In the beginning� by ut7cfh


									        In the beginning…
The first Australian Settlers arrived
        in Australia in 1788.

A British sailor called Captain
Cook had arrived in Australia 18
years earlier and it had been
decided that the country was
“Terra Nullius” - literally “Land
         In other words, the
         British could claim the
         land and send whoever
         they liked there.
        In the beginning…
The “First” Australians would be the
          following people:
Embarked at Portsmouth

  * Officials and passengers: 15
  * Ships' crews: 323
  * Marines: 247
  * Marines wives and children:
  * Convicts (males): 582
  * Convicts (females): 193
  * Convicts' children: 14
  * Total embarked: 1420
        In the beginning…
The “First” Australians would be the
          following people:
Landed at Port Jackson

  * Officials and passengers: 14
  * Ships' crews: 306
  * Marines: 245
  * Marines wives and children:
  * Convicts (males): 543
  * Convicts (females): 189
  * Convicts' children: 22
  * Total landed: 1373
         In the beginning…
                                       Embarked at Portsmouth
The “First” Australians would be the
                                       * Officials and passengers:
          following people:          15
Landed at Port Jackson                 * Ships' crews: 323
                                         * Marines: 247
                                         * Marines wives and
  * Officials and passengers: 14       children: 46
  * Ships' crews: 306                    * Convicts (males): 582
  * Marines: 245                         * Convicts (females): 193
  * Marines wives and children:          * Convicts' children: 14
                                         * Total embarked: 1420
  * Convicts (males): 543           During the voyage there were 22
  * Convicts (females): 189         births (13 males, 9 females), while 69
                                    people either died, were discharged,
  * Convicts' children: 22          or deserted (61 males and 8
  * Total landed: 1373              females).
           In the beginning…
Of course, as it was, there were already people living in Australia.
The various tribes of the Aboriginal People of Australia had been living in
the country for about 40,000 to 50,000 years. Which is quite a while.

You can imagine them not being
too happy about a bunch of pale
strangers turning up and taking
their land.

  This picture, an
  engraving from the
  1800s shows the
  original Australians
  kicking up a fuss as
  Captain Cook arrives.
           In the beginning…
What actually happened was a bit different.

A pair of Aboriginal Men came
down to meet Cook’s men as they
first set foot in Australia. The
British offered gifts, which the
Australians ignored. To be fair, a
few trinkets probably didn’t seem
that important at the time.

The British were worried
that they hadn’t taken the
gifts and fired a musket
was fired over their heads,
which wounded the older
man slightly, and he ran
towards the huts.
          In the beginning…
He came back with other
men and threw spears at
Cook's men, although they
did no harm. They were
chased off after two more
rounds were fired. The
adults had left, but Cook
found several Aboriginal
children in the huts, and left
some beads with them as a
gesture of friendship.

    Not a great start,
What Happened After We Got
  The Story of Aboriginal Australia
What Happened After We Got

 The larger communities were worst hit,
 with vast numbers of Aborigines dying.
 Some tribes were practically wiped out.
What Happened After We Got
 The second consequence of British settlement
was appropriation of land and water resources.
   The settlers took the view that Indigenous
Australians were nomads with no concept of land
ownership, who could be driven off land wanted
for farming or grazing and who would be just as
   happy somewhere else. In fact the loss of
    traditional lands, food sources and water
   resources was usually fatal, particularly to
  communities already weakened by disease.
What Happened After We Got
Also, Indigenous Australians groups had a deep
  spiritual and cultural connection to the land.
When they were forced out, cultural and spiritual
 practices necessary to the cohesion and well-
 being of the group could not be maintained. It
would be like not being allowed to go meet your
     friends in the park, or in Churches, or
 restaurants. With nowhere to meet each other
    for a chat or worship, societies fell apart.
What Happened After We Got
  1.      What were some of the main consequences for
  Aboriginal People after contact with Europeans?

  2.      Why was the land Aboriginal Groups lived on
  so important to them?
What Happened After We Got
  3. What were some of the hardships Truganini had to endure?

  4. What were two of Governor Arthur’s policies to help deal
  with the conflict between settlers and Aborigines?

  5. What was the result of declaring martial law?
What Happened After We Got
 Unlike in New Zealand, no treaty was ever
 entered into with the indigenous peoples entitling
 the Europeans to land ownership. The Europeans
 just took it, claiming the Australians weren’t
 really using it properly.
What Happened After We Got
 Another big problem for the Indigenous
 Australians was that the new arrivals brought
 along sex and drugs (but no rock n’ roll).

Indigenous Australians weren’t used to the
alcohol, opium and tobacco the settlers
brought and had no tolerance. European
society had used these things for hundreds of
years and had “grown up” with them. Giving
them to Aborigines was like giving them to
            Substance abuse has remained a chronic problem
            for indigenous communities ever since.
What Happened After We Got
The combination of disease, loss of land and
direct violence reduced the Aboriginal population
by an estimated 90% between 1788 and 1900.

Entire communities in the moderately fertile southern
part of the continent simply vanished without trace,
often before European settlers arrived or recorded
their existence.

The indigenous people in Tasmania were particularly hard-hit,
with the last full-blood indigenous Tasmanian, Truganini, dying
in 1876.
  Truganini was born around 1812 on Bruny Island,
south of today's Tasmanian capital Hobart. Before she
  was eighteen, her mother had been murdered by
  whalers, her first fiance died while saving her from
abduction, and, in 1828, her two sisters, Lowhenunhue
    and Maggerleede, were abducted and taken to
   Kangaroo Island, off South Australia and sold as
  slaves. She soon married Woorrady; although, he
     would die when she was still in her twenties.

  When Lieutenant-Governor George Arthur arrived in Van Diemen's
  Land in 1824, he implemented two policies to deal with the growing
  conflict between settlers and the Aborigines.

   First, bounties were awarded for the capture of Aboriginal adults and
At the same time, Arthur tried to establish friendly
relations to lure the aborigines into camps, where they
would be out of the way of White Settlers. He started
this campaign on Bruny Island where there had been
fewer hostilities than in other parts of Tasmania.
Truganini ended up being moved to a camp on Flinders

Not all settlers were happy about what was happening to
the land’s original inhabitants. Some non-Aboriginal
people were so horrified by what was happening to the
Indigenous people they wrote to England seeking action
to stop it, from the British Government.

  Governor Arthur, declared martial law against the Aboriginal
  people in 1828. This basically meant the Europeans were now
  at war with the Aboriginals. Lots of massacres followed.
Lots of histories suggest the Aborigines were
passive figures who allowed themselves to be
overrun by the Europeans. Others suggest
they were barbarians who attacked innocent
white settlers. Neither is entirely true. The
truth is more complex.
Aborigines generally greeted new arrivals in a
friendly way, taking advantage of new goods
they brought. Not understanding the European
idea of ownership, they would often ‘hunt’
cattle. Although the slow-moving cow rarely
posed a problem.
A kind of war had broken out in areas of
settlement, particularly in Tasmania. Many
Aborigines were massacred, while Aboriginal
groups would launch ‘guerilla’ attacks on
White Settlements.
The battle in Tasmania was called the “Black
War”, in which Truganini played some part,
despite also helping Governor Arthur to reach a
settlement with some tribes.

         By the time Truganini died in 1876, the Aboriginal
         Population of Tasmania had been all but obliterated.
  What Happened Next:
◊ By the early 20th century the indigenous
  population had declined (from possibly 1
  Million) to between 50,000 and 90,000. Even
  those White Settlers sympathetic to their
  plight assumed they would soon die out
    ◊ However, by the end of World War II, birthrates were
      on the rise again. Also many indigenous men had
      served in the military and were among the few
      Indigenous Australians to have been granted
      citizenship; although they were obliged to carry
      papers, known as a "dog licence".
 The Original Citizens become
◊ Aboriginal Australians were gradually being looked
  upon more kindly. At the same time, Indigenous
  workers were basically paid slave wages and had no
  rights as a citizen.
◊ It was 1963 before Aboriginal Australians could vote
  and 1967 before they were treated as “people” under
  Australian law.
      ◊ The 1967 referendum that allowed Aborigines to be
        treated as people under Australian law saw 90% of
        Australians support it.
      ◊ This is the largest “Yes” vote in Australian History.
        ◊ The Aboriginal People have yet to receive an official
          apology or acknowledgement for how the white
          settlers treated them.
 The Original Citizens become
◊ What was a ‘dog licence’?
◊ Why do you think it took so long to treat Aboriginal
  people as ‘people’ under Australian law?
◊ Why do you think no apology has been officially
  given for how they were treated?

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