Pollution in the Great Lakes

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					Pollution in the Great Lakes
  A Study of how pollution affects
     wildlife in the Great Lakes
  Amy Latham, Amanda Tsang, Eric Wright
          Environ 110, Section 5
Introduction
• Earlier beliefs that water could dissolve
  chemicals and other wastes led to the
  degradation of the Great Lakes ecosystem
• Pollution has negative effects on the flora
  and fauna of the Great Lakes ecosystem.
     -reducing water quality, contaminating
     soils, and harming the lake wildlife and
     surrounding region
• To demonstrate a direct effect that
 pollution has on the Great Lakes
 ecosystem, we analyzed data from four
 pollutants and the biomass of trout
 residing in Lake Huron.
Background:
Sources of
Pollution
• Point-source pollution
    - direct source of pollution (e.g. a pipe)
    - mercury, sewage, and fecal matter
• Non point-source pollution
    - non-specific locations (e.g. air-bound
    pollution, industrial runoff)
    - fertilizers and pesticides
  Background: Effects of Pollution

• Pollutants move up food chains
• Reduce fish stocks
• Decrease water quality
• Spreads diseases
Methods
• Researched material through Mirlyn website
• Used Microsoft Excel to create graphs to analyze
    the relation between pollutants and the Great
    Lakes.
•   We used specific data from the biomass of Lake
    Huron Trout and the concentration of four
    prominent chemicals in Lake Huron
                        Results and Discussion
                                    Pollutant Concentrations
                                                                                Pollutants
                        2500                                                    concentration
                                                                                found in tissue
)Concentrations (ng/g




                        2000                                                    of Lake Huron
                                                                                trout.
                        1500                                        PC B
                                                                    DDT
                                                                    Dieldrin
                        1000                                                    PCB and
                                                                    Toxaphene
                                                                                toxaphene
                        500                                                     have highest
                                                                                concentration.
                           0
                               1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
                                             Year
Results and Discussion
                                                      Concentrations & Biomass

                                               2500               160000000

                                                                  140000000
                                               2000
                                                                  120000000




                       Concentrations (ng/g)
Relationship




                                                                              Biomass (kg)
                                                                  100000000
                                               1500

between the four
                                                                                             PC B
                                                                  80000000                   DDT

pollutants and trout                           1000
                                                                  60000000
                                                                                             Dieldrin
                                                                                             Toxaphene

biomass (kg).                                                     40000000
                                                                                             Biomass (kg)

                                               500
                                                                  20000000

                                                  0               0
                                                 92

                                                 94

                                                 96

                                                 98

                                                 00

                                                 02
                                               19

                                               19

                                               19

                                               19

                                               20

                                               20


                                                        Year
Results and Discussion
                                  Biomass & PCB Conc.                                 Specific
                                                                                      correlation
                        2500                160000000
                                                                                      between trout
                        2000
                                            140000000
                                                                                      biomass and
Concentrations (ng/g)




                                            120000000                                 PCB
                                                                                      concentration


                                                        Biomass (kg)
                        1500                100000000

                                            80000000                   PCB
                                                                       Biomass (kg)
                        1000
                                            60000000

                                            40000000
                         500
                                            20000000

                           0                0
                               1992
                               1993
                               1994
                               1995
                               1996
                               1997
                               1998
                               1999
                               2000
                               2001
                               2002
                               2003




                                Year
Results and Discussion
                                Biomass & Toxaphene Conc                                Specific
                         1400                 160000000                                 correlation
                         1200                 140000000                                 between trout
 Concentrations (ng/g)




                         1000
                                              120000000                                 biomass and



                                                          Biomass (kg)
                         800
                                              100000000
                                                                                        toxaphene
                                                                         Toxaphene
                         600
                                              80000000
                                                                         Biomass (kg)   concentration.
                                              60000000
                         400
                                              40000000
                         200                  20000000

                           0                  0
                             92

                             94

                             96

                             98

                             00

                             02
                          19

                          19

                          19

                          19

                          20

                          20




                                 Year
Implications

• Restricts wildlife and fish growth
• Wildlife deformities and spread of diseases
• Degrades natural communities
• Limits wildlife consumption
• Closes beaches and hinders other
 recreational activities
Solutions

• Clean Water Act, 1972
• Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement,
  1972
• State of the Lakes Ecosystem conference
• Clean Michigan Initiative, 1998
Conclusion

• Great Lakes are an important source of
  freshwater and their contamination affects
  both the wildlife surrounding the region
  and those who utilize its vast resources
• Though measures have been taken, more
  are needed to protect the valuable
  resources of the Great Lakes
References
•   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs).
    Feb 2001. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts17.html#bookmark02 (Oct. 23 2006)

•   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ToxFAQs for Toxaphene. Sept. 1997.
    http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts94.html (Oct. 23 2006)

•   Hickey, J.P., Batterman, S. A., and Chernyak, S. M. 2006 Trends of Chlorinated Organic
    Contaminants in Great Lakes Trout and Walleye from 1970 to 1998. Arch. Environ. Contam.
    Toxicol. 50, 97-110


• Liu, Lubo; Phanikumar, Mantha S.; Molloy, Stephanie L.; Whitman, Richard L.;
    Shivley, Dawn A.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Shwab, David J.; Rose, Joan B. 2006.
    Modeling the transport and Inactivation of E. coli and Enterococci in the Near-Shore
    Region of Lake Michigan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 5022-5028

• Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. 1999. First Round of Environmental
    Bonds sold Over Internet for Clean Michigan Initiative. Office of Great Lakes Activity
    Report, Lansing, MI.
References Continued
•   Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. 1998. Great Lakes Trends: Into the New
    Millennium. Office of the Great Lakes, Lansing, MI.

•   Robertson, Andrew, and Lauenstein, Gunnar G. 1998. Distribution of Chlorinated Organic
    Contaminants in Dreissenid Mussels Along the Southern Shores of the Great Lakes. J. Great Lakes
    Res. 24(3): 608-619

•   Shear, Harvey. 2006. The Great Lakes, an Ecosystem Rehabilitated, but Still Under Threat.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 113: 199-225

•   TEACH. Water Pollution in the Great Lakes http://www.great-
    lakes.net/teach/pollution/water/water1.html (Oct. 23, 2006)

•   U.S. Environmental Protections Agency. Clean Water Act, July 2006.
    http://www.epa.gov/r5water/cwa.htm (Oct. 23, 2006)

				
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