Ryan Palmer by ut7cfh

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           Ryan Palmer
             3-9-05
           EDTEP 587

             Unit Plan
   Transfer of Thermal Energy:
Radiation, Conduction, & Convection

      8th Grade Earth Science
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Subject Area Description

       This unit is a sub-unit in the context of a larger unit on energy. Prior to this unit

students will have learned about mass, volume, and density, as well as touched on

buoyancy. Those students who had science at my junior high in 7th grade (this excludes

new students and students who did not take science in 7th grade) will have talked about

solar energy hitting the earth unevenly, as well as mentioning the existence of convection

cells in the earth’s atmosphere (though the students received no terminology or

understanding of the process behind the cells). The students will also have had

experience in the inquiry process, though only to the extent of crafting their own

hypothesises and then running the prescribed experimental procedure. They will have

done at least two labs prior to this sub-unit, and will be familiar with the lab protocol

specific to my CT’s classroom.

       The students at this junior high school are mostly in the middle economic class.

The half of the 8th grade that my CT has contains all the learning center students (those

who have IEPs), but none of the students with 504 plans. Supposedly our half of the 8th

grade also has some of the brightest students to help balance out the learning center

students. Frequently para-educators will sit in on a class and assist students who need

extra help and guidance.

Essential Questions

       The essential question and its subsequent sub-questions are designed around a

demonstration I will do for the students in the beginning of the sub-unit. I will build a

fire, either in the classroom or just outside, and have the students make observations

related to the main question. Each sub-question gets at each of the three different types of
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thermal energy transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection. The example of the fire

will contextualize the entire sub-unit and will be continually referenced as each new

concept is introduced. The fire will also be used to model scientific modeling for the

students. By demonstrating the fire in front of each class it gives the students a common

experience to draw on and a context to put their new understanding of heat transfer into.

How does a fire keep us warm?

       -How does a fire heat someone near it?

       -How does a fire heat the ground around it?

       -How does a fire heat the air around it (and eventually a room; e.g. woodstove)?

How does a thermos maintain its temperature?

How does night vision work?

How can heat move a liquid?

Learning Goals & Related Objectives

1. Students will understand that heat and temperature are connected to molecular motion

   1.1. Students will understand the relationship between molecular movement and

        temperature

   1.2. Students will provide evidence that temperature is the measure of the motion of

        molecules

2. Students will understand how various factors affect energy transfers and that energy

   can be transferred from one form of energy to another (EALR/GLE 1.2.2)

   2.1. Students will understand that heat energy can be passed by things touching each

        other (conduction)
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   2.2. Students will apply their understanding of conduction needing contact between

        substances to transfer heat energy

   2.3. Students will explain how radiant heat is transferred (does not need a medium)

   2.4. Students will connect density and buoyancy to the creation of a convection cell

3. Students will analyze how models are used to investigate objects, events, systems,

   and processes (EALR/GLE 2.1.4)

   3.1. Students will model their understanding of convection in a new system

   3.2. Students will understand that scientific phenomena can be modeled in many

        different ways (writing, pictures/drawing, physical models, etc.)

   3.3. Students will support a revised model of insulators

   3.4. Students will construct an experimental procedure based on a model given to

        them

   3.5. Students will analyze experimental designs based on a model and determine the

        factors that are important for insulators

4. Students will understand the fluid nature of scientific ideas

   4.1. Students will understand how heat is given off in different ways in a fire

   4.2. Students will understand that multiple scientific concepts can contribute to the

        same phenomenon
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   Day 1: Introduction to Heat Transfer—Let’s build a fire! (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing        Students will see a demonstration of a fire built in the classroom.
                                   They will observe how the fire gives off heat, making informal
                                   notes for their science notebooks. This will include how hot,
                                   where they feel the heat, what gets hot, and anything else they
                                   observe about the fire.
                                Students will then break into small groups and discuss what they
                                   observed and why they think they may have seen some of their
                                   observations.
                                Together the small groups will compile a list of observations, as
                                   well as questions that may have come up during their
                                   observations and/or discussions.
                                Finally students will share these observations and questions with
                                   the whole class and compile a class list of observations and
                                   questions
2. Objectives                  4.1 Students will understand how heat is given off in different ways
                                 in a fire
3. Reasons for content and      The fire demonstration forms a common reference point we will
instructional strategy             continue to return to through out the unit. It gives the students a
                                   common experience from which they can all draw upon in their
                                   understanding of thermal energy transfer.
                                Beginning the unit with eliciting student ideas allows the teacher
                                   to know where the students are with their understandings and
                                   what they bring into the classroom. It also allows the students to
                                   begin the unit with the freedom to express what they see and
                                   know without it being corrected or redirected. This gives them a
                                   greater feeling of mastery of the subject matter
                                Combining this with the beginnings of guided exploration gives
                                   the students a chance to begin to form their own scientific
                                   understandings of how heat is transferred. It also pushes them to
                                   think about their observations in a connected way.
                                Having the students compose questions of things they don’t
                                   understand from their fire observations serves two purposes.
                                   First, it allows the teacher to know the areas both of struggle and
                                   of interest for the students related to the fire and heat transfer.
                                   Second, it communicates to the students that having questions is
                                   a good and important task and reinforces their curiosity.
                                Having the students work in small groups helps them develop
                                   interpersonal skills. It also gives them the benefit of other
                                   observations and questions they might not have seen on their
                                   own. The students can begin to synthesize ideas between
                                   observations and see how they are interrelated.
4. Evidence of understanding    Students will explain their observations to their group members
                                Students will generalize their group observations of the fire
                                Students will craft questions based on their observations
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5. Cultural Responsiveness   This lesson allows students to report their observations of what they
                             see with no value judgments placed on those observations. All
                             observations from all students of all cultural and SES backgrounds
                             are treated as valid. The fire itself also provides an experience that
                             all students observe and have access to in the classroom, thereby
                             creating a common experience for the students.
6. Resources                  Safe place to build a fire (inside classroom or outdoors)
                              Sand, wood, matches/lighter, kindling, fire extinguisher,
                                  container for fire/sand, lighter fluid (?), weather cover (in case it
                                  rains and is outside)
                              Permission of school administrators
                              White board/overhead, pens
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   Day 2: Organizing what we need to know—How do fires work? (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing        Students will begin be revisiting the class list from the previous
                                   day with their questions and observations about the fire.
                                They then will begin to construct “rules” about what they know
                                   and what they still have questions about. They’ll group similar
                                   questions and observations together and come up with a
                                   direction of knowledge they need to gain
                                Students will then work on the idea of kinetic molecular theory
                                   (aka collision theory) as a basis for understanding what heat is
                                They will become a human model of kinetic molecular theory, as
                                   each student represents a molecule moving based on
                                   temperature.
                                In small groups the students will construct rules for how
                                   molecules behave based on temperature, forming their
                                   understanding of kinetic molecular theory
2. Objectives                  1.2 Students will provide evidence that temperature is the measure of
                                 the motion of molecules
3. Reasons for content and      Having the students work on a direction for the content again
instructional strategy             gives them ownership of the class and gives them more of an
                                   investment into the material itself
                                Having the students get up out of their seats and move around
                                   will help the tactile learners in the classroom have a part of the
                                   lesson that they can connect to more easily
                                The activity of modeling KMT helps the students construct their
                                   own rules for how molecules move and how that relates to
                                   temperature, which, again, gives them more ownership of the
                                   material as they form it and discover it themselves
4. Evidence of understanding    Students will justify their rules for molecular motion as it relates
                                   to temperature that they devise as a small group
                                Students will apply the what they experienced in the KMT
                                   activity to molecules as they generate rules
5. Cultural Responsiveness     Students will be drawing on the shared experience they had the
                               previous day as they reexamine what they know and what they still
                               want/need to know. The activity of human modeling of KMT allows
                               those students who learn more tactilely to experience what they are
                               learning in a way they haven’t been able to as easily in the class
                               discussions.
6. Resources                    Rearrange the room so that students can move around more
                                   freely
                                Class list of observations and questions from previous day
                                Guiding questions as students work on building rules around
                                   KMT
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   Day 3: Kinetic Molecular Theory—So that’s what heat is! (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing        Students begin by reporting out the rules they have constructed
                                   the previous day and compile a list of class rules related to KMT
                                Students address the question: What does this molecular motion
                                   (really small) look like to us (much bigger)? They reach a point
                                   where they may not be able to make the connection between
                                   molecular motion and temperature
                                The students receive “just in time instruction” to help guide them
                                   to the application of what they learned the previous day about
                                   molecular motion
                                They will see examples of KMT in action, both in demo form
                                   (food coloring in hot/cold water) and in the form of short applet
                                   from the web
                                Students will connect their vocabulary and understanding to that
                                   of scientists, specifically “Kinetic Molecular Theory” and
                                   temperature as defined as the movement of molecules
2. Objectives                  1.1 Students will understand the relationship between molecular
                                 movement and temperature
3. Reasons for content and      At this point in the instructional flow, the students will have
instructional strategy             reached a point where most cannot make sense of what they
                                   observed the previous day (ie how does the activity relate to real
                                   life and something observable) Interactive concept building
                                   allows the students to continue to maneuver the material
                                   themselves, but also brings the teacher in to help them and add
                                   information they would otherwise be unable to understand
                                KMT is a concept that is foundational to the rest of the
                                   understanding of heat transfer; it is the way science understands
                                   heat
4. Evidence of understanding    Student comments and questions will demonstrate where they
                                   are and what aspects of KMT they are understanding
                                Students will use what they have learned about KMT to explain
                                   why food coloring spreads faster in hot water than in cold water
                                Students will apply the concept of KMT to density later in the
                                   unit
5. Cultural Responsiveness     By building on the experience and vocabulary the students have
                               been using for the different phenomena they have been observing,
                               students are more able to synthesize the new information and terms
                               they need to learn into what understandings they already have.
6. Resources                    Food coloring, warm water, cold water, two clear plastic cups
                                http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/Java/molecules/index.html
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   Day 4: Conduction—Mom, he’s touching me! (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing        Students are introduced to the idea of an insulator via their ideas
                                   being elicited about a thermos (what it does, when you use it,
                                   how it does what it does?) (hook)
                                Students then stand in a single file line around the classroom and
                                   devise a way to get a ball (“energy ball”) from one end of the
                                   line to the other with the stipulation: a student must always be
                                   toughing the ball
                                Students debrief the activity in small groups and work on
                                   guiding questions to synthesize the passing energy (conduction)
                                   activity with a thermos keeping things hot/cold
                                Then students will discuss their findings with the whole class
                                   and contribute factors for the model of a thermos
                                Students see a model constructed by the teacher for how a
                                   thermos works, and briefly discuss what a scientific model is
                                Students make connections between conduction and how a fire
                                   transfers heat energy
                                (knowledge base)
2. Objectives                  2.1 Students will understand that heat energy can be passed by things
                                 touching each other (conduction)
3. Reasons for content and      This is the set up of background information for the inquiry the
instructional strategy             students will do the next several days. This gives the students an
                                   understanding of conduction so they can work on reducing it in
                                   their own insulators
                                The thermos gives the students a concrete example of an
                                   insulator, as well as how conduction plays out in everyday life
                                Students will be exposed to scientific models here so that they
                                   can have experience with them by the time they begin work on
                                   their culminating project for the unit (designing a model)
4. Evidence of understanding    Students will apply the experience with the energy ball to the
                                   guiding questions to begin to explain a thermos/insulator
                                Students will critique the findings of fellow groups to refine the
                                   class understanding of conduction
5. Cultural Responsiveness     Bringing the thermos into class gives those students who may have
                               never had experience with them the opportunity to see and feel the
                               example for conduction. This is also a chance for those students
                               who do know about thermoses to help teach the other students,
                               giving them a chance to express their knowledge and understanding
                               in a positive, validating environment. The energy ball activity gives
                               students a concrete way of thinking about conduction which should
                               be simple enough to cross cultural and SES boundaries. It reaches
                               out to the tactile learners, while the group discussions meet the needs
                               of the auditory learners. The visual learners can watch the passing
                               of the energy ball, can see a thermos first hand, and get to examine
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               the model for a thermos
6. Resources    A thermos
                Energy ball
                Guiding questions on worksheet
                Model of thermos
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   Day 5: Conduction Inquiry—I like my temperature (50 minutes x 2 days)

1. What students are doing        Students are given a hand out to read about heat insulators with
                                   some background information on how they operate (knowledge
                                   base)
                                Students are given a class model from teacher to start out with
                                   for their insulator (initial model)
                                Students are broken into their lab groups and given a task to
                                   complete: design an insulator that can moderate the temperature
                                   (energy transfer) within a specific margin
                                Groups develop a rationale for the way they are designing their
                                   insulator (predictions)
                                Students set up a procedure for building their insulator and begin
                                   construction (design investigation)
2. Objectives                  2.2 Students will apply their understanding of conduction needing
                                 contact between substances to transfer heat energy
                               3.4 Students will construct an experimental procedure based on a
                                 model given to them
3. Reasons for content and      There are multiple ways students could decide to design their
instructional strategy             insulator, giving them much freedom of choice and involvement.
                                   It also allows them to see what other students in the class have
                                   devised and what different options are available to them
                                The rationale for their design allows them to demonstrate their
                                   understanding of convection, as well as coming to a group
                                   consensus on how and why they are designing their insulators a
                                   specific way
4. Evidence of understanding    Group rationales will show the underlying scientific concepts the
                                   students are using to design their insulators
5. Cultural Responsiveness     Students will have group roles to help each student feel included in
                               the inquiry and be able to contribute to the group product in a
                               positive way. The students are also given freedom in how they set
                               up their insulator and are allowed to be creative, which allows for
                               different cultural understanding to shine through as needed. The
                               composition of the lab groups will reflect diversity in gender,
                               race/ethnicity, and SES, as well as the level scientific understanding.
6. Resources                    Initial model to present to the students
                                A thermos (used previous day) to remind students of what they
                                   talked about in regards to insulators the previous day
                                Equipment available to students to construct insulators (currently
                                   unsure of what materials will be used)
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   Day 6: Insulator Contest and Data Analysis—Why does theirs work too? (50 min.)

1. What students are doing        Students run a test on their insulators they designed the previous
                                   day. One test is done w/ hot water inside and cold water outside.
                                   The other test is done w/ cold water inside and hot water outside
                                   (conduct investigation)
                                Students take data on how much the temperature of the water
                                   changes when they use their insulator
                                Students walk around the room and look at the different designs
                                   the other groups have devised
                                Students compare data with other groups/insulator designs and
                                   see if any insulator performed better than another (analyze data)
                                The class discusses the data they have found and possibilities for
                                   why a given insulator may have been more effective than another
                                Students examine several revised models and decide as a class
                                   which one best represents their data and why (revise model)
2. Objectives                  3.3 Students will support a revised model of insulators
                               3.5 Students will analyze experimental designs and determine the
                                 factors that are important for insulators
3. Reasons for content and      This inquiry gives the students a chance to have a little healthy
instructional strategy             competition (healthy because the challenge can motivate, but
                                   grades are not based on who “wins”).
                                By having the students look at what other groups have come up
                                   with as their insulators it reinforces the idea that there are often
                                   multiple ways to approach a scientific problem that are equally
                                   valid
                                Comparing student data gives them a chance for error analysis (if
                                   there’s another group w/ a similar design), as well as the
                                   beginning of understanding how different insulators may
                                   function better or worse than others
                                Students are not asked to design their own models at this point
                                   because it is still early in the year. It is also another form of
                                   modeling how to model for the students so that they can be
                                   prepared for their own model construction by the end of the unit
4. Evidence of understanding    Students will justify their selection of the best final model
                                Students will verify their data with other groups that have similar
                                   insulator designs
                                Students will generalize their findings in their competition to
                                   explain how insulators (and conduction) work
5. Cultural Responsiveness     A variety of insulator ideas are represented in this inquiry. The
                               difficulty is to not devalue the work of any group that is not as
                               successful at insulating as another group. Instead, this could be
                               turned into a chance to draw out learning about insulators and
                               conduction; concepts that can be applied regardless of how well the
                               insulator itself performed.
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6. Resources      Each of the lab groups’ insulators designed from the previous
                   class day
                  Thermometers
                  Directions/procedure on how to run the insulator test
                  Set of final models for students to choose from (some clearly
                   better than others)
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   Day 7: How light at heat are related—I see that heat! (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing         Students begin by investigating nigh vision goggles. They
                                    brainstorm how its possible to see in the dark
                                 Students review what they learned the previous year about light
                                    and what it takes for us to see things
                                 They break into small groups and take what they know of light
                                    and try to come up with an explanation of how we could see in
                                    the dark. They work through guiding questions on a worksheet
                                 They then come back to whole group and quickly present the
                                    ideas they came up with to the rest of the class
                                 Next the students are split in half, each of which is sent to one
                                    portion of the room. The students are then given the task of
                                    determining how to get a ball (represents energy) from one group
                                    to the other without moving from their position
                                 Students then receive “just in time” instruction that pushes them
                                    to understand how heat can be a form of light and thereby
                                    energy, as well as how radiant energy does not require a medium
                                    to transfer heat
                                 Now students brainstorm places they have encountered heat that
                                    does not need to make contact to be transferred (radiation) (sun,
                                    fire, etc)
2. Objectives                   2.3 Students will explain how radiant heat is transferred (does not
                                  need a medium)
3. Reasons for content and       The idea of being able to see in the dark is one that can
instructional strategy              potentially be interesting and, more importantly, complex and
                                    perplexing to students. Opening the class w/ the idea of night
                                    vision goggles gives them a problem to work on, as well as a
                                    way to begin to solve that problem. It forces them to begin to
                                    apply and integrate what they’ve learned so far about energy, as
                                    well as what they remember about light
                                 By reviewing the mechanics of light as a whole class, those
                                    students who remember from the previous year help to
                                    teach/explain those concepts to the rest of the class rather than it
                                    coming from the teacher. Armed w/ the understanding of light,
                                    students have the tools necessary to problem solve night vision
                                    goggles
                                 The energy transfer activity reminds the students of the previous
                                    activity involving conduction and furthers the idea that heat
                                    energy can be transferred in different ways. It also gives the
                                    tactile learners a “hands on” active type of instruction
                                 Radiation follows conduction because the most intuitive way of
                                    understanding heat transfer is touch, and it is difficult to talk
                                    about transfer w/o a medium before talking about transfer using
                                    a medium
                                 Again, letting students construct their own rules/ideas behind
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                                   how night vision works allows them to have ownership if the
                                   ideas and concepts
4. Evidence of understanding    Students’ presentations of how they think night goggles work
                                   has them construct an argument based on the scientific ideas they
                                   know/understand
                                Students interpret the energy ball activity in terms of energy
                                   transfer (and ultimately radiative energy)
5. Cultural Responsiveness     This lesson allows students to work through the ideas both
                               intellectually and physically. The group presentations allow the
                               verbal learners to interact in a way close to their learning style. The
                               tactile learners’ needs are met through the energy ball activity.
                               Visual learners will see pictures of night vision goggles as well as
                               the images they produce and have the option of drawing their
                               group’s explanation. Night vision goggles may be something
                               unfamiliar to all students, but by using images it can be made more
                               accessible to all students. Most students probably do not know how
                               they work, so in that way they are all on a similar playing field.
6. Resources                    http://science.howstuffworks.com/nightvision3.htm
                                Worksheet of guiding questions for night vision problem
                                Energy ball
                                List of rules/constraints for the transfer activity on board
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   Day 8: Convection—Heat moves me (50 minutes)

1. What students are doing        Students will observe a demonstration of convection and
                                   describe/draw a diagram explaining how they see the heat being
                                   transferred in the system
                                Students will discuss in pairs what they observed and what forms
                                   of energy transfer they think they saw. They will also compile a
                                   list of questions/things that they can’t explain
                                They will then share some of their questions with the entire class
                                Next students will receive “just in time” instruction via KMT
                                Students will be given a worksheet of guiding questions to get
                                   them to connect the ideas of KMT to density and then buoyancy
                                Students will see how the movement of a fluid that is heated
                                   unevenly creates a convection cell
                                They will also see how convection works in our fire example to
                                   heat up a room/space
                                Students will receive directions to their convection cell project
                                   (culminating assessment) and begin the idea generation process
2. Objectives                  2.4 Students will connect density and buoyancy to the creation of a
                                 convection cell
                               4.2 Students will understand that multiple scientific concepts can
                                 contribute to the same result
3. Reasons for content and      Convection is a complex idea and involves both conduction and
instructional strategy             radiation. This is why it is the last of the three types of thermal
                                   energy transfer to be presented to the students
                                The model gives the students a first-hand visual representation of
                                   convection. Because convection often happens on a large scale,
                                   it cannot be easily observed. This demo allows the students to
                                   have a more concrete way of examining this final form of
                                   thermal energy transfer
                                Convection is a complex idea, but it is also a great way to apply
                                   the knowledge and understanding the students have accumulated
                                   up to this point. The guiding questions help the students to
                                   examine what they already know and use that to understand what
                                   they don’t yet understand about convection
                                Tying this back to the fire example used at the beginning of the
                                   unit helps the students connect it to the other two types of
                                   thermal energy transfer
                                The culminating assessment gives the students a chance to
                                   demonstrate their mastery of convection through model building,
                                   an authentic scientific task. It also involves the complexities of
                                   the process it self, lending itself to demonstrating many different
                                   scientific concepts at once
4. Evidence of understanding    Students will construct connections between density, buoyancy,
                                   and convection on their guiding question worksheets
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                                Students will explain how the demo works based on their prior
                                 knowledge and understanding
5. Cultural Responsiveness   Having the students work in pairs can be less intimidating for those
                             students who are less comfortable with both large group discussion
                             and even small group work. Even here at the “end” of the
                             convection road, the students are given the tools to construct their
                             own understanding of convection, with the help of their prior
                             learning, fellow students, and teacher. The demonstration at the
                             beginning of class gives the students yet another shared experience
                             from which they can draw and put their learning into the context of.
                             It helps both the visual and the tactile learners. The verbal learners
                             benefit from the class discussion and the partner time.
6. Resources                  http://www.eas.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/convect/convect.htm
                              1 Glass bread loaf dish, 2 Ceramic coffee cups, 1 small can
                                 Sterno or 2 small candles, vegetable oil (about 800-1000 ml), 10
                                 ml (~ 2 teaspoons) thyme, spoon, matches, metric ruler,
                                 stopwatch, funnel (to pour oil back into container)
                              Whiteboard/overhead, pens
                              Directions for Convection Modeling Project
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   Day 8: Presentation of Convection Models—Show me what you know (50 minutes)

   Note: this lesson will fall several days after the previous one to allow students ample time
    to complete their projects. It may also take 2 days to complete, depending on class size.

1. What students are doing           Presenting their Convection Model Projects to the rest of the
                                      class in 1-2 minutes
                                   Taking simple notes on what their fellow classmates have done
                                      for their models and their applications
2. Objectives                     3.1 Students will model their understanding of convection in a new
                                    system
                                  3.2 Students will understand that scientific phenomena can be
                                    modeled in many different ways (writing, pictures/drawing,
                                    physical models, etc.)
3. Reasons for content and         The students present so that they have a chance to share the work
instructional strategy                and learning they have done with their peers. It gives them
                                      experience doing a “scientific presentation” which is a task
                                      authentic to scientist. It also allows them to see many different
                                      ways scientific models can be constructed and how many
                                      different systems convection exists in our world
                                   Taking notes helps keep the students focused on what the
                                      presenter is saying, as well as giving them a place to reference
                                      both a variety of model types and a range of applications of
                                      convection
4. Evidence of understanding       Students will explain their model, why they chose it, and the
                                      application of it to the real-world system
                                   Students will prove they were paying attention by writing notes
                                      on the presentations
5. Cultural Responsiveness        The presentation lends itself to the auditory and sometimes visual
                                  learners. This deficiency is compensated for by the chance for each
                                  student to present (tactile learners benefit from presenting) and the
                                  variety of ways the students could design their own models. Each
                                  student’s model will be respected for it’s uniqueness and creativity
                                  and no put-downs of any student’s work will be tolerated.
6. Resources                       List on board what students should take notes on
                                   Grading sheets

								
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