproportionately high given the fund’s ability to target
priority needs early in the year. Funding mechanisms are reviewed in greater detail in chapter four.

Information Management
The 2008 Work Plan prioritised improvement in information collection and dissemination, with a view
to improving cross-sector coordination. Despite the many challenges on the ground, increased
cooperation and information exchange between the UN and Partners, government parties, civil society
and donors has improved and supported progress in several areas, as the sector reports below
illustrate. The sector and planning region approach has proved successful and will continue to
structure the 2009 Work Plan, which will build on and streamline those coordination channels already
established. Gathering and analysing data is often a key part of planning effective response, and
delays in clearing and publishing surveys on morbidity, malnutrition, and mortality have negatively
affected humanitarian programmes. It is important that these bureaucratic impediments be resolved to
allow swift and targeted response. Across Sudan, difficulties in information gathering mean that there
are sometimes gaps or delays in reporting, further complicated by the discrepancy between regions.

Emergency Preparedness
The 2008 Work Plan prioritised maintaining emergency preparedness and response measures. In the
first six months of the year, Emergency Preparedness and Response activities focused on inter-
agency contingency planning, covering potential threats including flooding, drought, conflict and
outbreaks of disease. A number of contingency plans have been developed and finalised based on
the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) 2007 guidelines. An inter-agency emergency response
operation is ongoing in the Abyei region following the May clashes. The operation is based on a
contingency plan previously drafted in consultation with the main stakeholders in the region.

                                  SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

While needs differ across regions, the Work Plan is also organised by sector, enabling it to draw on
expertise, unify approaches where possible and increase collaboration countrywide. The following
chapter aims to review progress in each sector in the first half of 2008, highlighting achievements,
noting challenges, and assessing whether events on the ground have altered priorities. As such, the
Mid-Year Review is a staging post on the way to the Work Plan 2009, a time to identify shifts in
requirements and take stock of changing contexts which may usefully feed into planning. As
previously noted, this review focuses on humanitarian and early recovery portfolios. The information
has been gathered in the regions and subsequently summarised at sectoral level. Reports from some
planning regions were not available at the time of writing; the summaries do not claim to be
comprehensive, but are intended to give a snapshot of some of the challenges and achievements over
the past six months.

Alongside the 12 sectors which follow, the Work Plan detailed four cross-cutting issues which affect all
of those sectors: Capacity Building, Environment, Gender and HIV/AIDS.

Capacity Building
The aim of capacity building is to strengthen the Government and civil society’s capacity to serve the
public and achieve Millennium Development Goals in an accountable way, and within a framework
based on human rights. Significant progress was made in the first half of the year in improving the
institutional capacity of local government, helping authorities plan, set priorities, manage revenue and
expenditure and deliver basic services fairly. In the Red Sea States, 136 state officials took part in a
budget and planning workshop; an action plan for budgetary reforms was drafted and submitted for
approval. Other training exercises involved 50 gender task force members and 35 senior government

In the area of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration, women linked to armed forces groups
and disabled ex-combatants took part in reintegration pilot projects in Khartoum state. In the fields of
politics, media and civil society, women’s leadership and participation in politics were a focus, while
the drive to increase access to justice saw around 2,000 people including judges, police, law
professionals, traditional leaders and paralegals, get training on rights principles. Rule of Law
seminars and public debates were held in Darfur, tackling the role of native administration and conflict
resolution. These attracted more than 300 people. Fifty judges, including 11 women, were trained in
legal analysis, and 13 selected to become Trainers of Trainers.

In education and culture, the main achievements were the training of teachers, parent-teacher
associations, head teachers and education planners. At ministry and state level, capacity was
developed in data management, sector coordination and planning. A baseline survey on children’s
psychosocial needs was conducted.

Challenges remain. There is still limited reliable data, and insufficient basic infrastructure for training.
Changing political situations have great impacts on training needs, and require a flexible approach in
planning capacity development.

The environmental focus of the 2008 Work Plan is to promote sustainable resource management.
Doing so not only limits damage to the environment itself, but also has an important role to play in
sustaining the livelihoods of the millions of Sudanese displaced or returning home. Managing Sudan’s
natural resources is key to a successful transition towards development: their depletion will not only
make people more reliant on humanitarian aid, but will also aggravate the fundamental causes of

To this end, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has undertaken research and
advocacy projects in the first half of 2008. Projects include a study of water resource management in
Darfur’s camps for internally displaced persons/people (IDPs), which concluded that the most
important priority is to develop a programme for drought preparedness. The crisis in Darfur has
coincided with years of above average rainfall, but this cannot be expected to last. Other research
focused on pastoralist livelihoods, fuel-efficient stoves and the environmental impact of the

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

programmes outlined in the Work Plan. The work has yet to be published, but is already helping to
raise awareness. A technical help-desk on environment and water resource management has also
been operational. The environmental technology task force has agreed on a programme of studies
and advocacy related to reducing deforestation in Darfur, and introducing alternative energy and
construction technology. The first of these studies, analysing changes in the timber trade, is due to be
published in August.

In both North and Southern Sudan, the first half of 2008 has been marked by enriched partnerships
between the UN and government ministries, who were able to coordinate on planning processes for
gender mainstreaming.       Efforts have continued to build capacity for women’s civil society
organisations and networks as well as governance institutions in the areas of information, advocacy,
leveraging opportunities and technical assistance on women’s rights. The possibility of funding the
facilitation of women in peace talks (especially in Darfur), leveraging resources for women and
women’s groups from the multi-donor trust fund and elsewhere, supporting women’s participation in
forthcoming elections, and continued engagement in gender justice and protection was also a focus.

In the last six months, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), which has the
lead for gender issues for the UN, has developed tools, guidelines and checklists for gender
mainstreaming, which have been used to support workshops in Darfur and will be circulated among all
sectors. In addition to the workshops, Darfur-wide consultations were held to ensure all UN agencies
and international NGOs have gender mainstreaming skills. In the next six months, recently released
CHF funds will be used to support HIV/AIDS activities in Darfur, and sexual and gender based
violence projects nationwide. Funds received bilaterally from Italy last year have been used in 2008
for peace building programmes in Darfur and an education project in Kassala and the Nuba
mountains. The peace programme is to help the United Nations/African Union joint mediation support
team to involve women in the peace process in Darfur. Two gender experts, national and
international, are being recruited to this end. The education project is developing gender sensitive
manuals for teachers and will target 120 teachers once the manuals are complete.

Several achievements have been noted in supporting and strengthening the national response to
HIV/AIDS in the first six months of the year. A house-to-house education project is being implemented
with the support of the UN, various universities and the Sudanese National AIDS Control Programme
(SNAP) targeting more than 200,000 households in eight northern States. Another 60,000 young men
enrolled in the national service programme were given information packages. A major success is the
ongoing finalisation of an HIV/AIDS-based life skills curriculum, supported by the United Nations
Children’s’ Fund (UNICEF), SNAP and the Ministry of General Education. More than 1,000 teachers
have already been trained, and the curriculum will be run in the new school year, beginning summer

Sessions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness at community level are continuing throughout the 15 northern
states, and have already reached more than 50,000 people. In Southern Darfur these sessions are
expected to reach thousands of returnees, while the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is developing a project to alleviate sexual violence and reduce risks
of HIV among women in 15 IDPs camps. Mother to child transmission services including testing,
counselling and treatment for those testing positive, reached more than 12,000 pregnant women in
seven different centres; at least seven more centres will be opened in the second half of the year.

In February, the Sudanese AIDS network – a consortium of more than 55 NGOs -- with support from
the UN, held its first civil society organisations forum in Khartoum. In March, a civil society response
analysis and capacity assessment exercise to map all those organisations working in North Sudan on
HIV/AIDS was concluded at a workshop involving more than 70 civil society organisations from the
north. The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) conducted induction training for 1,012
peacekeepers and 539 members of the public, while the UNMIS HIV/AIDS unit produced its first
newsletter to inform reader about sexually transmitted diseases, prevention strategies and treatments.
The newsletter is currently quarterly but is aiming for monthly issue. Voluntary confidential counselling
and testing services have continued, along with education programmes and leaflet distribution.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

The 2008 Work Plan is organised into twelve sectors: Basic Infrastructure and Settlement
Development, Common Services and Coordination, Cross-Sector Support for Return, Disarmament,
Demobilisation and Reintegration, Education and Culture, Food Security and Livelihoods, Governance
and Rule of Law, Health and Nutrition, Mine Action, Non-Food Items (NFI) and Emergency Shelter,
Protection and Human Rights and Water and Sanitation. The following summaries are based on
reports from sector leads; information from some planning regions was not available at time of writing.
Each summary includes a funding update as of 23 June and notes progress to date against targets
set for the year.


                           Requirements as of 23       Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                   June 2008                 23 June 2008

           $148,273,734               $151,113,444              $107,313,205                         71%

Offer construction and infrastructure rehabilitation and maintenance services to increase access to
basic services and expand economic development in support of settlement programmes.

MYR 2007:       226 km of roads were maintained and repaired.
2008 Target:    2,531 km of roads will be maintained and repaired.
MYR 2008:       432 km of roads were maintained and repaired.

The sector represents less than 2% of the total funding requirement, but features a large early
recovery portfolio, predominantly in Southern Sudan. Progress towards mid-year targets has been
good in the first five months of the year. Over 1,400 km of road were assessed countrywide, and
7,540 people were employed on construction projects. Contracts for two major road rehabilitation
programmes were signed, which should see the first UN-implemented all weather roads constructed
along a major transportation corridor in Southern Sudan, from Yambio to Tambura (185 km) and
Yambio to Farasikha (170 km).

There were also several challenges; while these were anticipated, some were more severe than
expected. Delays in donor funding have pushed back much work into the rainy season, while the
increase in fuel prices and the fluctuating cost of other materials has left some construction projects
facing budget shortfalls. Two UN agencies, the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS)
and WFP, account for 95% of the funding secured by May, while smaller NGO partners have had
difficulty securing the money they need. Pooled humanitarian/early recovery funds such as CHF tend
not to prioritise infrastructure projects. The limited capacity of local and regional contractors has
further hampered programme delivery.

In the next six months, the sector will continue to focus on improving road access, though progress is
likely to be slow due to the rains. Progress in the Three Areas and Darfur is also expected to be
limited because of funding constraints. The sector will also facilitate basic service provision, especially
in high areas of return, by building schools, hospitals and water and sanitation facilities.

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                              COMMON SERVICES AND COORDINATION

                          Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                               June 2008                  June 2008                 23 June 2008

            $96,673,238              $124,575,421               $52,648,669             42%

Provide logistic, transport and security services to enhance and facilitate programming, and facilitate
the coordination of UN and Partners programming.

MYR 2007:       48,800 passengers travelled on humanitarian flights in Sudan.
2008 Target:    168,000 passengers will travel on humanitarian flights and 25 tonnes of humanitarian
                NFI will be transported monthly.
MYR 2008:       74,735 passengers travelled on humanitarian flights.
                648,894 kg of cargo was transported in the first six months of the year.

In Darfur, humanitarian access remains a paramount concern. During February access to the area
north of Al Geneina, Western Darfur was prevented following the re-establishment of the Government
of Southern Sudan (GoSS) in the area. Access has since slowly reopened but service delivery to the
population remains difficult. In Northern and Southern Darfur access to certain camps is still an issue,
and there are other operational challenges. Four main factors prevail: government restrictions, general
insecurity including armed conflict and targeted attacks against humanitarians and their assets, poor
infrastructure and the impact of rain on operations. The combination of these factors means that large
swathes of Darfur are inaccessible at times. The Common Transport Service moved 3,124MT of NFT
from Khartoum to Darfur free of charge, with CARE as an implementing partner.

The crisis in Abyei in May was also a challenge. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), charged to lead the emergency response with support from offices in
North and Southern Sudan, ensured the quality of service delivery to the affected population. Regional
and sectoral planning and reporting processes were brought together on a national level in the Work
Plan, and the management of CHF and CERF funds was also centralised.

Across Sudan, UN agencies and partners held regular coordination meetings, disseminating monthly
bulletins, providing logistics information and conducting field infrastructure assessments.

                                        SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                       CROSS SECTOR SUPPORT FOR RETURN

                                 Requirements as of 23            Secured Funds by 23                    Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                      June 2008                        June 2008                         23 June 2008

               $80,515,703                     $90,814,708                      $21,749,066                   23%
*At the time of writing this report additional funding of $5 million was reported by Cross-Sector Support for Return, which is not
included in this table.

Strengthen assistance to spontaneous and organised returnees en route and in areas of return
through a joint approach with the Government of National Unity (GoNU), GoSS and other actors.

MYR 2007:           71,843 IDPs and refugees returns were supported through joint UN and
                    Government efforts.
2008 Target:        300,000 IDPs and refugees will be supported.
MYR 2008:           87,728 IDPs and refugees assisted.

The number of refugees returning from neighbouring countries reached an unprecedented 58,868,
representing 74% of the 80,000 target for 2008. Renewed fighting in the Three Areas and an attack on
the outskirts of Khartoum, however, uprooted still more Sudanese from their homes and disrupted the
movements of those already attempting to head back home.

May’s fighting in Abyei forced tens of thousands of Sudanese to leave the town. An estimated 70,000
people had returned to the region following the war, three quarters of whom had not yet returned to
their original villages. The renewed violence uprooted an estimated 50 to 60,000 again, most fleeing
southwards towards neighbouring states. Many have expressed a desire to return if the UN and local
authorities assess it to be safe, and three stages have been identified:

1.        Look-see visits to assess accommodation and security;
2.        Returns to the areas people were before the May unrest;
3.        Returns to home villages. This is a longer term project and closely linked to finalising the
          boundary disputes.

The emergency aid directed towards Abyei deflected attention and resources, provoking delays in
ongoing south-south return operations. Localised clashes in Southern Kordofan in April as well as
sporadic localised violence elsewhere displaced dozens of people and further stretched resources.
The May attack on Omdurman also disrupted north-south return operations. Insecurity prevented
access to IDP communities around Khartoum and closed roads heading southwards. Delays
eventually prompted the Joint Planning Force to bring forward the annual suspension of north-south
movements that usually begins with the rains.

Despite the violence, the number of IDPs returning home has increased significantly this year, with
organised IDPS returns in 2008 reaching 27,933 people by the end of June. As of 28 June, 136,750
refugees were helped by the UN to return to Sudan since 2005. Since 2004, more than two million
Sudanese, displaced either internally or abroad, are estimated to have returned home, ten percent of
whom have been organised or assisted by the UN and Partners. Helping these people to reintegrate
and develop livelihoods remains a priority.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW


                           Requirements as of 23     Secured Funds by 23         Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                 June 2008              23 June 2008

            $16,259,044               $16,527,100              $5,997,111             36%

Strengthen security by implementing programme for forces identified in the CPA, Darfur Peace
Agreement (DPA) and Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement (ESPA). Enhance peace and security in
communities, and develop the capacity of Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration (DDR)
Commissions, national NGOs and institutions.

MYR 2007:                 434 children were removed from armed forces or groups.
2008 Target:              2,000 children will be removed.
                          79,000 ex-combatants will be disarmed and demobilised.
MYR 2008:                 No ex-combatants were demobilised.
                          At least 150 children were removed from armed forces or groups.
Adjusted Target:          50,000 ex-combatants to be demobilised in 2008.

The demobilisation of soldiers was due to begin in 2008. With 50,000 candidates already registered by
the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and SPLA, it was hoped that a total of 79,000 would pass through the
programme, 29,000 of them demobilised by the government. However no realistic start date has been
agreed upon, due to ongoing preparatory and planning work being carried out by the government and
the UN. The remaining months of 2008 will not be sufficient to achieve the year’s target, and it is
possible that the entire process will not begin until 2009.

The sector noted several other achievements in the first half of 2008, however. UNICEF reported that
31 children were removed from the Eastern Front and one from an armed group in Darfur. A further 88
children were removed from armed groups in North Sudan around 40 in Southern Sudan. A
reintegration policy was endorsed by the government, and a reintegration project document signed by
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the GoNU and GoSS. The latter will see
180,000 ex-combatants receive reintegration benefits between January 2009 and June 2012. In April,
the first roundtable partnership forum was held bringing together government, donors and the UN.
This forum will meet two to three times a year to discuss policy issues.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                       EDUCATION AND CULTURE

                           Requirements as of 23       Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                   June 2008                 23 June 2008

           $152,264,019               $155,223,452                $72,838,403              46%

Increase equitable access to quality education services to all children, youth and adults for sustainable

MYR 2007:       More than 3,000 teachers were trained.
2008 Target:    9,000 teachers will be trained and 800,000 children will be enrolled in school.
MYR 2008:       8,000 teachers were trained. It is too early in the year to have enrolment figures.

The sector has made considerable progress on developing national level policies, building institutional
capacity and strengthening the education system. In North Sudan, the Education Ministry and partners
such as UNICEF and NGOs have developed guidelines and a training package for parent-teacher
associations, child-friendly school policy, and operational guidelines and curriculum reforms aimed at
integrating life skills in three thematic streams into the curriculum: 1) health; 2) hygiene and nutrition;
and 3) social protection, with a focus on female genital mutilation, as well as mines and peace. In
Southern Sudan, a parent-teacher association framework and training manuals have been completed,
and a child-friendly school framework was adopted and is being developed in 800 schools.

Access to education was expanded in Western Darfur following a surge in violence earlier this year.
UNICEF, the Education Ministry and state radio broadcast lessons in the northern part of the state;
there are attempts to expand and extend this project. Education programming was widened to cover
access to early childhood/pre-primary and secondary education, especially in Southern Kordofan and
Southern Darfur. In Southern Sudan, total enrolment due to the Go-To-School initiative that was
started in April 2006 is expected to exceed the targeted 1.6 million. At last year’s annual census in
June 2007, enrolment in the south had risen to 1.4 million from an estimated 343,000 when the
initiative started. Girls’ enrolment had increased from 14% to 36%. A strategy to encourage girls’
enrolment has been put in place this year and a study commissioned on socio-cultural and economic
barriers to schooling. The number of enrolments from nomadic communities has continued to rise. A
study evaluating UNICEF’s 2002-2006 nomadic education programme suggests the number of
nomadic schools in Kassala, Gedaref, Blue Nile, Sennar and White Nile increased from 82 in 2003/04
to 328 in 2006/07, with enrolment rising from 4.4% to 19.7% in that same period.

More than 5,000 teachers in Southern Sudan received fast track, intensive English or other training.
Across the north, 150 teachers were trained in teaching children with special needs, 100 in early
childhood care and 400 prepared for English and Arabic language schools. The shortage of qualified
teachers remains a key challenge across Sudan, as does the lack of funds to cover incentives for
volunteer staff. The high cost of materials limited the quality and quantity of construction. In the south,
a rapid review of school construction for the whole sector recommended greater flexibility in designing
and building schools and decentralisation of the contractual process to state levels. Nearly 100,000
children in the north benefited from school supplies, including uniforms, textbooks, desks and mats.
Capacity building initiatives focused on data management, planning and coordination. Partnerships
with national NGOs and community based organisations strengthened, and a pilot was carried out in
Southern Kordofan to tighten links between sectors and better integrate programmes.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                  FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS

                           Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                  June 2008                 23 June 2008

           $734,983,033              $762,194,009               $535,326,584              70%

Improve and stabilise food security and livelihoods among IDPs, returnees and vulnerable host

MYR 2007:       800,000 households received food assistance and 198,000 households were
                supported through diversified livelihood activities.
2008 Target:    730,000 households will receive food assistance, and over one million households will
                be supported through diversified livelihood activities.
MYR 2008:       686,008 households received food assistance; more than 500,000 provided with
                livelihood support, including agricultural inputs and training, animal health and
                restocking services.

The sector focus so far in 2008 has been on procurement, pre-positioning and delivery ahead of the
rains, which dictate both the agricultural season and the hunger gap. More than 3.4 million people
(equivalent to 686,008 households) received food assistance, either through general food distribution
or programmes providing food for work or food for training. Some food for seeds protection
programmes were also conducted during seed distribution.
The main challenge has been security. Ongoing displacement has hindered access to land and
increased the numbers reliant on aid. Increased banditry in Darfur significantly impacted the delivery
of food aid, forcing WFP to halve cereals, pulses and sugar rations in both May and June. Reduced
access has delayed the delivery of agricultural inputs being coordinated by the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), which has in turn negatively affected household food
security and production. The unrest in Abyei, during which UN and NGO offices were looted,
redirected operations to the new IDPs, and adjustments are ongoing. A large influx of refugees in the
east was a further challenge.

In the next six months, the sector will continue to support vaccination and treatment of livestock,
livelihoods diversification and income generating activities, as well as promote more sustainable use
of natural resources and provide seasonal food support for the vulnerable. Needs, food security and
livelihoods assessments will be carried out in preparation for 2008/09, winter agricultural inputs will be
pre-positioned, and there will be a focus on refugees and returns in the east and south.

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                  GOVERNANCE AND RULE OF LAW

                          Requirements as of 23     Secured Funds by 23           Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                               June 2008                 June 2008                23 June 2008

            $17,045,905              $17,045,905                $2,083,060            12%

Promote democratic governance through support to rule of law and good governance initiatives as per
the transitional legal frameworks with the ultimate goal of improving human security.

MYR 2007:       A pilot census was completed in all areas of Sudan.
                213 law enforcement officials trained on rights, penal code and community policing.
2008 Target:    Census will enumerate all of Sudan’s people.
                500 law enforcement officials will be trained.
MYR 2008:       Enumeration phase of census completed.
                574 law enforcement officials were trained as of April.

After repeated delays, a national census was carried out in April, required by the CPA as one of the
ways to prepare for free and fair elections. Insecurity limited access to some areas, however, and the
results are not expected to be published and processed until later this year.

Between January and 1 April, 21 law enforcement courses were conducted in Kassala state; the 574
participants included 66 women, and the trainers came from UNMIS Police Northern Region. These
courses included community policing, rule of law and human rights, crime investigations, computers,
forensic and finger prints.

                                          SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                                  HEALTH AND NUTRITION

                                   Requirements as of 23           Secured Funds by 23    Coverage by
    Original Requirements
                                        June 2008                       June 2008         23 June 2008

               $255,958,181                    $256,533,060                 $88,084,005       34%

Offer technical assistance services and programmes contributing to the implementation and
achievement of the National Health Strategy and Nutrition Policy.

MYR 2007:             5.4 million children received vitamin A supplements.
                      9.1 million children received polio vaccinations.
2008 Target:          6 million children will receive vitamin A supplements.
                      9 million children will receive polio vaccinations.
MYR 2008:             9.2 million children received polio vaccinations.
                      6.5 million children aged six to 59 months received vitamin A supplements.

The sector reached its polio and vitamin A targets by mid-year. Another notable achievement was the
early warning and response system’s 94% coverage of Sudan. In Southern Kordofan, Eastern States
and Blue Nile, there were 900,000 medical consultations, while in Darfur there were 1.7 million. In
Southern Sudan, two rounds of national immunisation days were held in May and June, following the
identification of a wild polio virus infection in Akobo. A first round had been held in March. In addition
to polio vaccinations, some 2.7 million children in the south received measles inoculations, 3.6 million
were de-wormed, 0.8 million women and children got iodine supplements and 760,000 families
received a bed net. Southern efforts to strengthen early warning and response saw 345 health
workers in five states trained on integrated disease surveillance and response. Thirty-six community
midwives were trained in safer deliveries to reduce maternal mortality, and the provision of midwifery
kits helped support 12,500 normal deliveries. Reproductive health kits, including clean delivery and
post rape kits, were distributed to all three states of Darfur.

Bureaucratic challenges were the main impediments to effective delivery, especially in Darfur. NGO
nutrition surveys were delayed, the government banned the import of goods from Copenhagen, and
supplies coming into the country or heading to the field were held up at customs or for quality control
clearance. Staff movements were slowed or restricted both by increased bureaucracy and worsening
security in certain regions, and also suffered from the increasing costs of fuel and food. The sector
would benefit from more collaboration on a technical level between health and nutrition, food security
and livelihoods, and water and sanitation sectors.

For the rest of the year, the sector will continue sustaining and expanding disease and nutrition
surveillance, communicable disease control (especially malaria), focus on mitigating the impact of
rainy season floods (water-borne diseases), while addressing early recovery needs in affected areas
and ensuring coverage and quality of service delivery. Resolving the issues that have held up
supplies and the release of information is key.

2   UNICEF’s main supply warehouse is located in Copenhagen, Denmark.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                             MINE ACTION

                          Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                               June 2008                  June 2008                 23 June 2008

            $64,368,221               $64,368,221               $21,016,499             32%

Strengthen national, state and local government, civil society and the international community to
implement demining actions, victims’ assistance and mine risk education programmes.

MYR 2007:       5.9 million m of contaminated areas were cleared.
                1,068 km of roads cleared of landmines.
2008 Target:    2.5 million m of contaminated areas will be cleared.
                3,861 km of roads will be cleared of landmines.
MYR 2008:       6.7 million m² of land were cleared.
                973 km of road were cleared of landmines and explosive remnants of war.

The sector made great progress between January and May. In addition to the above targets, 3,921km
of road were opened through assessment, 7,076 anti-personnel landmines, 199 anti-tank mines and
43,684 unexploded ordnances were destroyed. Mine risk education continued in all affected areas of
Sudan, reaching 250,000 people. A number of victim assistance projects were implemented, and a
second round of interventions is being planned to target new areas recently identified.

In compliance with Article 4 of the Mine Ban Convention, Sudan destroyed its second and last batch of
6,078 stockpiled antipersonnel mines and 109 anti-tank mines in Juba on 31 March. Two strategic
planning workshops on transition, held in February and May, resulted in an agreed framework for
handing over the mine action programme to national ownership.

Insecurity proved a considerable constraint, while early rains hampered activities in Southern Sudan.
In the second half of 2008 the sector will continue to focus on opening roads and conducting
clearance around those communities identified as at risk by the Landmine Impact Survey. This survey
is in its final stages, and will target Upper Nile, Jonglei and Southern Kordofan in the next 12 months.

                                SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                            NON-FOOD ITEMS AND EMERGENCY SHELTER

                          Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23           Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                               June 2008                  June 2008                23 June 2008

            $59,013,641              $61,195,014               $21,636,926             35%

Ensure the provision of appropriate and timely non-food and emergency shelter items to returnees and
to people affected by conflict and disaster.

MYR 2007:       276,347 households received items that help mitigate health threats and offer
2008 Target:    500,000 households will receive appropriate items.
MYR 2008:       181,008 households received non-food items and emergency shelter.

The NFI Common Pipeline has been the main provider of non-food and emergency shelter in North
Sudan since its inception in 2004 and the first half of 2008 saw the completion or preparatory work for
a similar pipeline for Southern Sudan. Some work remains to be done before the pipeline is up and
running, but once operational it should ensure timely procurement and pre-positioning of items needed
by 10,000 disaster-affected households in the south, as well as returnees. The United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) continued to be responsible for providing non-food items and
emergency shelter to refugees in Darfur, as well as in Eastern States where more than 10,000 new
asylum seekers have arrived since January from Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. All 58,868 returned
refugees in Southern Sudan and Blue Nile received non-food item packages to support their

Across Sudan, over 60 organisations participated in this sector. Improving coordination remains a
focus, and should benefit from the publishing of the 2008 NFI Guiding Principles document, a
comprehensive reference for all NFI Common Pipeline partners. Improved joint planning and
information sharing, in addition to ample stocks, helped the sector respond quickly to emerging needs.
The majority of those helped – 100,549 households – were in Darfur. The May crisis in Abyei
increased needs not only among the newly displaced, but also among returnees and host
communities. While the sector relied on carry-over stocks from 2007 at the start of the year, funds
have since been received from CHF and CERF. Several regions, including Darfur, Southern Sudan
and Eastern States, remain severely under-funded, however, and the diversion of funds towards Abyei
further limited resources. Lack of access due to insecurity has affected attempts to assess needs; in
Darfur this was exacerbated by limited IDPs camp coordination. Organisations around the country
have reduced staff, leaving too few to complete the necessary volume of work.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                   PROTECTION AND HUMAN RIGHTS

                           Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                  June 2008                 23 June 2008

            $87,417,055               $91,543,111                $44,823,354              48.96%

Advocate for and work with authorities and communities to respond effectively to protection needs and
promote the respect of the rights of civilians, particularly women, children and other individuals with
specific needs.

MYR 2007:       15,418 children were provided with psychosocial support.
                468 separated children identified and reunited with families.
2008 Target:    35,000 children will be provided with psychosocial support.
                2,000 separated children will be identified and reunited with families.
2008 MYR:       More than 100,000 children received psychosocial support.
                At least 150 children were reunited with their families.

The sector has continued to work with local communities and authorities to develop awareness of
basic human rights and protection. At the national level, coordination meetings have been held on a
monthly basis, while on a state level Protection and Child Protection Working Groups were functioning
in nine states. The government, following consultations countrywide and with UNICEF technical
assistance, submitted a report on the involvement of children in armed conflict to the Convention for
the Rights of the Child committee in May. In addition to the children reunited with their families – most
of whom were removed from armed forces – a further 160 abducted children were returned to
Southern Sudan. A Child Act 2008 has been submitted to the cabinet but not yet discussed.

Some 45 law enforcement officers from nine states in North Sudan and Juba received training as part
of the rollout of new child and family units within the police. More than 80 social workers from ten
southern states took part in social work training, and 94 people in four states trained in family
counselling and mediation, and best practice in supporting foster children. There was progress on
projects to develop a national statistical database on children in contact with the law, developing policy
guidelines on alternatives to detention, services for juvenile offenders and developing a human rights
manual for police forces. A programme linked with the North Sudan DDR commission saw 130 Sudan
Armed Forces Officers trained on child protection. In addition to those children released from armed
groups (see page 13), 280 children previously released were given follow-up support and six children
who were victims of attempted trafficking in Chad were reunited with their families.

As in other sectors, insecurity in Darfur was a constraint, as were labour issues about the status of
volunteers there. The period saw a major shift in the UNHCR approach to its Darfur operations. In
response to requests by the Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator and UN system, UNHCR
established a permanent presence in both Northern and Southern Darfur. In Western Darfur, a notable
success has been continued access to remote locations through field offices and partners. Activities
include protection monitoring in IDP settlements, training and reconciliation initiatives. Each Darfur
state developed an action plan for gender-based violence that is now being implemented. Despite
these and other successes, budget constraints have had a negative impact. In Southern Sudan, the
sector and its partners continued to focus on promoting safe, voluntary and dignified returns to the
south. Examples include village assessments and protection monitoring activities.

A national strategy to end female genital mutilation within a generation (2008-2018) was endorsed,
and related campaigns in Khartoum, Kassala, Port Sudan and Kadugli reached an estimated one
million people. The annual target is to reach five million. New interventions for abandoned babies
were initiated in Darfur and El Gezira. The Ministry of Health launched the Sudanese Guidelines on
the Management of Rape, following technical advice from the United Nations Population Fund
(UNFPA). Some 200 healthcare professionals in Khartoum, Kassala and the three Darfur states were
trained and will train others. Training included modules on medico-legal issues and psychosocial
needs. Medical kits have been provided for follow-up treatment. Women’s centres in IDP camps,

                               SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

national NGOs and community leaders have also been supported for their gender-based violence and
livelihoods activities in IDP camps and host communities, especially in rural areas.

In Khartoum, there has been more attention directed towards gender-based violence, but success will
depend on the will of both partners and authorities. More than 1,250 IDPs were provided with
documentation. By end April, almost 500 refugees and asylum seekers in Khartoum received legal
support, and interventions were assured for more than 1,700 people detained for lack of proper
documentation, with a 70% release rate. Counselling and emergency medical and material assistance
was provided to more than 1,500 refugees/asylum seekers. The relationship with authorities and inter-
sector coordination remained the main challenges. Close scrutiny hindered the reporting process and
bureaucratic obstacles strained capacity.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                        WATER AND SANITATION

                           Requirements as of 23      Secured Funds by 23            Coverage by
 Original Requirements
                                June 2008                  June 2008                 23 June 2008

           $152,008,980              $154,565,591                $52,159,875              33%

Increase access to adequate drinking water, sanitation and personal/environmental hygienic practices;
and to support the development and implementation of policies and strategies.

MYR 2007:       2 million people had access to safe drinking water.
                1.7 million people received hygiene messages.
2008 Target:    7 million people will have access to safe drinking water.
                6.7 million people will receive hygiene messages.
MYR 2008:       2.8 million people provided with safe drinking water.
                2.8 million people received guidance on sanitation and hygiene promotion.

The sector saw several significant achievements in the first half of 2008. Of particular note was a
better understanding within government and at the national level the Public Water Corporation has
now taken responsibility for conducting the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) coordination
meetings. In addition to the progress towards targets listed above, around 1.5 million people got
access to safe means of excreta disposal facilities, databases were established in ten states and
water quality testing labs were set up in all the states of North Sudan. Drilling capacity was increased
by the procurement of two rigs, and consultants began developing a sector strategy for North Sudan
which should be completed by year end. In Southern Sudan, at least 518,500 people had new access
to safe water, through drilling boreholes, installing surface water treatment systems and rehabilitating
existing water points. Some 17,800 people were provided with sanitation facilities and more than 150
institutional facilities built, thereby reaching some 5,000 school children and 26,000 users of health
facilities. State governments in the south are increasingly taking regulatory measures to ensure safe
disposal of domestic waste, encouraged by the international year of sanitation. Results for both
sanitation improvement and hygiene promotion in the south have been limited by resources and
inhibiting cultural practices.

Insecurity and the continued displacement of people in Darfur and Abyei posed a significant challenge
to the sector and are likely to impact achievements going forward. In March, four WES staff and a
drilling rig were hijacked and held for more than a week, creating huge tensions and disrupting drilling
programmes in the region. North-south interventions in Abyei were a major achievement, with all
sector partners coordinating to address emergency water supply needs of the displaced. The sector
also responded successfully to four acute watery diarrhoea outbreaks in the south.

The inclusion of sanitation and hygiene as a separate objective in 2008 is helpful. Coordination
mechanisms that support decentralisation of the sector in Southern Sudan are gaining momentum.
Sub-sector strategies need to be scaled up, as do inter-sector links. Collaboration with health and
nutrition would help monitor disease outbreaks, and show up the links between disease and poor
water supply. Information sharing is vital, and the existing database insufficient. The sector needs to
build the capacity of women and artisan workers in order to enhance the sustainability of water
systems and sanitation facilities at the household level.

Inadequate funding is a major concern. Analysis shows that unless funding increases five-fold, it will
not be possible to reach the Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of those without
access to safe water and sanitation. In North Sudan, those goals mean 82% access to safe water and
67% to sanitation by 2015. In Southern Sudan, priorities for the rest of the year are to develop
technical guidelines, write a water point inventory, develop strategies for scaling up sanitation, conduct
a knowledge attitude and practice survey, and initiate capacity development at a sub-state level.

                                         SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

5.         FUNDING
The analysis in this chapter refers to the humanitarian and early recovery components of the UN and
Partners 2008 Work Plan for Sudan. In line with the rest of the Mid-Year Review, the recovery and
development portfolio is excluded.

As of 23 June, the 2008 Work Plan’s humanitarian and early recovery requirements have increased by
$81 million since the plan was launched, bringing the total requirement to $1.95 billion. The most
significant increases were in the following sectors: Food Security and Livelihoods sector ($29 million),
Common Services and Coordination ($28 million) and Cross-Sector Support for Return ($12 million).
The increase in the Food Security and Livelihoods sector reflects rising food prices; Common Services
and Coordination requirements rose because of the expansion of Humanitarian Air Services; the
inclusion in the Work Plan of returns activities implemented by UNHCR in countries of asylum drove
up needs for Cross-Sector Support for Returns.

As of 23 June, $1.03 billion had been contributed towards the humanitarian and early recovery
components, leaving an unmet requirement of $911 million. Although contributions cover more than
53% of requirements, funds are distributed unevenly among sectors. Basic Infrastructure and
Settlement Development and Food Security and Livelihoods each received more than 70% of their
needs, but all other sectors got less than half of what they required.

               2008 Work Plan Funding                           Requirements             Contributions            Coverage
           (Humanitarian/Early Recovery)                               ($)                      ($)                   (%)

    Basic Infrastructure and Settlement Development                  151,113,444              107,313,205            71.01
    Common Services and Coordination                                 124,575,421               52,648,669            42.26
    Cross-sector Support for Return                                   90,814,708              21,749,066 *           23.95
    DDR                                                               16,527,100                5,997,111            36.29
    Education and Culture                                            155,223,452               72,838,403            46.92
    Food Security and Livelihoods                                    762,194,009              535,326,584            70.23
    Governance and Rule of Law                                        17,045,905                2,083,060            12.22
    Health and Nutrition                                             256,533,060               88,084,005            34.34
    Mine Action                                                       64,368,221               21,016,499            32.65
    NFIs and Emergency Shelter                                        61,195,014               21,636,926            35.36
    Protection and Human Rights                                       91,543,111               44,823,354            48.96
    Water and Sanitation                                             154,565,591               52,159,875            33.75
    Unspecified                                                                0                9,013,676
    Total                                                         $1,945,699,036           $1,034,690,433           53.18%
* At the time of writing this report additional funding of $5 million was reported by Cross-sector Support for Return, which is not
included in this table.

Over half of the funds received ($548 million) were to meet humanitarian and early recovery needs in
Darfur, covering 61% of its requirements. In contract, the rest of North Sudan received only 40%, or
$167 million, of its humanitarian and early recovery requirements. In Southern Sudan, 50% of
humanitarian and early recovery requirements, or $322 million, were covered.

3It should be noted that figures in this chapter include only funding reporting to UNOCHA by 23 June. Financial figures are updated
continuously on OCHA’s Financial Tracking Service ( and the UN and Partners Work Plan for Sudan 2008 Project
Database (

                                          SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

            Region                     Requirements ($)                       Received ($)                   Coverage (%)

 Darfur                                           892,131,157                       548,233,061                   61.45
 Southern Sudan                                   643,600,055                       321,818,071                   50.00
 Rest of North Sudan                              409,967,824                       164,639,301                   40.16
 Total                                         $1,945,699,036                    $1,034,690,433                  53.18%

Sources of funding to the 2008 Work Plan for Sudan included bilateral and other contributions, CHF
allocations, and CERF grants.

                       Funding Modality                                   Total Amount ($)                     % of Total

 Bilateral and Other Contributions                                                  920,272,853                   88.94
 Common Humanitarian Fund (CHF) Allocations                                       104,456,182 *                   10.10
 Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) Grants                                       9,961,398**                   0.96
 Total                                                                           $1,034,690,433                   100%
* At the time of writing this report another CHF allocation of $44 million was ongoing, which is not included in this table.
** At the time of writing this report another CERF grant of $5 million was approved, which is not included in this table.

Bilateral and other contributions were the major source of funding, representing nearly 89% of secured
funding to the Work Plan. The biggest donors were United States ($452 million), United Kingdom
($116 million), and European Commission ($95 million).

The CHF for Sudan is a pooled funding mechanism for humanitarian activities. The main objective of
the CHF is to provide early and predictable funds for Sudan’s most critical humanitarian needs. Under
the CHF, donors pool their funds; the Humanitarian Coordinator (HC) manages them with support from
OCHA and UNDP. The CHF is designed to give the HC a greater ability to target funds and encourage
donor contributions, allowing for rapid response to unforeseen emergencies. Since the beginning of
2006 nearly $500 million has been channelled through the CHF.

The CHF allocated $104 million to the Work Plan’s humanitarian and early recovery portfolios,
accounting for over 10% of the overall secured funding by 23 June. These funds were provided early
in the year and were specifically targeted towards time-critical and poorly-funded core humanitarian
projects. Although CHF funds were smaller in volume than bilateral contributions, their ability to time
and target aid made them of strategic importance in implementing humanitarian and early recovery
programmes. At the time of writing, a second 2008 allocation of $44 million from the CHF was
ongoing, including $4 million towards the Abyei emergency response. The following table shows
contributions to CHF in 2008.

                 Donor *                                Total Amount ($)                                 % of Total

 United Kingdom                                                          79,522,862                         55.96
 Sweden                                                                  16,638,935                         11.71
 Norway                                                                  17,619,273                         12.40
 Ireland                                                                  6,320,000                          4.45
 Netherlands                                                             21,622,000                         15.21
 Denmark                                                                    392,434                          0.28
 Total                                                                 $142,115,504                         100%
* Recent pledge of Euro 7 million from Spain is not included in this table.

Grants from the CERF constituted nearly 1% of received funds for the first half of the year and
supported rapid response to sudden onset crises or deteriorating humanitarian emergencies. In 2008
CERF supported WFP food aid programmes with $5.1 million in view of rising food prices and pipeline
problems, Humanitarian Air Services with $2 million due to critical funding shortfalls and UNICEF,
WFP, and WHO with $2.9 million for rapid response to escalating conflict in Western Darfur. At the
time of writing, another CERF grant of $5 million was approved for multi-agency rapid response to the
outbreak of conflict in Abyei.

                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

The Mid-Year Review is a good opportunity not only to record progress made to date but also to
reconsider strategic priorities in the light of developments on the ground. In the first six months of
2008, the delivery of humanitarian aid to Sudan has been largely delivered as planned with two
notable exceptions: Abyei and Darfur. Worsening conditions in the latter and the flaring of tensions in
the former have increased requirements and complicated delivery; the targeting of humanitarian
workers and obstructive bureaucracy make harder still the task of reaching those most in need.

Even as the focus moves increasingly towards transition, it is clear that humanitarian and early
recovery needs remain a priority in Sudan. There is potential for further destabilisation in the Three
Areas, and unless significant political progress is made, Darfur’s turmoil is also likely to continue. The
first half of 2008 saw more than 250,000 Sudanese displaced, many for the second or third time;
unless these trends can be reversed, it is difficult to predict anything but an increase in humanitarian
needs. Access is an increasingly critical problem, and the humanitarian community may need to
reformulate strategies for relief.

In other parts of Sudan, evidence of transition and recovery is heartening. Roads have been built,
mines cleared, children removed from armed groups, vaccinations used to combat disease. Across the
country, there are examples of growing coordination between sectors, and between the UN and its
partners, be they local, international, governmental or NGOs. Where there is cooperation, there is
progress; so too is there the capacity building vital if Sudan is one day to manage without international
aid. Teachers, police, judges, government officials, humanitarian workers, paralegals, parents and
children have gone through training programmes to learn new skills and heighten awareness of issues
such as human rights, gender inequality, child protection, mine risk, budget planning and conflict
resolution. While the Work Plan’s primary focus is perforce on people, there is growing awareness too
of the need to manage the natural resources that represent the future of those people, and steps to do
so in several sectors are to be commended.

In light of all of these achievements and challenges, the Work Plan’s strategic priorities are more
relevant than ever as the UN and Partners move towards 2009. Peace agreements must not be
disregarded if Sudan is to move forwards; the longer the delays in implementation, the greater the risk
of further instability. The biggest humanitarian need still comes from Darfur, while countrywide; the
transition towards recovery and development still remains the Work Plan’s goal, even as it moves to a
narrower focus on humanitarian and early recovery portfolios. To this end capacity building will remain
at the heart of strategies in each sector and planning region, while funding mechanisms, information
management and emergency preparedness are the scaffold around which the rest of the Work Plan
will continue to be built.

                                                                       SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                                          Projects Removed from the 2008 Work Plan for Sudan
              Agency       Project Code                                                            Project Title                                                       Sector   Requirements
Date 2008
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/PHR34    Protection Coordination                                                                                                      PHR           4,900,489
25 Jun      UNICEF        SUD-08/E42      HIV/AIDS Life Skills Education for Basic and Secondary Schools                                                               E             1,000,000
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/FSL108   Food Security and Improved Livelihood for Returnees, Targeted IDPs and Vulnerable Groups From Host Communities               FSL           1,419,501
                                          Improvement of Basic Health Service Especially Maternity Services for War-affected Population in North Bor County and
19 Jun      Johanniter    SUD-08/HN79                                                                                                                                  HN            1,716,500
                                          Bor Town
17 Jan      UNEP          SUD-08/CCS7     National Environmental Mainstreaming                                                                                         CCS             534,000
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/HN205    Support to Healthcare Services for Returnees, IDPs and Host Communities in Areas of High Return and Reintegration            HN            7,080,087
                                          Provision of Public Health Care Services For Returnees, IDPs And Host Communities In The Areas of High Return As
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/HN221                                                                                                                                 CCS            859,501
                                          Well As Medical Screening And Vaccination Services During The Organised Return Process At Reception Centres.

                                                          New Projects Added to the 2008 Work Plan for Sudan
Revision                                                                                                                                                                        Requirements
              Agency       Project Code                                                            Project Title                                                       Sector
Date 2008                                                                                                                                                                            ($)
                                          Return of Sudanese refugees to Southern Sudan and Blue Nile State from Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and other
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/RR17                                                                                                                                  CCS          12,138,008
                                          Strengthening The Mechanism for Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance and Outbreak Control in Health Care Management of
19 Jan      CFCI          SUD-08/HN222                                                                                                                                 HN               61,000
                                          BNS by Child-Friendly Community Initiative (CFCI).
                                          Provision of Public Health Care Services For Returnees, IDPs And Host Communities In The Areas of High Return As
19 Jan      UNHCR         SUD-08/HN221                                                                                                                                 CCS            859,501
                                          Well As Medical Screening And Vaccination Services During The Organised Return Process At Reception Centres.
                                          Primary Health Care and Supplementary Feeding Programme To Soba Elaradi, Mayo mandella and Haj yousif Elabarka
19 Jan      FPDO          SUD-08/HN220                                                                                                                                 HN             849,200
                                          Primary Health Care, supplementary feeding programme, in Jebel Awlia, Alsalam, Wad Elbashir, Elsooky (Sinnar),
19 Jan      GHF           SUD-08/HN219                                                                                                                                 HN            1,523,500
                                          Albaraka , Mayo camps, and Environmental Health and Sanitation in Elsooky (Sinnar)
19 Jan      Mubadiroon    SUD-08/HN218    Construction of Primary Health Unit of Purfa.                                                                                HN              30,224
19 Jan      IMC           SUD-08/HN215    Provide Access to basic PHC services to Inhabitants of Al Serief and Intifada, Nyala, Southern Darfur                        HN             300,000
3 Mar       CCM           SUD-08/HN223    Providing Primary Health Care services in Tonj East and North Counties (Warrap State)                                        HN             784,409
3 Mar       ITDG          SUD-08/BI52     Rebuilding the Livelihoods of Returnees, IDPs and War-Affected Populations in Blue Nile                                      BI              70,000
3 Mar       SC-US         SUD-08/NS57     Returnees Re-integration and Re-settlement Project                                                                           NS             163,100
3 Mar                     SUD-08/E167     Emergency Education and Recovery Intervention                                                                                E              730,380
                                          Rehabilitation of the central Store in Juba for the MoH of Central Equatoria and technical assistance for the distribution
3 Mar       PSF-CI        SUD-08/HN224                                                                                                                                 HN            1,130,000
19 Jun      Solidarites   SUD-08/BI54     Emergency Repair of Malakal's Water Treatment Plant and Network                                                              BN             300,000
19 Jun                    SUD-08/HN229    To sustain and expand quality health services to the target population in Southern Darfur                                    HN            2,000,000
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/HN230    Improvement of Health amongst persons of concern in Darfur                                                                   HN            1,178,056
                                          Provision of Basic Primary Health Care to Residents and IDPs in Mellit, Sayaha, Sarfaya, Birka and Korma, North
19 Jun      AHA           SUD-08/CCS24                                                                                                                                 CCS            980,900
19 Jun      UNHCR         SUD-08/WS148    Provision of essential water supply to refugee population in Darfur                                                          WS            1,577,109
17 Jun      WFP           SUD-08/CCS25    Work Plan for Sudan Team Leader                                                                                              CCS             237,000

                                                                 SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

                                                        Revised Projects in the 2008 Work Plan for Sudan
                                                                                                                                                   Original         Revised
             Agency    Project Code                                           Project Title                                             Sector   Requirements     Requirements
Date 2008
                                                                                                                                                      ($)              ($)
                                      Enhancing the Capacity of Local and National Actors to Address Protection and Find Solutions
19 Jun      UNHCR     SUD-08/PHR33                                                                                                   PHR              3,902,936      12,929,531
                                      for Individuals and Groups with Specific Needs
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/E39      Food For Education                                                                             E               44,488,395      47,258,185
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/FSL25    Food Assistance - Returns and Reintegration                                                    FSL             88,845,000      93,243,046
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/FSL31    Food Assistance - Conflict Affected and Displaced Populations                                  FSL            520,778,691     546,558,515
19 Jun      UNHCR     SUD-08/NS30     Shelter and Non-Food items Support to Vulnerable Persons                                       NS               4,224,365       6,224,365
19 Jun      UNOPS     SUD-08/BI41     The Rapid Impact Emergency Project-Public Works Programme                                      BI               1,278,500       3,499,707
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/HN119    Nutrition Support to Vulnerable Groups with Emphasis on TB, Leprosy, Kala Azar & HIV/AIDS      HN               4,404,800       4,622,848
19 Jun      UNHCR     SUD-08/NS41     Provision of Emergency Shelter and NFIs to Returning Refugees and IDPs                         NS               3,395,814       3,414,087
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/DDR4     Food Assistance - DDR                                                                          DDR              5,415,000       5,683,056
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/CCS8     Humanitarian Air Service                                                                       CCS             54,378,000      77,143,809
19 Jun      UNHCR     SUD-08/CCS9     Camp Coordination and Camp Management                                                          CCS              7,663,466      12,115,940
24 Jun      WFP       SUD-08/HN225    Maternal and Child Nutrition                                                                   HN               9,848,562      10,336,090

                                                   Summary of Changes in the 2008 Work Plan for Sudan
                                                                            By 23 June 2008

                                       Total Requirements of Removed Projects                                             -18,906,578

                                       Total Requirements of New Projects                                                  24,912,387

                                       Total Revisions                                                                     74,505,650

                                       Total Changes                                                                     $80,511,459

                            SUDAN WORK PLAN 2008 MID-YEAR REVIEW

CCM           Comitato Collaborazione Medica
CERF          Central Emergency Response Fund
CHF           Common Humanitarian Fund
CPA           Comprehensive Peace Agreement

DDR           Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration
DPA           Darfur Peace Agreement

ESPA          Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement

FAO           Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
FPDO          Friends of Peace and Development

GDP           Gross Domestic Product
GHF           Global Health Foundation
GoNU          Government of National Unity
GoSS          Government of Southern Sudan

HC            Humanitarian Coordinator

IASC          Inter-Agency Standing Committee
IDPs          Internally Displaced Person/People
IMC           International Medical Corps
ITDG          Intermediate Technology Development Group

JEM           Justice and Equality Movement

LRA           Lord’s Resistance Army

MoH           Ministry of Health
MT            Metric Tonne

NCP           National Congress Party
NFI           Non-Food Item
NGO           Non-Governmental Organisation

PSI           Population Services International

SAF           Sudan Armed Forces
SC            Save the Children
SNAP          Sudanese National AIDS Control Programme
SPLA          Sudan People’s Liberation Army
SPLM          People’s Liberation Movement

UN            United Nations
UNAMID        United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur
UNDAF         United Nations Development Assistance Framework
UNDP          United Nations Development Programme
UNEP          United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO        United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFPA         United Nations Population Fund
UN-HABITAT    United Nations Settlement Programme
UNHCR         United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF        United Nations Children’s’ Fund
UNIFEM        United Nations Development Fund for Women
UNMIS         United Nations Mission in Sudan
UNOCHA        United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UNOPS         United Nations Office for Project Services

WES           Water, Environment and Sanitation
WFP           World Food Programme
WHO           World Health Organization

                                Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP)

The CAP is a tool for aid organisations to jointly plan, coordinate, implement and monitor their
response to disasters and emergencies, and to appeal for funds together instead of competitively.

It is the forum for developing a strategic approach to humanitarian action, focusing on close
cooperation between host governments, donors, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Organization for Migration (IOM),
and United Nations agencies. As such, it presents a snapshot of the situation and response plans,
and is an inclusive and coordinated programme cycle of:

     Strategic planning leading to a Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP);
     Resource mobilisation leading to a Consolidated Appeal or a Flash Appeal;
     Coordinated programme implementation;
     Joint monitoring and evaluation;
     Revision, if necessary;
     Reporting on results.

The CHAP is the core of the CAP – a strategic plan for humanitarian response in a given country or
region, including the following elements:

     A common analysis of the context in which humanitarian action takes place;
     An assessment of needs;
     Best, worst, and most likely scenarios;
     A clear statement of longer-term objectives and goals;
     Prioritised response plans, including a detailed mapping of projects to cover all needs;
     A framework for monitoring the strategy and revising it if necessary.

The CHAP is the core of a Consolidated Appeal or, when crises break out or natural disasters strike, a
Flash Appeal. Under the leadership of the Humanitarian Coordinator, and in consultation with host
Governments and donors, the CHAP is developed at the field level by the Humanitarian Country
Team. This team includes IASC members and standing invitees (UN agencies, the International
Organisation for Migration, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and NGOs that
belong to ICVA, Interaction, or SCHR), but non-IASC members, such as national NGOs, can also be

The Humanitarian Coordinator is responsible for the annual preparation of the consolidated appeal
document. The document is launched globally near the end of each year to enhance advocacy and
resource mobilisation. An update, known as the Mid-Year Review, is presented to donors the
following July.

Donors generally fund appealing agencies directly in response to project proposals listed in appeals.
The Financial Tracking Service (FTS), managed by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a database of appeal funding needs and worldwide donor
contributions, and can be found on

In sum, the CAP is how aid agencies join forces to provide people in need the best available
protection and assistance, on time.
For more information please contact:

The Office of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General and
United Nations Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator

Khartoum, Sudan

Telephone: +249-183-783-755/820


                        UNITED NATIONS              PALAIS DES NATIONS
                   NEW YORK, NY 10017               1211 GENEVA 10
                                  USA               SWITZERLAND

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