JABE8 2 Web Abstracts

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					        Journal of Applied Business and Economics

Practical Managerial Decision Making Tools:................................. 11
Operations Research
Eunjin Lee, Joon-Yeoul Oh, Edward Pines

The purpose of this paper is to advocate the managerial practice of making decisions
based not only on intuition, but intuition coupled with quantitative analysis. Operations
Research (OR) or Optimization is one of the leading managerial decision science tools
used by profit and nonprofit organizations such as Ford Motors, AT&T, Merrill Lynch,
Samsung, US Army Recruitment and Olympic games organizing committees. Such
technique is utilized by functional groups such as Industrial Engineering in effort to
support Operations Managers to make economically feasible decisions on a range of
systematic challenges. In order to make the effective yet efficient decisions, managers
must have fundamental understanding of the decision science tools utilized in developing
set of recommendations to choose from. With this motivation, this paper includes brief
discussion on background of OR, its methodology and publicly reported benefits of
implementing OR and challenges in OR. Since the purpose of this literature is to
disseminate information to advocate the importance of scientific approaches in the
process of managerial decision-making, research and academic disclosures are
intentionally omitted.

Beyond Buyer Beware: A Need for Marketing Literacy ................ 19
Nancy E. Furlow

In the 1970s, a need was identified for critical education to help young adults understand
and analyze messages they are exposed to through the media, including advertising. This
need has developed into formal media literacy courses taught in American elementary
and secondary public schools, focusing on teaching children how to critically analyze the
many messages received through the media, and often includes detailed information
regarding advertising messages.
    Young consumers are vulnerable to conspicuous consumption and in need of
marketing education, or “marketing literacy.” As demonstrated by the nation’s negative
savings rate, the growing popularity of brands, the increase in young adults carrying
credit card debt, and the growing number of personal bankruptcies in this nation, it is
apparent that young adults have failed to get the message, or possibly choose to ignore
the lessons they were taught during their school years about interpreting advertising
    Through a series of focus groups of university students, this project examines what
type of education in media or consumer literacy students have received, how confident
students are about their own knowledge of marketing techniques, and how concerned
they are about their generation, and future generations, when it comes to being educated
Cultural Value Differences and Women-Owned Businesses .......... 23
in the United States: A Preliminary Exploration
Amy D. Gibson

This case study explores the potential differences in cultural values that encourage or
encumber women in different U.S. subcultures to become business-owners. Utilizing
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimesions (2003), the study assesses the cultural values of Asian,
Hispanic, and African American subcultures in the U.S. and compares and contrasts
them to the cultural values of the predominant white, non-Hispanic culture of the United
States. The study then draws inferences about the influence the cultural values of each
subculture have on a woman’s decision to become a business-owner and the impact of
cultural diffusion of U.S. values on future generations of women in these subcultures.
Finally, suggestions for a larger study using survey data is discussed.

Long-Term Performance of Manufacturing Firm American ......... 35
Depository Receipts: Do They Out-Perform the Market?
R. Stephen Elliott, Mark Schaub

With the growth of global markets, foreign equities may likely provide a lucrative and
diversified alternative for portfolio managers and individual investors. A portfolio of
newly issued foreign manufacturing firm equities from 18 countries listed on the New
York Stock Exchange and traded as American Depository Receipts (ADRs) are examined
to determine whether they outperform the market. The Standard & Poor’s 500 Index
serves as a proxy for the performance of the market. Data are tested for significant
differences in returns during the period of January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2002.
Findings show no significant difference in the performance of manufacturing firm ADRs
relative to the S&P500 Index during the holding period. Likewise, ADRs classified as
Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), Seasoned Equity Offerings (SEOs), and ADRs from
emerging markets and developed markets show returns that are not significantly different
from the market performance. Implications are that manufacturing firm ADRs generally
reap returns similar to the market and may provide an alternative for portfolio
Managing Technology Information Overload; ................................ 45
Which Sources of Knowledge are Best?
C.J. Rhoads

The purpose of this research is to establish whether or not the type or number of sources
of knowledge used by the decision maker about information technology impacts how
effectively an organization utilizes information technology. A one sample chi-square test
showed that organizations that used local consulting firms for their knowledge or read
print or web publications used technology more effectively. Decision makers who relied
on the advice of friends and family did not utilize technology as effectively. On the other
hand, there was no difference in the effectiveness of technology use among organizations
where the decision maker used top research vendors (such as Gartner Group, Meta
Group, Forrest, etc.) for their knowledge or directly from the technology vendors

The Eyes Have It, or Do They? The Effects of Model Eye ............. 60
Color and Eye Gaze on Consumer Ad Response
Penny M. Simpson, David L. Sturges, Jesús Tanguma

Research from the medical, psychological and sociological literature has found
significant effects of eyes and eye color: that infants focus in on others’ eyes and that
eyes affect social tasks, arousal and perceived attractiveness and honesty. These findings
suggest that advertising spokespersons’ eyes may play an important role in ad viewer
responses to the ad. This study examined that idea to find significant effects of eye color
on some advertising response variables. Findings from the largely Hispanic sample in
this study further indicate that spokesperson eye color should match the eye color of the
targeted audience.

The Ages of Life, Work-Family Balance and Aspirations in ......... 72
Working Time; Challenges for Firms and Countries
Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

This paper presents results of a research on working time, working time aspirations and
work-family balance over the life course. It is based on the analysis of representative
data on the Canadian labour force, excluding the public sector administrations. The data
indicate that, no matter the age groups, there is a larger number of Canadians wanting to
increase their working hours rather than reduce them. This phenomenon increases
compared from 1999 to 2002. Among the group wanting to reduce their hours, it is
especially to increase their leisure time, except for the group of 35 – 44-year-old, who
would prefer this reduction mainly to better meet their family responsibilities. From 25 to
54 years there is also an important percentage wanting to reduce its hours for family
obligations. The economic pressures appeared to slow down social progress on work-life
balance issues, since there are not many advances along those lines, but in addition to
work-family conflict, the challenge of the aging population might bring working time
arrangements to the top of the agenda in coming years.

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