Chapter 5 � Section 1

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Chapter 5 � Section 1 Powered By Docstoc
					              
A Confederation of States



      Pages 134-141
 Congress  asked each state to make their own
  constitution

 States   all call for Republics (people elect representatives)

 Patriots   disagreed over design of republic

 Thomas  Paine thought putting more power in hands of
  people would promote democracy

 Conservatives    distrusted the ability of the commoners
   Democratic Patriots wanted to create state governments
    with strong legislatures & weak governors (or none at all)

   These Democratic Patriots wanted a Unicameral
    Legislature

   Most states preserved colonial traditions

   Massachusetts & New York chose to create a conservative
    constitution using a Bicameral Legislation
   Single House

   Members are elected by the people

   Ex: Pennsylvania and Georgia
   2 Houses - Senate & House of Representatives

   House would counterbalance power of common voters
    (people) since only wealthy, well educated men were
    allowed to be in the Senate!
   Voters chose members of both houses
   Districts got smaller, with more representatives (made people
    more accountable to their voters)
   Voters elected governors
   Democratic Patriots said everyone should be able to vote (equal
    rights)
   John Adams warned that allowing the poor to vote would destroy
    class distinction
   In Conservative States, over time conservatives feared this type
    of constitution because the House of Representatives gained
    much power over the Senate & Governor
   “Tyranny of the Majority”
   After Revolutionary War, religious liberty and pluralism
    (multiple ways) of religion became the norm.

   Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (VSRM) in 1786 was
    drafted by Thomas Jefferson

   VSRM embraced the idea of religious freedom with out
    state interference.
   1777 Congress drafts original constitution for Union of
    States

   Confederation  league or alliance of states that
    agree to work together

 John Dickinson was the first leader (from PA)
 Union was loose, not solid  no national/federal
  government

   Articles reflected Declaration of Independence and
    rejected centralized power like Britain.
   Federal (National) Government

   Consisted of a congress of delegates (chosen by state legislatures)

   States could have as many as 7 delegates per state – but each state
    received only 1 vote!

   Creates problem because Virginia (many people) received the same
    vote as Rhode Island (few people)

   Congress has to make, implement, and enforce laws

   No President or Executive Branch

   Executive power was given to certain congressmen
   Articles granted certain limited powers to Congress

   Mainly powers to declare war, make peace, regulate foreign affairs with
    Indians

   No power to raise money through taxes

   Relied on contributions from states

   On minor issues, states needed 7 states to vote to change a law

   On major issues, states needed 2/3rds (9 States) in order for law to be
    changed

   Amending constitution was nearly impossible because all 13 states
    would need to agree on terms!
1.   Congress could not levy or collect taxes
2.   Congress was powerless to regulate interstate commerce and
     foreign trade
3.   Each state had only one vote in Congress, regardless of its size
4.   A two-thirds majority (9 out of 13 states) were required to pass
     laws
5.   Articles could only be amended with the consent of all states
6.   No separate executive branch to enforce acts of Congress
7.   No system of federal courts.
   New national congress needed land to have citizens settle
    on in order to govern

   Northwest Territory  North of Ohio River / West of
    Pennsylvania to Mississippi

   Congress wanted to sell land to raise money and gain more
    territory
   Farmers crossed into new land & settled on
    their own, provoking fights with Native Indians.

   Congress didn’t have the money to fight wars
    caused by rogue settlers

   Congress feared these people would succeed
    from the union, forming their own states and
    turn to the British or Spanish for protection

   If land is not gained, the federal government
    would collapse (no money to pay debts!)

   Congress adopts Land Ordinance of 1785
   System to dispense, distribute public lands

   Land divided N to S, E to W into hundreds of townships (6 square
    miles)

   1 mile consists of 640 acres at $1 per acre

   Farmers couldn’t afford $640, but the wealthy could

   Farmers had to buy land from speculators

   Congress broke their own rules, helping speculators

   ex: 1.5 million acres sold at 10 cents per acre to the Ohio
    Company (group of men from New England)
   Land Ordinance of 1787

   Based of Thomas Jefferson’s ideas

   Appoint territorial government with governor, secretary, and 3 judges

   Freedom of religion, trial by jury, common law rights (habeas corpus)

   Once territory had 5,000 men, territory could establish an elected assembly

   Once territory had 60,000 men, territory could request admission to Union
    (territory would need republican constitution)

   Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota all joined

   Slavery was banned, so any new state must enter the Union as a free
    territory/state
   Spanish felt westward expansion threatened their colonies
    in Louisiana and Mexico

   Banned trade with America in New Orleans

   This discourages westward expansion!
   Britain wanted to make the new congress pay for their
    independence.

   Reject doctrine calling for free trade (British wanted
    mercantilism)

   This means trade with Britain would benefit Britain only!

   This hurts America because of the trade occurring in the West
    Indies (fish, lumber, grains)

   Massachusetts is upset and ban British ships from carrying
    American exports, but federation/12 other states do not support
    Massachusetts actions

   American Merchants call for a stronger National government!
   Britain mercantilism put sea port workers along New England out of
    employment

   This lowered New England farmers prices of crops

   Farmers were in debt and poor

   Farmers lost homes, farms, etc.

   Daniel Shay leads 1,000 farmers to courts to block foreclosures for
    occurring

   Massachusetts raises army to crush rebellion

   Farmers call for new government with strong centralized power incase
    commercial property is threatened!

				
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