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									Social psychological phenomenon in which individuals do
 not offer help in an emergency situation when others are
                         present.
•Most famous case of the bystander effect ever




 Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death in 1964. The murder
  continued for half an hour while thirty-eight bystanders
    watched without intervening or notifying the police.
 The Holocaust is a great example of the bystander effect because the
towns and cities near the concentration camps knew fully well of the
atrocities and horror inside the camps. These citizens could smell the
    camps from as far as twenty miles away before finding them.
Therefore, the mayhem could not be ignored. The populations made
   no effort to stop the torture, yet they were forced to clean up the
                 corpses and bury them in mass graves.
                                        [Germans] were also victims of
                                        cultural ethical relativism, believing
                                        that if their government thought that
                                        [genocide] was ethically relative
                                        behavior in their culture, then they
                                        should comply.


                                        In other cases, with more people,
                                        individuals are less likely to take
                                        responsibility. They assume that
                                        someone else will intervene.



(1991) Philosophical Ethics, An Introduction to Moral Philosophy, Second Edition
 "First they came for the communists, and I did not speak out—
                 because I was not a communist;
   Then they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out—
                   because I was not a socialist;
Then they came for the trade unionists, and I did not speak out—
                because I was not a trade unionist;
     Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out—
                     because I was not a Jew;
                    Then they came for me—
          and there was no one left to speak out for me."

                       Martin Niemöller
1. Bystanders know one another.
2. Witnesses have special bond to the victim.
3. Bystanders think that the victim is especially
   dependent on them.
4. Bystanders have considerable training in emergency
   intervention.
5. Witnesses have knowledge of the bystander effect.
Researchers stage an emergency situation to test the
bystander effect.

Examples of these situations include epileptic seizures,
women falling and becoming injured, or smoke
pouring from an air vent. Once they have staged a
condition they measure how long it takes until
participants or bystanders intervene.

Results to these experiments almost always conclude
that the presence of others restrains the willingness to
help.
“If you are in a crowd and you look and
see that everyone is doing nothing, then
      nothing becomes the norm.”


  Drew Carberry, A director on the
National Counsel of Crime Prevention

								
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