STUDENT STUDY GUIDE NAME________________________
I. The Study of History and Prehistory.
a. There is a distinct difference between historians and archaeologists.
b. Historians – Study events from the past
c. Archaeologists – Study artifacts from ancient cultures to better understand their culture
d. Artifacts are man-made and from the past. Some examples of artifacts that are
commonly found in North America are pottery shards and __arrow
e. Primary Sources are first hand accounts and are always considered to be more
____accurate_____ than secondary sources.
II. Prehistoric Native Americans
a. Prehistory in North American can be divided into four distinct periods
b. The term Paleo means______ very old/ancient_____ and this time period extends from
_____10,000_____ BC to _____8,000_______BC. These people hunted
____large_______ animals including giant sloths, mastodons, and mammoths. These
animals were very rare, so people moved around a lot. This means that the paleo
people were ____nomads______. They used large spears with a ____clovis__________
point. Living conditions were tough and life expectancy was __30-40 years__.
c. The Archaic period lasted from ____8,000_______ BC to _______1,000_______ BC.
These people used the ___Atlatl___ to hunt smaller game and supplemented their diet
by gathering ____fruits_____ and ____vegetables____. They also preserved food with
the use of ____clay pottery_____.
d. The Woodland Period lasted from _____1,000____________________ BC to
___1,000_________________ AD. The most important discovery during this time
period was _______agriculture___________________ because it enabled people to live
in sturdy houses. They also used the _________bow and arrow__________________ to
hunt for food. _____effiges______________________ were used as religious symbols
and often depicted pictures of birds and other animals.
__ceremonial/burial___________________ mounds also became common.
e. The Mississippian Period lasted from ______1,000__________________AD to
_____1,600__________________AD. These people had advanced
_____religious________________ ceremonies and lived in social or political groups
called __chiefdoms______________________. They usually lived near
_____rivers_________________, which were used as a water source.
III. The Age of Exploration
a. Explorers wished to find a ______westward sea_________________ route to Asia. This
was caused because the route to Asia was dangerous.
i. Decided to sail around the Southern tip of _____Africa____________________.
ii. The first to make it all the way around Africa and make it to Asia was
i. They hired ____Christopher Columbus_______________________ to find a
route to Asia by sailing to the _____west____________________. He
discovered ___the new world____________ instead. Spain and Portugal signed
a treaty to _____divide______________________ the world in two halves.
ii. Juan Ponce de Leon was the first to explore _____mainland United
States__________ and he called the entire Southeastern United States ___La
Florida____, or Isles of Flowers. This paved the way for
____Menendez__________________________ to build ____St.
Augustine_____________, which is the oldest city in the United States. Later,
__Hernando de Soto__________ went through Florida and was the first to walk
through _____Georgia____________ looking for gold. He killed several
iii. Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon tried to build a settlement on the coast of
__Georgia___________ but it failed.
i. Robert de la Salle was the first to explore the
____Mississippi______________________ River. He claimed that land for
France and called it the ______Louisiana Territory____________.
i. The exploration of ____John Cabot___________________ paved the way for
the creation of the 13 colonies. The first attempt at an English colony was
__Roanoke _________________________ but it disappeared. Later,
_Jamestown_____________ was built. It eventually became the state of
_________Virginia____________. The 13th English colony was
______Georgia_______________. The colony of Massachusetts was created by
the ____Pilgrims_____________. They were called this because they were
getting away from religious persecution and were on a religious journey.