Conflicts between Singapore and Malaysia

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					Conflicts between Singapore
and Malaysia
Basis of conflicts
   Singapore’s land reclamation in
    Tebrau Straits
   Water Supply between Malaysia and
   Proposed bridge linking Singapore
    and Malaysia
   Use of Malaysian Airspace by
    Singaporean Aircraft
Land Reclamation: Background
   In 1990, the total land area of
    Singapore was 633 square km.
   Increase of 51.5 square km(8.9% of
    total present land area) from original
    land area.
   With continuing land reclamation, land
    area in Singapore will increase by
    about another 100 square km by the
    year 2030.
Land Reclamation: Background
   Initiated by
    Singapore to
    expand land mass
   Good ties between
    Singapore and
    Malaysia previously
   Case handled out
    of UN court
   Handled via
Land Reclamation: Singapore’s

   Land Reclamation being done within
    territorial waters, within rights
   Increasing demand for land with
    rising population-housing,
    infrastructure, industries, commercial
    usage, etc
   Increases the small size of the
Land Reclamation: Malaysia’s
   Fears that the reclamation is being
    done too close to its border
   Possibility of obstructing ships headed
    for ports in Southern State of Johor,
    which are being promoted to compete
    against Singapore’s ports
   Restricts the flow of water through
    the Straits
Land Reclamation: Malaysia’s
   Environmental Impact
   Documented evidence that the
    project is causing environmental
    damage, especially along the coast of
   Affects livelihood of Malaysian
   Effect on maritime border
Land Reclamation: End of
   "Malaysia referred the matter to the
    International Tribunal on the Law of
    the Sea, which asked both sides to
    have independent experts study the
    impact of the reclamation."
   In January 2005, both countries
    announced that they had reached
    agreement on a fair and balanced
Land Reclamation: End of
   Ended on April 26, 2005
   Under the agreement, both
    governments would carry out various
    mitigating measures
   Under the recommendations of a
    group of independent experts (GOE)
    appointed by both governments to
    study the impact of Singapore's
    reclamation works
Land Reclamation: Results of study
by experts
   Out of 57 identified impacts on the marine
    environment, 40 were detectable only in
    computer models and not in the field
   Remaining impacts classified as minor to
   RM 374,000 paid to about 60 fishermen
    affected by works
   $300,000 paid by Singapore for added
    protection works at Tanjung Belungkor
Consequences of conflict
   George Yeo, Minister of Foreign Affairs
    (Singapore): “The civil and civilised
    manner in which we have been able to
    settle this dispute gives us confidence
    that our other bilateral disputes can be
    settled in the same way.”
Consequences of conflict
   Syed Hamid, Minister of Foreign
    Affairs (Malaysia): “I consider this a
    milestone in Singapore-Malaysia
Water Supply: History
   Two water agreements(Tebrau and
    Scudai, Johor River) were signed in
    1961 and 1962 respectively between
    Singapore and Malaysia.
   The first one permits Singapore to
    draw 86 million gallons of water a day
    from the Pontian and Gunung Pulai
    Reservoirs., as well as the Tebrau and
    Skudai Rivers.
   Expires in 2011
Water Supply: History

   The 1962 agreement allows 250
    million gallons of water per day to be
    drawn from the Johor River by
   Expires in 2061
   However, Singapore can only draw a
    total maximum of 250.4 million gallons
    per day.
Water Supply: History

   Singapore pays 3 sen per 1000 gallons of
    water from Malaysia's rivers
   Malaysia pays 50 sen per 1000 gallons of
    treated water from Singapore
   Both agreements allow for price revision
    every 25 years and arbitration in case of
   Malaysia did not revise prices in 1986-
    1987 as raising raw water price would
    mean treated water price would also rise.
Water Supply: Disagreements
   Price of water
   Right to alter price of water
Water Supply: Malaysia’s Stand
   A fair price, a fair deal: 3 sen/1000 gallons
    is ridiculous
   Malaysia agreed to 3 sen/1000 gallons to
    aid the PAP in selling the merger proposal
    to Singaporean voters at 1961
   Revise price of water upwards, eventually
    reaching 6.8 – 8 RM (Price that HK pays
    Guangdong), with inflation
Water Supply: Malaysia’s Stand

   Willing to supply Singapore the water
    it needs, but uncomfortable with the
    supposed fact that Singapore is
    profiteering from resale of water
   Singapore enjoys one of the highest
    standard of livings in Asia
   Singapore can pay as much as
    6.25RM/1000 gallons without charging
    users, and still make a profit
Water Supply: Singapore’s Stand
   Malaysia’s fault that they agreed to 3
    sen/1000 gallons in 1961, when the
    pact was drawn
   Peg price of water to cost of producing
   Singapore is not self-sufficient in
    terms of water-Singapore needs large
    amounts of water to feed large
Water Supply: Singapore’s Stand

   Water is critical for survival of Singapore
    as a nation
   Malaysia intends to portray Singapore as
    selfish and unreasonable
   An increase from 3 sen to 45 sen per
    1000 gallons would be insignificant
    profit/loss to Singapore or Malaysia.
Water Supply: Singapore’s Stand

   “The significance of the water price, to
    both countries, is Singapore's existence
    as a sovereign nation separate from
    Malaysia, and the sanctity of the most
    solemn agreements which Singapore and
    Malaysia have entered into." -Prof.
Water Supply: Consequences
   Risk of damaging relationship with
   NEWater developed by Singapore
   Desalination plant developed by

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