Bio. 130 – Dr. Eric Schwartz Topics to Review for Exam 2 To properly prepare for the exam please review your notes on each topic listed below. If you are not confident that you fully understand a topic, go back and read the text book on that topic. If you are still unclear on a topic please ask me to explain what you don’t understand. Asking me in person is the most efficient way for me to be able to explain something to you and be certain that you understand my response. You may certainly e-mail me questions that you may have and I will make every effort to respond to your e-mails as soon as possible. However, please realize that an e-mail response can’t be as in-depth as an in person explanation. Also, I may not be able to respond to your e-mail immediately so if you e-mail me right before an exam I may not be able to get back to you in time for the exam. Please understand that most of the material listed below is explicitly discussed in your lecture notes/powerpoint presentations, or your text book. However, some of the information below may be additional topics or phrases that have been discussed in class that you are responsible for as well. In addition, while this review sheet details the vast majority of the topics that will be on the exam, there may be some questions on the exam that are not specifically addressed in this review sheet. Chapter 4 – Mitosis; What happens during stages of mitosis and meiosis in plants and in animals. Differences between Meiosis and Mitosis What happens to DNA when goes from chromatin to form chromosomes. Understand Diploid vs. Haploid and in Mitosis vs. Meiosis Sequence of stages of meiosis and mitosis. How does cell division differ between animal and plant cells? Patterns of Inheritance; Know what alleles, loci, genes and homologous chromosomes are. Know the concepts of Mendel’s research and his law of segregation. Know the differences between a phenotype, a genotype and a gamete. Understand basic dominant/recessive concepts including being able to answer problems and do punnet squares, as well as understanding test crosses and monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Understand codominance, sex-linked inheritance, polygenic inheritance and incomplete dominance including being able to answer problem questions regarding them. Understand what a karyotype is, how it is performed, and what it can be used for. Also, ways the cells can be obtained to create the karyotype. Know what non-disjunction means, and what monosomy and trisomy mean. Cellular Respiration Know and understand the basic concepts and principles of Cellular Respiration including the stages, overall reactions, and main concepts, and molecules participating in the reactions. DNA Know and Understand that DNA is the hereditary material found in cells, and know it’s structure, composition, and replication method and be able to compare it to RNA’s. Also know the different types of RNA and their function. Be familiar with the flow of inherited information from DNA → RNA → protein. And know the concepts of transcription and translation including where each occurs and what each does. Know the different types of Gene mutations and causes and affects of mutations. Cancer; Know the differences between normal cells and cancer cells, as well as how cancer develops and progresses. Know what apoptosis refers to. Know possible causes of and treatments for cancer, as well as how to protect yourself against cancer. Chapter 5 - Tissues – Know and understand the differences between the various types of tissues covered including characteristic features and where you might expect to find the tissue. Know and understand how we categorize the various types of epithelial tissues including shapes and numbers of layers including different types epithelial cells as well as exocrine and endocrine glands. Know and understand the difference between Neurons and Neuroglial Cells including the basic anatomy of a neuron Know and understand the differences between the 3 Types of Muscle Cells Know and understand the differences between the various types of connective tissues covered including characteristic features and where you might expect to find it.
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