PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT

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Trainers’ Handbook:
Local Government
Procurement
DRAFT


 District Participatory Planning and
          Budgeting Process




               Procurement Module B

9/17/November 2009
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                        Training Material


           (Step 4: Implement Work Plan and Budget)




Trainer Guide
November 2009




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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................................75
  1.1      Course Descriptors .............................................................................................................................................75
  1.1.1 Course Title: Procurement in Local Government ............................................................................................75
  1.1.2 Overall Course Objective: .................................................................................................................................75
  1.1.3 Specific Objectives: ...........................................................................................................................................75
  1.1.4 Duration of the Course ......................................................................................................................................75
  1.1.5 Summary of the Curriculum ..............................................................................................................................75
  1.1.6 Curriculum Structure and Design .....................................................................................................................86
  1.2      Purpose and Use of the Handbook ............................................................................................................... 1210
  1.3      Organization of the Handbook ..................................................................................................................... 1210
  1.4      Training Methods .......................................................................................................................................... 1311
  1.4.1 Lectures ......................................................................................................................................................... 1311
  1.4.2 Group Work................................................................................................................................................... 1311
  1.4.3 Case Study ..................................................................................................................................................... 1412
  1.4.4 Brainstorming ................................................................................................................................................ 1412
  1.4.5 Demonstration ............................................................................................................................................... 1412
  1.4.6 Role Play ....................................................................................................................................................... 1412
  1.5      Organizing a Training Activity .................................................................................................................... 1513
  1.6      Running a Training Activity ........................................................................................................................ 1614
  1.7      Assessing a Training Activity ...................................................................................................................... 1715
  1.7.1 Informal Evaluation ...................................................................................................................................... 1715
  1.7.2 Formal Assessments ..................................................................................................................................... 1816
  1.7.3 Other assessments ......................................................................................................................................... 1816
  1.8      Introduction Session ..................................................................................................................................... 1917
2    Unit ONE: UNDERSTANDING THE PROCUREMENT ENVIRONMENT .................................................. 2422
  2.1      Introduction to Unit One .............................................................................................................................. 2422
  2.2      Aim of Unit One ........................................................................................................................................... 2422
  2.3      Objectives of Unit One ................................................................................................................................. 2422
  2.4      Session One: Principles of public procurement .......................................................................................... 2523
  2.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 2724
  2.4.2 Session Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ 2724
  2.4.3 Key Issues...................................................................................................................................................... 2724
  2.4.4 Methods ......................................................................................................................................................... 2825
  2.4.5 Group Work................................................................................................................................................... 2926
     Activity 1.1 – Procurement Principles Scenarios ................................................................................................. 2926
  2.4.6 Role Play ................................................................................................................................................... 332930
  2.4.7 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 332930
  2.4.8 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 353031
  2.5      Session Two: Ethical and Integrity Issues in Procurement .................................................................... 383132
  2.5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 393233
  2.5.2 Session Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 393233
  2.5.3 Key Issues.................................................................................................................................................. 393233
  2.5.4 Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 393233
  2.5.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................... 403334
     Activity 1.2 – Taking your ‘ethical temperature’ ............................................................................................. 403334
  2.5.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 423536
  2.5.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 423536
  2.6      Session Three: The Procurement Cycle and Planning ........................................................................ 433637
  2.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 453738
  2.6.2 Session objectives ..................................................................................................................................... 453738
  2.6.3 Key Issues.................................................................................................................................................. 453738
  2.6.4 Methods ..................................................................................................................................................... 453738


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  2.6.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................... 473940
     Activity 1.3 – Develop procurement plan ......................................................................................................... 473940
  2.6.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 494041
  2.6.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 504142
  2.7          Session Four: Procurement Methods ....................................................................................................... 514243
  2.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 534344
  2.7.2 Session Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 534344
  2.7.3 Key Issues.................................................................................................................................................. 534344
  2.7.4 Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 534344
  2.7.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................... 544445
  2.7.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 564546
  2.7.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 574647
3    UNIT TWO: PROCUREMENT OF GOODS, SERVICES AND WORKS .................................................. 584748
  3.1          Introduction to Unit Two .......................................................................................................................... 584748
  3.2          Aim of Unit Two ....................................................................................................................................... 584748
  3.3          Objectives of Unit Two ............................................................................................................................ 584748
  3.4          Session One: Supply Market Analysis ........................................................................................................ 5949
  3.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 6150
  3.4.2 Session Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ 6150
  3.4.3 Key Issues...................................................................................................................................................... 6150
  3.4.4 Methods ......................................................................................................................................................... 6150
  3.4.5 Group Exercise .............................................................................................................................................. 6352
     Activity 2.1 –Supplier/Contractor Appraisal ........................................................................................................ 6352
  3.4.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ................................................................................................ 6453
  3.4.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References ........................................................................................................... 6453
  3.5          Session Two: Specifications......................................................................................................................... 6654
  3.5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 6855
  3.5.2 Session Objectives ........................................................................................................................................ 6855
  3.5.3 Key Issues...................................................................................................................................................... 6855
  3.5.4 Method ........................................................................................................................................................... 6855
  3.5.5 Group Exercise .............................................................................................................................................. 6956
     Activity 2.2 – Specifications .................................................................................................................................. 6956
  3.5.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ................................................................................................ 7157
  3.5.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 725857
          Session Three: The Tendering (Bidding) Process .................................................................................... 745958
  3.6 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 745958
  3.6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 766059
  3.6.2 Session objective ....................................................................................................................................... 766059
  3.6.3 Key issues .................................................................................................................................................. 766059
  3.6.4 Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 776059
  3.6.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................... 776160
     Activity 2.3: Invitation to Bid ............................................................................................................................ 776160
     Activity 2.4: Bid Opening .................................................................................................................................. 786261
  3.6.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 796362
  3.6.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 806463
          Session Four: Tender Evaluation and Selection .......................................................................................... 836564
  3.7 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 836564
  3.7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 856665
  3.7.2 Session Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 856665
  3.7.3 Key Issues.................................................................................................................................................. 856665
  3.7.4 Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 856665
          Group work .................................................................................................................................................... 866766
  3.7.5 .......................................................................................................................................................................... 866766
  3.7.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 886867
  3.7.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 907068
  3.8          Session Five: Negotiation ......................................................................................................................... 917169

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  3.8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................... 937270
  3.8.2 Session Objective ...................................................................................................................................... 937270
  3.8.3 Key Issues.................................................................................................................................................. 937270
  3.8.4 Method ....................................................................................................................................................... 937270
  3.8.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................... 947371
  3.8.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary ............................................................................................ 957472
  3.8.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ....................................................................................................... 967472
  3.9    Session Six: Orders and Contracts ........................................................................................................... 997573
  3.9.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1017674
  3.9.2 Session Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 1017674
  3.9.3 Key Issues................................................................................................................................................ 1017674
  3.9.4 Methods ................................................................................................................................................... 1017674
  3.9.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................. 1027775
  3.9.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary .......................................................................................... 1047876
  3.9.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ..................................................................................................... 1057977
4    UNIT THREE: CONTRACT MANAGEMENT............................................................................................ 1138078
  4.1    Introduction to Unit Three ...................................................................................................................... 1138078
  4.2    Over All Aim of Unit Three ................................................................................................................... 1138078
  4.3    Objectives of Unit Three ........................................................................................................................ 1138078
  4.4    Session One: Contract Administration .................................................................................................. 1148179
  4.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1168280
  4.4.2 Session Objective .................................................................................................................................... 1168280
  4.4.3 Key Issues................................................................................................................................................ 1168280
  4.4.4 Method ..................................................................................................................................................... 1168280
  4.4.5 Group Work............................................................................................................................................. 1178381
  4.4.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary .......................................................................................... 1198482
  4.4.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References ..................................................................................................... 1208583
  4.5    Evaluation Session .................................................................................................................................. 1258684
5    ANNEX 1: COURSE EVALUATION FORMS ............................................................................................ 1268785




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INTRODUCTION
  1.1 Course Descriptors

  1.1.1 Course Title: Procurement in Local Government

  1.1.2 Overall Course Objective:

  To build capacity by imparting knowledge and best practices in procurement in local
  government.


  1.1.3 Specific Objectives:

  By the end of the course the participants should be able to:
        Understand the procurement environment in local government;
        Identify procurement needs;
        Draw procurement plans;
        Understand procurement methods;
        Understand specification drawing- Bill of quantities and Terms of Reference;
        Carry out pre-qualification and short listing;
        Carry out contract negotiation for consultants;
        Identify the roles of various parties in procurement;
        Understand the tendering process;
        Evaluate bids, award contracts and prepare contract agreements/LPO;
        Carry out contract supervision, evaluation, monitoring and follow up;
        Understand and explain the ethical code of conduct.


  1.1.4 Duration of the Course

  The total amount of time for the course is approximately 18 training hours. When all the      Formatted: Left

  modules are taken consecutively, the course should be completed within five days, based on
  4.5 training hours per day. .


  1.1.5 Summary of the Curriculum

  This course contains three modules Units as follows:


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         Module Unit One: Understanding the Procurement Environment;
         Module Unit Two:Procurement of Goods, Services and Works;
         Module Unit Three:         Contract Management.


   1.1.6 Curriculum Structure and Design

   Each module is sub-divided into a number of sessions as indicated in Table below. The
   division of the course into modules allows participants to take only those modules for which
   their training needs have been identified.


Table 2:   Modules Units and Sessions
     ModuleUnit             Session                                  Components
                          Introduction Session (30      Introductions, welcome, aims and         Formatted Table
                                                                                                  Formatted: Left
                          mins)                          objectives of the training.
1. Understanding the 1. Principles of Public            Session objectives
Procurement               Procurement (95 mins)         Introduction
Environment                                             Procurement in districts
                                                        Objectives of procurement
                                                        Categories of procurement
                                                        Principles of public procurement
                                                        Good Practices
                                                        Roles and responsibilities

                          2. Ethical and Integrity      Session objectives
                          Issues in Procurement         Definition and purpose
                          (75 mins)2.                   Transparency and integrity
                          Procurement Cycle             Procurement ethics
                             and Planning               Examples of unethical conduct
                                                        CorruptionSession objectives
                                                        Procurement Cycle
                                                        Procurement planning
                                                        Forecasting and budgeting
                                                        Annual procurement plan

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    ModuleUnit                  Session                            Components
                      3. The procurement            Session objectives                          Formatted: Left

                      cycle and planning (90        Procurement Cycle
                      mins)                         Procurement planning
                                                    Forecasting and budgeting
                                                    Annual procurement plan
                      43.          Procurement      Session objectives
                      Methods                       Procurement Methods
                      (75 mins)                     Methods of selection and employment
                                                     of consultants
                                                    Procurement under PPP
                                                    Community participation in
                                                     procurement
2. Procurement of     1.      Supply      Market    Session objectives
   Goods, Services    Analysis (80 mins)            Introduction
   and Works                                        Definitions of a market
                                                    Reasons for market analysis
                                                    Sources of Market Information
                                                    The process of supplier appraisal
                                                    List   of      approved   suppliers   and
                                                     contractors
                                                    Categories of registration
                                                    Supplier performance monitoring
                      2.      Specifications (80    Session objectives
                      mins)                         Introduction
                                                    Types of specifications
                                                    Standards
                                                    Checklist for specifications
                                                    Quality
                                                    Approval of specifications



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       ModuleUnit              Session                             Components
                     3.      The        Tendering    Session objectives
                     (Bidding) Process (120          Introduction: What is Tendering
                     mins)                           Need for tendering and its application
                                                     Tendering procedures
                                                     Preparation stage
                                                     Invitation     to tender and advertising
                                                      stage
                                                     Cancellation of bidding process
                                                     Response management stage
                     4.      Supplier     Tender     Session objectives
                     Evaluation and Selection        Introduction
                     (120 mins)                      Tender Evaluation Committee
                                                     Evaluation of Bids
                                                     Selection of Suppliers
                                                     Comparison and ranking of bids
                                                     Post qualification of bids
                                                     Evaluation report and recommendation
                                                     Approval of recommendation of tender
                                                      award
                                                     Rejection of all bids
                     5. Negotiation (80 mins)        Session objectives
                                                     Introduction and Definition
                                                     When to negotiate
                                                     The negotiators (negotiation team)
                                                     The negotiation process




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       ModuleUnit               Session                               Components
                        6. Orders and Contracts       Session objectives
                        (80 mins)                     Introduction
                                                      Definition of a contract
                                                      Supplier/provider obligations
                                                      Local Government obligations
                                                      Preparation of contracts
                                                      Tender committee approval of contracts
                                                      Types of contracts
                                                      Types     of    contract   agreements   for
                                                       employment of consultants
                                                      Awarding contracts and notification to
                                                       bidders
                                                      Local Purchase Orders
 3.            Contract 1.                Contract    Session objectives
 Management             Management (90 mins)          Introduction
                                                      Contract effectiveness
                                                      Contract supervision and administration
                                                       – goods
                                                      Contract supervision and administration
                                                       - works
                                                      Contract supervision and administration
                                                       – services
                                                      Contract performance
                                                      Procurement reporting
                                                      Procurement Monitoring and Evaluation
                        Evaluation Session                                                           Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
                                                                                                     numbering
                        (30 mins)




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    1.2 Purpose and Use of the Handbook

    This Handbook has been specifically developed for the use of trainers who will be providing
    capacity building support in the Districts and Municipal Councils in the area of procurement.


    The various activities to be performed by the trainer and the participants are spelt out together
    with their respective timing. The course is participatory and as such, trainers will be required
    to allocate ample time for discussions, exercises, etc.


    A separate Handbook containing brief notes has been produced under the same title but with
    the label, “Participants’ Handbook”. The trainer will refer to the Participants’ Handbook for
    specific content. In addition, reference should be made to other published materials on
    procurement.

    This Handbook contains group and individual exercises, case studies and illustrations. It is
    intended that the trainers will use these materials in a manner that optimally delivers the
    course objectives.


    1.3 Organization of the Handbook

    The introductory statements and details of the course organisation are contained in sections 1.
    to 4.0.    These include the course descriptors, summary of curriculum, and the general
    organization and delivery of the curriculum. This training handbook consists of three
    modulesunits. The modules units have been arranged under sections 2, 3 and 4 (refer to the
    Table of Contents) respectively, and are designed in a manner that promotes effective
    participation through discussions and the sharing of experiences by the participants.

    Each module unit contains a number of sessions, which should be taken together by the
    participants and completed over a single period. For each session, the activities to be
    performed are given, including the training methods and discussion tasks. Trainers are
    encouraged to be flexible to incorporate other activities relevant to the course.




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    Depending on the capacity needs, participants may take all the modules in the Handbook, or a
    few selected complete modules.


    1.4 Training Methods

    The methods of training which the trainer decides to use in any particular session should be
    carefully and properly selected because:
              They aid the learning process;
              Time is precious and must be used wisely to achieve maximum results;
              Participants must be able to follow the training method;
              The facilitator must be competent in the use of a selected method, or a combination of
               methods.


    A number of training methods are available for the trainer to use. The methods outlined
    below are the ones suggested for use in this course.


    1.4.1 Lectures

    A lecture is a talk given by the facilitator to transmit facts and information to the participants.
    It involves the facilitator talking without interruption for about, thirty minutes. The facilitator
    may combine the talk with visual, graphic or other training aids to complement.


    Although there is usually active participation from the participants, the facilitator should
    allow the participants (especially adults) to ask questions on any “burning issue”. This may be
    during the lecture itself or after. Participants are then allowed to ask questions at the end of
    the lecture. Lectures are particularly useful for large groups of participants.

    1.4.2 Group Work

    The participants are divided into groups of three to five persons and presented with a task
    (e.g. questions to be answered or issues to be discussed). The groups will then report back to
    a plenary session after which a general discussion may follow. The facilitator should always
    provide a summary of the discussion points. A common example of such group work is the



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    sharing of experiences whereby the participants narrate the actual work situations in their
    offices, the problems faced and the issues and how they were addressed.


    1.4.3 Case Study

    The participants are given written information about an actual or imaginary event, situation or
    incident which they will analyze and come up with an agreement or solution. To encourage
    participation, the case study should be as close to real life situations as possible so that the
    participants can relate it to their working environment and think about how they could tackle
    such an issue/problem.


    The method is usually combined with group work by allowing small groups to handle a
    particular case study.


    1.4.4 Brainstorming

    The facilitator engages the participants in a brainstorming activity by asking them questions
    to which the participants respond by giving suggestions. It is normally used to determine the
    participants’ understanding of the subject matter before a lecture. The facilitator will then be
    able to give an appropriate lecture by filling in the gaps in the participants’ responses.


    1.4.5 Demonstration

    This method involves presenting, or illustrating the way something is done. The facilitator
    actually performs an act, or a set of acts to show the participants how to arrive at some
    outcome(s). The method is usually combined with other methods e.g. with a lecture. An
    example would be where the facilitator shows the participants how to prepare an invitation to
    tender document to be advertised in the press.


    1.4.6 Role Play

    The participants “act out” the situation or incident to test ideas, discuss problems and
    solutions. The setting is normally done in such a way that some participants are made actors
    while others are observers. The observers watch and give their feedback about the


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    performance of the individuals. The aim of role plays is to allow people to experience being
    in different situations and so improve their communication and understanding skills.


    1.5 Organizing a Training Activity

    The facilitator should carefully consider the key things needed for a successful training
    activity well in advance of the training in order to be able to achieve the set objectives. The
    first thing would be to plan the number of participants. To enhance effective learning and
    participation, a range of 15 to 24 participants is recommended for each course. Secondly, you
    need to plan the physical setting. You are responsible for creating a good atmosphere for the
    participants to be able to learn. Look for a pleasant place – sufficient light, clean, tidy and
    business like. Arrange the tables and chairs in a suitable way (you may come very early that
    day or the previous day to make your preparations).


    The following checklist is useful as a guide, although the facilitator will need to adopt it to
    the module being run and the resources available.
              Venue/accommodation/furniture
              Course publicity
              Selection and confirmation of participants
              Booking of supporting facilitators/speakers
              Time tables – Work plan
              Registration forms
              Folders
              Name tags
              Markers/chalk
              Writing pads and pens (stationery)
              Trainer’s table
              Flip chart/board
              Audio visual equipment
              Masking tape
              Stapler
              Clock

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              Copies of exercises/case studies
              Copies of Participant’s Handbook for each participant
              Transport and Logistics
              Special Learning Needs (if any)
              Evaluation materials
    In addition, the facilitator should ensure that:
              Coffee (including break) or refreshments and meals have been arranged and booked
               for the right time;
              Clean drinking water is provided to the participants throughout the day in the lecture
               room;
              There is enough furnished space (including other rooms) for group work;
              Other administrative facilities e.g. clean toilets, security, first aid are provided.

    1.6 Running a Training Activity

    It is always important for the facilitator and the participants to arrive in time, with the former
    arriving earlier to welcome the latter. In addition, the facilitator needs to organize and arrange
    all the required training materials well in advance.


    Each training activity should always start with personal introductions to ensure that
    everybody (the facilitator and participants) knows each other. Where other resource persons
    are involved, these will also have to be introduced.


    The next activity will be for the participants to identify their expectations from the course or
    module. They will then agree on a set of norms (dos and don’ts), and where relevant, elect
    their course representatives. All participants will be provided with the programme/timetable.


    For each course, module and session, objectives have to be identified. It is the duty of the
    facilitator to explain these objectives to the participants before proceeding to the actual
    training.




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    Facilitators are encouraged to follow the programme and to use the materials provided to
    avoid going out of the scheduled times and curriculum. In particular the breaks should be
    observed. It would be advisable to always inform the participants of the time allowed for an
    activity, e.g. group work, and to ensure that time is kept.

    1.7 Assessing a Training Activity

    Assessing a training activity involves checking on the progress of the training and examining
    performance in order to be able to answer the following questions:
              Have the participants learnt?
              Was the training effective?
              How was the course organization and management?


    This is part of an evaluation exercise aimed at ensuring that the training objectives are being
    achieved. The feedback information is then used to correct any problems that may arise, or to
    make any improvements for future use where necessary.


    Training evaluation can be formal, informal, or may take the form of exercises and multiple-
    choice questions.

    1.7.1 Informal Evaluation

    This is done by the facilitator and the outcomes rely on his/her judgment. For instance, to find
    out if participants are actively involved in the learning process, the frequency with which they
    leave the lecture room, the levels of their participation and interest in discussions, and the
    type of questions asked are good indicators. In addition, the facilitator may ask some
    questions like:


              What have you learnt in the session?
              What do you think of the course?




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    1.7.2 Formal Assessments

    Assessments can be done in the form of procedures such as tests, exercises, examinations, etc
    the objective of which is to discover what the participants have learnt. They indicate to the
    facilitator whether or not to make alterations so as to achieve the objectives.


    This course has been designed with a number of exercises and group questions. These should
    be continuously used by the trainer to assess the learning progress. Some assessment could
    be based on objectives. For example if the objective was to “explain” something then the
    facilitator will ask individuals to “explain” and see if they can do so.


    1.7.3 Other assessments

    This includes the following:
              True or false exercises;
              Multiple-choice questions;
              Recall questions.


    An end-of-course evaluation shall be carried out at the end of the course or module. This
    could be done formally by administering an end of course/module evaluation questionnaire,
    or informally by the use of any other techniques listed in this Handbook. A specimen copy of
    the Evaluation Form has been attached for ease of use. The information generated is used to
    strengthen the curriculum, the training methods and the materials. All completed
    questionnaires should be studied by the facilitator and summarized. An appropriate course of
    action is then taken.


    Evaluation may also involve the facilitator following up the course participants on their jobs
    and assisting them in finding solutions to their problems.




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    1.8 Introduction Session



                 DESIGN AND DURATION OF INTRODUCTION SESSION

  No.                                 Activity                               Time
                                                                           Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                                                                           15 minutes
                   Welcome and introduction
                   Aims and Objectives of training

   2.     Methods
                   Training Overview and Documents
                                                                           15 Minutes
                   Expectations and Ground Rules
                   ‘Car Park’ for questions

          Total time:                                                      30 minutes




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Here are some suggestions of what to cover in this session: You will need to adjust what you             Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
include depending on the time available.

1. Welcome

This can include things like:
    Opening Prayer
    Welcome for any special guests and any introductory remarks.
    Background to the training if needed, for example, information about the Joint
       Programme for Local Governance (JPLG).
    Any ‘housekeeping’, for example, meals and accommodation, location of toilets, breaks
       or travel arrangements.

2. Introductions

Introductions are useful when the participants do not know each other very well. They also help
to set a friendly atmosphere for the training that follows. There are a number of ways that you can
conduct introduction activities.
                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Times New Roman

 One issue with introduction activities is that they can take up a lot of time, which reduces           Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
the amount of time left for the other activities in the training. The aim is to keep the introductions
as brief as possible, but at the same time allow participants to feel they are familiar with the other
people in the group.

A simple method for introductions is given below:

     1. Ask each participant to introduce the person next to them to the rest of the group, using
        the following brief questions as a guide:
             What is your name?
             What is your role in your District Council/Administration?

     2. After the participants have introduced themselves, make sure you introduce the members
        of the training team and any other resource people present at the training.

3. Aims and Objectives of Training

These refer to the overall aims and objectives of the Procurement and Implementation Module
training, that is, what we expect the participants will have achieved by the time they complete the
training.

Note that there are also specific objectives relevant to each particular session and these should be
referred to at the beginning of each session.



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     1. Prepare the aims and objectives given below on flip chart paper before the session begins
        and display somewhere visible for the duration of the training, for example, on a wall in
        the training venue.

Aim: To assist district staff to gain the knowledge and skills required to conduct proper
procurement processes, in order to successfully implement district priority projects.                  Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt


Objectives:
      To understand the process involved in Local Government procurement.                             Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
      To understand some principles and procedures for procurement and contract management.
      To practice some of the techniques that will be used by districts to conduct procurement
         and contract management.                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt


     2. Point out the aims and objectives of the training to participants as written on the flip
        chart.

     3. Ask participants if they have any feedback on these aims and objectives or if there is
        anything that is unclear.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
4. Training Overview and Documents                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt


    1. Explain to participants that this training module is one part in a larger training programme
       for District Councillors and staff.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
    2. Point out the documents that participants have been given for this training, which include
       the following:
             Participant Book – this is the main document that participants will use in the
                training.
             Procurement Guidelines – this document will also be referred to during this              Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                training as it contains the information on which the Participant Book is based.        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
             Somaliland District Bidding Documents and Somaliland Bid Opening and                     Formatted: Not Highlight
                Evaluation – these documents provide the templates needed for conducting               Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                procurement procedures, specifically those relating to the tender process.             Formatted: Not Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
    3. Ask participants to look at the beginning of their Participant Book at the following table:
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Not Bold, Not Highlight
              Implementation and Procurement Module B Training Overview
                                                                                                       Formatted: Not Highlight
       Explain that the training timetable is indicative only and may have to be adjusted each
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
       day, depending on the time available and the circumstances of the training.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Not Highlight

    4. Highlight that the training will be more likely to run to schedule if participants can ensure   Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
       they are on time each morning and when returning from the morning break.                        Formatted: Not Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                       numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt


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5. Expectations and Ground Rules

This is a useful exercise to help participants understand why they have come to the training and
what they hope to achieve.


 It may not be possible to do this exercise due to time limitations. You will need to decide         Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
whether you have enough time or not.

  1. To get an idea of expectations, ask participants to think about the following Questions for
     Reflection in their Participant Book and make some notes if they wish.

       Questions for Reflection:                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

                  Why did you come here today?
                  What do you hope to take away from this training?

  2. Invite participants to share their thoughts with the rest of the group. It is not necessary to
     hear from everyone, but it can help to get an idea of what the participants are thinking if
     you are able to get a few contributions from the group.

  3. If you think that participants have expectations of the training that seem confused or
     unrealistic, this is a good opportunity to discuss these expectations before the training
     begins. Addressing such issues early on may help prevent problems later on in the training.

  4. It is a good idea to identify ‘ground rules’ to guide the training, for example, no smoking;
     no interrupting others when they are talking. Ask your participants for their ideas on ground
     rules for the training and make a list of these for all to see. Make sure that everyone agrees
     with the rules before continuing. Put this list somewhere visible for the duration of the
     training.


 Keep in mind that as a trainer you have an important role to ensure that the group adheres to       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
the ground rules that they have created. You may need to reinforce these ground rules by
reminding participants of them as needed during the training.

  5. After the group has completed its ground rules, follow up by emphasising that the training
     should be conducted in an atmosphere of ‘mutual respect’. This can include:
        Listening to others’ views, even if they are different from your own.
        Not criticising other people’s ideas just because you don’t like them.
        Giving everyone a chance to express themselves.
     Explain that the way people conduct themselves in the training should reflect how they aim
     to operate back in their district.




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                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
6. ‘Car Park’ for Questions
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
This is a useful method when it is likely that there will be questions of a technical nature during   Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
the training that are beyond your scope of knowledge. In these cases it is better to explain that
you don’t know the answer, but you can find out, rather than give an incorrect answer.

The ‘Car Park’ is a tool you can use to ‘park’ any questions that you do not have an answer for at
the time.

    1. Put a piece of flip chart paper on the wall of the training venue labelled ‘Car Park’.

    2. Explain to participants that this is where you will write any questions that you are unable
       to answer during the training.

    3. After the training, you need to follow up these questions to find answers.

    4. When you have found answers to the car park questions, make sure you feed back this
       information to the participants.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 14 pt




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    2 MODULE Unit ONE: UNDERSTANDING THE
      PROCUREMENT ENVIRONMENT

    2.1 Introduction to Module Unit One

    Procurement is the process of buying goods, works and services to satisfy the identified
    needs. Procurement is an important function within a Local Government as it is to the Central
    Government and private entities as it enables all them to acquire goods, services and
    construction works needed to fulfill their objectives. For Local Governments to be able to
    improve service delivery, they have to acquire goods, services and works of the right quality,
    at the right time, in the right quantity, from the right source and at the right price.


    This module deals with the environment in which the Local Government procurement
    operates. Session one deals with the principles of public procurement and roles and
    responsibilities of key players, session two is about the steps in procurement and the
    production of the procurement plan while session three concentrates on the various methods
    which can be used by a Local Government to procure goods, services and works.


    2.2 Aim of Module Unit One

    To enable the participants enhance their understanding of the procurement environment in
    light of the Local Government procurement guidelines.


    2.3 Objectives of Module Unit One

    By the end of the module, the participants should be able to:
              Define procurement;
              Explain the key pillars of public procurement;
              Understand and explain the different procurement methods;
              Understand the roles and responsibilities of the various officers and bodies in the
               procurement process; and
              Explain and draw up a procurement plan.




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    2.4 Session One: Principles of public procurement



                         DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION ONE

  No.                                    Activity                                      Time
                                                                                     Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                                                                                     10 minutes
                  Self introduction
                 
                                                                                     5 Minutes
                  The facilitator presents the session objectives
                  Outline key issues for the session
                      Participant’s expectations                                                  Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                   numbering
   2.     Session Objectives
                    The facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                     5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                    Brainstorming on what is procurement, procurement
                                                                                    30 Minutes
                     objectives, principles of public procurement, key players
                     and their roles
                    The facilitator makes a presentation in a lecture by filling
                     in the gaps to the participant’s responses.
                                                                                                  Formatted: No bullets or numbering
   4.     Group Work
                 Identifying types of procurements.
                                                                                     10 Minutes
                 Exercise One: Garowe Municipality
  3.5.    Group WorkRole Play
                                                                                    4530 Minutes
                 Activity 1.1 – Procurement Principles Scenarios
                      Bosaso District                                                             Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                   numbering
  46.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                                                                                    5 10 Minutes
                                                                                                   Formatted: Normal
                    Summarise the kKey issues in the session.
                    Ask participants to share something that they have
                     learned in this session and how they could apply this new
                     knowledge to their work situation. .
                                                                                                  Formatted: No bullets or numbering
          Total time:                                                                95 minutes
   7.     Application

          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have                  10 Minutes
                      acquired?

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                   What will you do differently when you return to your
                    job?
   7.     Summary
                                                                                5 Minutes
                 Summarise the main issues
   8.     Evaluation
                                                                                5 Minutes
                   Discuss with the participants the success or otherwise of
                    the training methods used in the session




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    2.4.1 Introduction

    Participants are asked to introduce themselves by stating their names, their organizations and
    the reason(s) why they signed up for the training.


    The facilitator then asks one participant to lead a discussion about the participants’
    expectations from the course. The expectations should be noted on a flip chart and hanged on
    a board or wall.


    2.4.2 Session Objectives

    To introduce the participants to the procurement concepts. By the end of the session, the
    participants should be able to:
              Define procurement and its objectives;
              Explain the need for accountability for procurement;
              Identify the various forms and types of procurements;
              Explain the objectives of procurements;
              Identify the recommended principles of procurement in the public sector; and
              Identify key players and their roles and responsibilities.


    2.4.3 Key Issues

    The main issues to be discussed and explained are:
              The meaning of procurement;
              Categories of procurement;
              Types of procurements;
              Objectives of procurement;
              Organizational aspects of procurement;
              Principles of public procurement;
              Some good practices.




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        2.4.4 Methods

    Questions for Discussion 1:                                                                                Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                                Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
        The facilitator sStarts with a brainstorming activity by asking the following questions:
                1. What do you understand by the term ‘procurement’?                                           Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", Line spacing:
                                                                                                                Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets or numbering
                2. Is procurement in the public sector different from procurement in the private
               sector? If yes, why? Elaborate.

            Key ideas to draw out:                                                                              Formatted: Font: Italic

            Question 1: Hopefully participants will have some prior understanding of the term                   Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                                bullets or numbering
    ‘procurement’, but be prepared for it to be an unfamiliar term for some. The
                                                                                                                Formatted: Font: Italic
    information/examples below can be used to illustrate what procurement can mean in different
                                                                                                                Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
    situations:                                                                                                  No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                                Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
            Procurement is the process of acquiring goods, works or services from suppliers. It is              bullets or numbering
            similar in meaning to purchasing, but it can also include hiring the services of something or
                                                                                                                Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
            someone. Here are some examples:
                 Contracting a builder to construct a school classroom (works).
                 Hiring a technical expert to assist with the design of a project (services)t.
                 Purchasing some furniture from a supplier (goods) .
                                                                                                                Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:

             
           There are certain procurement procedures that District Councils must follow in
           order to Refer participants to 2.5that require theProcurementof district funds. This is for
                    carry out any activities Categories of expenditure in their Participant Book
                                                                                                                0.25" + Tab after: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                                Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                                 No bullets or numbering
    furtherto ensure that funds spent on behalf of the district’s population are directed in the
            information.
           most effective ways.                                                                                 Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                                Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                The procurement process spans a whole cycle of activities, outlined uses public
            Question 2: The main idea here is that public procurement is a process that in the                  bullets or numbering
                   diagram below. Note that Units and 4 principles to be upheld and procedures to
    funds for district projects. Therefore, there are3certain in this module relate specifically to             Formatted: Font: Italic
                   items 4 that proper diagram.
    be followed to ensure and 5 in theuse is made of public funds and get the best value for money.             Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                                 No bullets or numbering
    By contrast, procurement in the private sector does not always have the same constraints. For
                                                                                                                Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
    example, a business owner may decide to choose a particular supplier for their business supplies            0.25" + Tab after: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.5"
    based on personal preference only, without comparing a number of different quotes to get the
    best price. This kind of flexibility is not normally allowed in the public sector, because it can be
    open to misuse of public funds.
                                                                                                                Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                                bullets or numbering
             The information in the shaded box may be helpful to further explain the above points.

       Note that wWhen we talk about procurement for district projects, we are talking about the use of        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
                                                                                                                Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
      public funds, that is, funds which come from the tax payers of the district. Therefore, the procurement
      process is referred to as ‘public procurement’.
                                                                                                                Formatted: No bullets or numbering
     There are certain principles which must guide the public procurement process. These principles cover
     a set of values or desired behaviour and flow through every aspect of the procurement process. This is
     to ensure that districts get the best value for money in their use of public funds and that the whole
   What do youbenefits from the process, not procurement in a Local Government?
     community think are the objectives of just 1 or 2 individuals.                                             Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.25"



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   What skills should procurement personnel in Local Government have?


        The facilitator then gives a lecture by filling in the gaps to the responses in the brainstorming
        activity and explaining the key issues in the session.
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: 20 pt, Bold
    ! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this       Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    lecture:
    2.6 Principles of public procurement                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

    2.7 Good practice                                                                                       Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    2.8 Roles and Responsibilities


        2.4.5 Group DiscussionWork

        The facilitator divides the participants into groups of four or five persons and requests them to
        consider Exercise One: Garowe Municipality. Each group should nominate one member to
        report back to the plenary, the decisions of the group.


          Expected Responses
                  Works                           Goods                           Services
          3,6, 8, 16, 17, 22           2, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13,           1, 4, 5, 9, 18, 19, 20, 23, 25
                                       14 ,15, 21, 24


                                                                                                            Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
                                                                                                            No bullets or numbering
     Activity 1.1 – Procurement Principles Scenarios
    This activity encourages participants to think further about the principles of procurement and how      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt
    they apply in practice.
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt

     Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 1 at the end of their Participant Book.             Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt
        1. Ask participants to work in groups of 4 or 5 people.
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt, Bold, Italic
        2. Ask participants to look at Activity Sheet 1 – Principles of Procurement Scenarios at the        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
           end of their Participant Book.                                                                   12 pt


        3. Allocate 1 scenario to each group. Ask groups to read their scenario and answer the
           accompanying questions.


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    4. Give groups 10-15 minutes to discuss their scenario. Then ask each group to report back
       on its scenario and results of their discussion.

    5. After each group has responded, other participants can discuss and give their own
       opinion.

    6. Finish by summarising the discussion and have additional input if needed.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 14 pt

         Answers to scenarios                                                                          Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
                                                                                                       No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
Scenario 1:
Q1. Senior Works Officer                                                                               Formatted: Font: 12 pt

Q2. Principle = Equal treatment/fairness – All contractors should be treated equally and none          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
                                                                                                       Not Highlight
should receive special treatment, regardless of where they come from.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

Scenario 2:                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

Q1. Executive Secretary                                                                                Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Q2. Principle = Competition – A competitive bidding process provides the best opportunity to           Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
achieve good value for money on a district project and therefore should be the favoured option,        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
even though it may require extra work for technical staff to carry out the process.                    Not Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Scenario 3:                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
Q1. Lucky Sky                                                                                          Not Highlight

Q2. Principle = Value for money – the aim of a procurement process is to achieve the best value        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
for money, that is to get good quality at the lowest possible price. A district should not pay more    Formatted: Font: 12 pt
than it needs to for its works, goods and services just because certain business people are more       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
influential than others.                                                                               Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Scenario 4:                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Q1. Executive Secretary
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
Q2. Principle = Transparency – It doesn’t matter how many times a procurement process has              Not Highlight
been undertaken in the past, the results of the procurement process must be recorded every time,       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
so that the district will always have a record of how its decision was reached and to demonstrate      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
that the process was conducted in a proper way.                                                        Not Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

          When discussing answers, to the activity, be aware that more than 1 principle may           Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 14 pt
be relevant to each scenario. This is ok, the main thing is to discuss why participants think that a
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
principle applies to a particular scenario.                                                            No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Scenario 1
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
Success District advertised a tender nationally to build a water harvesting system. There was a lot    No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
of interest from contractors, because it was a big project worth a lot of money. The Mayor asked
the Senior Works Officer to provide one particular contractor with information about the

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estimated price for the contract, to help him prepare his bid. The Mayor said that this contractor
was based in the district, so he deserved to get more help than contractors from other districts.     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
The Senior Works Officer said that this was unfair and that all contractors should receive the
same information about a contract.


Questions:
1. Who is correct – the Mayor or the Senior Works Officer? Why?
2. Which procurement principle do you think this scenario relates to? Why?



                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

Scenario 2
A tendering process was being initiated for a construction project. The Executive Secretary
suggested using the National Competitive Bidding process, to get as much competition as
possible and therefore a better price for the contract. However, the Senior Works Officer said that
the National Competitive Bidding process created too much work for him, so it was easier to
initiate a direct contracting process.


Questions:
1. Who is correct – The Executive Secretary or the Senior Works Officer? Why?
2. Which procurement principle do you think this scenario relates to? Why?



Scenario 3                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 18 pt

A district put out a tender for the supply of some school furniture. One supplier (Lucky Sky          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

Enterprises) submitted a bid which was lower than the estimated price and the materials were
very good quality. Another supplier (Blue Sea Contractors) submitted a bid which was higher and
the materials were not as good quality. The Tender Evaluation Committee was divided about who
should be awarded the tender. Some members said that ‘Lucky Sky’ was the best value for
money for the district. But other members said that ‘Blue Sea’ were influential people in the
district, so it would be better to award the contract to them.



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Questions:
1. Who should get the contract – Lucky Sky or Blue Sea? Why?
2. Which procurement principle do you think this scenario relates to? Why?




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                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 14 pt

Scenario 4                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

A ‘Restricted Bidding’ process was conducted in Sandy District for rehabilitation work on a
school. The Tender Evaluation Committee had already conducted this tendering processes many
times already, so the members decided to make a recommendation without recording the process
in its Tender Evaluation Report. When asked about this, the committee members said that
because everybody knows the tendering process so well, there was no need to write down
everything that happened. The Executive Secretary told the Tender Evaluation Committee that
everything relating to the procurement process must be recorded so that the District Council can      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
                                                                                                      Underline
clearly show the rest of the community that procurement decisions are made in an honest and           Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

open way.


Questions:
1. Who is correct – The Tender Evaluation Committee or the Executive Secretary? Why?
2. Which procurement principle do you think this scenario relates to? Why?


2.4.6 Role Play                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
                                                                                                      No bullets or numbering
    The facilitator divides the participants into three groups representing the CTB, an Evaluation
    Committee and an observer group and requests them to consider the Role play: Bosaso
    District. The first two groups should be given ten (10) minutes to prepare themselves. The
    actual role playing should last 10 minutes of discussion between the groups and five minutes
    for the Tender Committee to make decisions concerning the issue.


    The observer group should be given five minutes to comment on the performance of members
    of the first two groups.
    2.4.72.4.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 20 pt
    ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have left          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    in the session. If time is short you might only be able to ask one question, or present a very
    brief summary of the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their           Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:

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         1. What kind of procurement process would be needed for the rehabilitation of a health        Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
         clinic?
         2. Who are the members of the District Tender Committee?
         3. Which procurement principle refers to the need for standardised tender and contract
         documents?
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, Tab stops: 4.51", Left
Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Italic
1. A works procurement process is required for the construction work and possibly a goods
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
procurement process if new equipment is needed for the health clinic.                                  spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
        2. A District Tender Committee consists of the following (see 2.3 Procurement in               Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
Districts):                                                                                            Italic

     Chairperson, who shall be one of the heads of department or a person of similar standing         Formatted: No bullets or numbering

        and who shall be appointed by the Executive Secretary;                                         Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                       0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
     The Secretary shall be the Procurement Officer (head of the unit responsible for
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
        procurement), appointed by the Executive Secretary;                                            Italic
     Three other members who are heads of department or persons of similar standing within            Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
        the district, appointed by the Executive Secretary.                                            Italic
    Note that politicians (for example, District Councillors) must not be members of the District      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
    Tender Committee)                                                                                  Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
3. The procurement principle ‘transparency’ refers to the need for standardised tender and             Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
contract documents?
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Italic
    To help the participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session, the facilitator should
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
    then ask the participants the following questions.                                                 Comment [AKK1]: Would be good to include
                                                                                                       some direct questions to assess learning of the key
              What have you learnt from this session?                                                 issues of each session here; e.g. here would include
                                                                                                       one on the types of procurement, principles of
              Differentiate between centralized and decentralized organization of the procurement     procurement and of the roles and responsibilities
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
               function.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
              Identify two special problems in public procurement.                                    Comment [AKK2]: Could leave this one out
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
    2.4.8 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge they have
    gained, the facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
              How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
              What will you do differently when you return to your job?




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    2.4.9 Summary

    The facilitator should summariseFinish the session by summarising the main issues covered
    in the session.


    2.4.10 Evaluation

    The facilitator should then evaluate the training methods used in this session by asking the
    participants to comment on the methods used and to point out what needs to be
    improved/changed.


    2.4.112.4.7          Teaching Materials/Aids/References

              Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape
              The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
              The Participants’ Handbook




 EXERCISE ONE: GAROWE MUNICIPALITY
 The following procurement requirements were recently advertised by Garowe Municipality
 Tender Committee.
 1. Printing of Various Documents
 2. Building Materials and Hardwares
 3. Rehabilitation of primary school buildings
 4. Revenue collection from cattle markets
 5. Provision of canteen to municipality offices
 6. Periodic Maintenance of Roads
 7. Fuel and Lubricants
 8. Routine Maintenance of Roads
 9. Provision of Security Services
 10. Food, Wood, Detergents, Cleaning and Solar Panels to Municipal Hospital
 11. Medical Equipment to Hospitals and Health Centres
 12. School and Office Furniture



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 13. Stationery
 14. Computers and Accessories
 15. Vehicle Spare Parts and Tyres
 16. Deep Borehole Drilling
 17. Boreholes Rehabilitation
 18. Survey and siting of deep boreholes
 19. A Study to Establish New Sources of Revenue for the municipality
 20. Maintenance of Gardens and parks
 21. Uniform for District Hospital Staff
 22. Rehabilitation of District Government Buildings
 23. Computer Servicing
 24. Motor Vehicles, Generators, Bicycles and Motorcycles
 25. Running Staff Canteen
 Required:
 For each of the items listed above identify the type of procurement involved; works, goods or
 services.




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 ROLE PLAY: BOSASO DISTRICT
 The District Tender Committee recently received the report of an Evaluation Committee on the
 routine maintenance of the 50 km feeder road. The Tender Committee is not wholly satisfied
 with the recommendation of the Evaluation Committee to award the tender to “Tawfiq
 Construction Company”, a locally owned firm belonging to a prominent businessman in the
 District. In particular the Tender Committee has identified the following key issues:
 1. Tawfiq Construction Company was not the lowest bidder. The lowest bid was from
      Exactline Construction Ltd, an International Construction Co, but Tawfiq Construction
      Company has been carrying out this kind of work for a long time within the District.
 2. One of the unsuccessful bidders has alleged that, Tawfiq was favoured through giving bribes
      to the members of the evaluation committee.
 3. It has also been alleged that Tawfiq produced “shoddy” work on an earlier similar contract.


 The Tender Committee has decided to call the Evaluation Committee to answer the concerns of
 its members.


 Roles for Group One: Tender Committee
 You are the members of the District Tender Committee. Elect a Chairman and Secretary, and
 prepare yourself to quiz the Evaluation Committee members on your areas of concern (10
 minutes). Quiz the Evaluation Committee members (10 minutes) and then decide on the award
 (5 minutes). All members of the Tender Committee must effectively participate.


 Roles for Group Two: Evaluation Committee
 You are the Evaluation Committee members. Prepare yourself (with hypothetical data and
 relevant responses) in 10 minutes. After this you will be quizzed by the Tender Committee.
 Select a chairman to make the presentation to the Tender Committee assisted by the
 participation of all other members of the committee.


 Roles for Group Three
 You are the observers and your role is to observe the discussion (role play) and make comments


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 about the performance of the various members in the first two groups.




Note: This role play is intended to illustrate the roles of the Tender Committee and the      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"

Evaluation Committee.
    2.5 Session Two: Ethical and Integrity Issues in Procurement                              Formatted: Space After: 0 pt




                       DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION TWO

  No.                                  Activity                                   Time
                                                                                Allocation
   1.           Introduction and Session Objectives                                           Formatted: Heading 5, No bullets or
                                                                                              numbering
                   Introduce topic
                                                                                5 Minutes
                   The facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                              Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                              numbering
   2.     Methods
                   Brainstorming on key issues
                                                                                30 Minutes
                   Lecture filling in the gaps
                                                                                              Formatted: No bullets or numbering
   3.     Group Work
                   Activity 1.2 – Taking your ‘ethical temperature’.
                                                                                30 Minutes
                                                                                              Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                              numbering
   4.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                                                                                10 Minutes
                   Briefly summarise the key issues about ethics
                   Ask participants to share something that they have
                    learned in this session and how they could apply this new
                    knowledge to their work situation. .
                                                                                              Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                              numbering
                Total time:                                                     75 minutes
                                                                                              Formatted: Font: Bold
                                                                                              Formatted: No bullets or numbering
                                                                                              Formatted: Left




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    2.5.1 Introduction

    Briefly introduce the session topic.                                                            Formatted: Left

                                                                                                    Formatted: Body Text 2, Indent: Left: 0.25"

    2.5.2 Session Objectives

    To explain the major ethical issues in procurement and apply them. By the end of this session
    the participants should be able to:
              Define ethics and integrity;
              Explain the importance of ethics in public procurement;
              Perform procurement activities transparently;
              Understand the ethical code of conduct;
              Identify the major forms, reasons and measures for preventing corruption in the
               procurement system.


    2.5.3 Key Issues

    The main issues for discussion are:
              Definition of Ethics and Integrity;
              Transparency;
              The Code of Ethics;
              Corruption.


    2.5.4 Method                                                                                    Formatted: Space After: 0 pt, Line spacing:
                                                                                                    Multiple 1.15 li

         Questions for Discussion 2:                                                               Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
                                                                                                    No bullets or numbering

    Start by asking the following brainstorming questions, just to get an idea of participants’     Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                    bullets or numbering
    views about the meaning of these terms:
                                                                                                    Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
         What do you understand by the terms ethics and integrity?
                                                                                                    Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
         Why do you think those engaged in procurement should act ethically?
                                                                                                    Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                    bullets or numbering
       Follow by presenting the definitions of ethics and integrity given in the Participant Book
                                                                                                    Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
under the following heading:                                                                         No bullets or numbering
       3.2 Definitions and Purpose                                                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                    bullets or numbering
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic




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    2.5.5 Group Work

 Activity 1.2 – Taking your ‘ethical temperature’                                                     Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li




Things to keep in mind while conducting this activity:                                                 Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

    The aim of this activity is to encourage participants to reflect on their own personal views      Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                       Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" +
       on ethics and integrity and how these concepts relate to their lives.                           Indent at: 0.5", Tab stops: Not at 0.63"
    If participants understand the purpose of the exercise they will be more inclined to
       respond honestly, rather than see the exercise as a ‘test’. It is therefore important to
       emphasise that each person’s responses are for their eyes only. Participants are welcome        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
                                                                                                       Italic
       to share their responses but are not required to and so they should feel free to respond
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
       honestly.
    Explain that there are no right or wrong answers in this exercise. The purpose is to
       explore and question our own views.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

1. Ask participants to read the statements in Activity Sheet 2 and put an X on the continuum to        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
   indicate where they feel they are for each.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
2. Explain to participants that they should be honest when they are answering. It is not a test and
   they do not have to share their answers if they don’t want to.

3. Give participants about 10-15 minutes for this exercise. When everyone has finished, ask the
   following questions:
        How did you find the exercise?
        What was easy/difficult about it?
        What effect (if any) has it had on you?
        Why should we consider these kinds of statements?
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 11 pt
4. If participants want to share some of their answers, encourage them but do not pressure them        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
   to do so. You may find that a few people want to compare their answers and if so, have a
   discussion about why people put themselves at different places on the continuum.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                       Multiple 1.15 li
5. Then discuss how the different statements relate to aspects of ethics and integrity. For
                                                                                                       Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
   example:

Statement 1 – This statement illustrates the dilemma that many people face in their working lives.     Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
Often it can be easier to get things done by ‘bending the rules’ a little, or not strictly following
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
procedures. But when does this kind of action cross the line from being efficient and getting the      12 pt
job done, to becoming unethical because proper procedures are not being followed?


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Statement 2 – People will often say that corruption is systemic, that is, paying and accepting      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                    12 pt
bribes and favours is an integral part of how society functions and it is the only way to get
business done. Sometimes it can feel as though the whole world is corrupt and that there is no
purpose in operating in an honest way. The question to ask is ‘who are the people who have most
to gain from behaving in a corrupt way?’ Operating in a corrupt way usually benefits those who
are already powerful and they are probably not inclined to change the status quo, while those
people who benefit least usually have less influence, but they are the ones who would like things
to change.
                                                                                                    Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Statement 3 – Some people feel that they must supplement their income with bribes or gifts,         Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                    12 pt, Italic
because their wage is so low. The problem with this approach is that the wider community
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
suffers, because public money is not being spent in the best possible way.                          12 pt


Statement 4 – This can be a very powerful argument. People often feel that a problem such as        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                    12 pt, Italic
corruption is too big to overcome and therefore they might as well join in and reap the benefits
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
themselves. Again, the problem is that if everyone is engaging in corrupt practices and using       12 pt
public resources for personal gain, the development of the district will always be held back        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                    12 pt
because people are only concerned about what they can get for themselves.

Statement 5 – This can be a problem for people who want to make a stand against behaviour that      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                    12 pt, Italic
they believe is unethical, but feel powerless or scared to try and make change. However, when
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
one person does make a stand, they often find that others will support them and their views.        12 pt
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
Statement 6 – This argument is often used as an excuse for unethical behavior, but it is a          12 pt

misleading one. All of us as humans are never too poor to act in an ethical way towards our         Formatted: Font: 11 pt
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
fellow humans, and this idea is the basis of much religious teaching around the world.              12 pt, Italic
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
Follow on from Activity 1.2 by discussing the information presented in the Participant Book         12 pt
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
under the following headings:                                                                       12 pt

3.3 Transparency and integrity                                                                      Formatted: Left
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
3.4 Procurement ethics
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
3.5 Examples of unethical conduct                                                                   Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
3.6 Corruption
                                                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic




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    2.5.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                     Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have         numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you may need to present only a very brief summary of the
    key points and move on to the next session.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"

    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. What are some examples of corrupt behaviour?                                               Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"

       2. Can a member of a District Tender Committee also be a contractor to the district?
       3. Can you give an example of unethical conduct with regard to procurement?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
1. Embezzlement, nepotism, over-invoicing, claiming payments for no goods/services supplied          Formatted: Font: Italic

and taking bribes, bid rigging, split purchasing (see 3.6 Corruption)
2. No, this would be an example of ‘conflict of interest’, as the Tender Committee member is in a    Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
position where he or she stands to gain personally from a position of public office. A member of     Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
the Tender Committee has the power to award contracts, so he/she should not be in a position         Formatted: Font: 12 pt
where it would be possible to award a contract to him/herself.                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
3. Choose from dot point list in 3.5 Examples of Unethical Conduct.                                  Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Underline
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt
    Ask the participants to share what they have learnt in this session and how they might be able   Formatted: Font: Bold
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
    to apply it to their work situation.


    To finish, summarise the key issues of the session.                                              Formatted: English (Australia)




    2.5.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References

              Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape, projector
              The Code of Conduct for Government Employees/Local Government Staff
              The Participant’s Handbook




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    2.52.6     Session TwoThree:     The Procurement Cycle and Planning                         Formatted: English (Australia)
                                                                                                Formatted: English (Australia)



                   DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION TWOTHREE

       No.                               Activity                               Time
                                                                              Allocation

        1.
               Introduction and Session Objectives
                  Energizer – Short exercise                              10 Minutes
                  Mention Introduce the topic for this session
                  Present the session objectives

        2.     Session Objectives
                  The facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                           5 Minutes
       23.     Methods
                Brainstorming on the key issues of the session
                                                                           305 Minutes
                Lecture
                                                                                               Formatted: No bullets or numbering
       34.     Group Work
                  Activity 1.3 – Develop procurement plan Exercise
                                                                           420 Minutes
                   Two: Identification of Procurement needs
                                                                                               Formatted: No bullets or numbering
       45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                                                                           105 Minutes
                  Summarise the kKey issues about procurement                                  Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                0" + Indent at: 0.25"
                   planning and the procurement cycle
                  Ask participants to share something that they have
                   learned in this session and how they could apply this
                   new knowledge to their work situation.
                                                                                               Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                numbering

               Total time                                                  90 minutes           Formatted: Font: Bold

        6.     Application
               Questions about the relevance of the information to each
               participant’s job and responsibility:
                How can you apply the information that you have
                   acquired?                                               5 Minutes
                What will you do differently when you return to your
                   job?


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        7.     Summary
                                                                            5 Minutes
                Summarise the main issues
        8.     Evaluation
                                                                            5 Minutes
                  Discuss with the participants the success or otherwise
                   of the training methods used in the session




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    2.5.12.6.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts by welcoming the participants back from the previous session.
    Thereafter, a short exercise (oral) to make the participants lively is administered, followed by
    a recap on the previous session. The facilitator then introduces the topic for this session.


    2.5.22.6.2 Session objectives

    To identify the various stages of procurement and draw up good procurement plans. By the
    end of the session the participants should be able to:
              Explain the key components of the procurement cycle;
              Identify procurement needs;
              Understand procurement planning;
              Prepare procurement plans.


    2.5.32.6.3 Key Issues

    The main issues to be discussed and explained are:
              Components of the procurement cycle;
              Identification of procurement needs;
              Forecasting and budgeting procurement requirements;
              Preparation of the procurement plan.


    2.5.42.6.4 Methods

         Questions for Discussion 3:                                                                  Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
                                                                                                       numbering
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
    The facilitator startsStart by asking the participants the following questions
                  1. Do you have procurement plans in your district?          If yes, wWhat are the   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                       numbering
               contentsdoes it contain?
                  2. Why would is it be necessary to plan for your procurement requirements?
                  3. How can one What information do we need in order to accurately forecast
               his/herour procurement requirements?



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Key ideas to draw out:                                                                               Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                                     Formatted: Left
    Question 1: The aim of this question is to give participants an opportunity to share
    information about their current practice. You may find that some districts do not use
    procurement plans, in such cases, ask participants what sort of things they think should go
    into a procurement plan. This will lead into Question 2.
    Question 2: The purpose of this question is to identify the importance of knowing in advance     Formatted: Font: Italic

    what a district will require in terms of procurement for the coming year so that the necessary
    budget preparations can be made.
    Question 3: This question is just to get an idea of participants understanding of how            Formatted: Font: Italic

    procurement fits into the rest of the planning and budgeting process. For example, in order to
    develop a procurement plan it will be necessary to have information such as the annual work
    plan and budget.



 Refer participants to 4.3 Procurement Planning in their Participant Book for further               Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
information about these questions.


    The facilitator then goes to give a lecture by filling in gaps and explaining the key issues.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
4.2 The procurement cycle                                                                            Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

4.3 Procurement planning
4.4 Forecasting and budgeting procurement requirements                                               Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

4.5 An annual procurement plan
4.6 The budget preparation process
4.7 Tender Committee actions
4.8 Procurement Unit actions
4.9 Heads of Departments actions
4.10 Procurement plan format – have suggested that the procurement plan in the participant           Formatted: Left

book be filled in with a few examples so that participants will understand what a completed
procurement plan should look like. Some input needed here.                                           Comment [AKK3]: Ilias please assist here
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic


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    2.5.52.6.5 Group Work

    The facilitator divides the participants in three or four groups and requests them to consider
    Exercise Two: Identification of Procurement Needs (Obtain a copy of the district plan, use
    part of the plan e.g. a plan of one department and ask the groups to use it to identify the
    procurement needs for that department). Each group should identify a presenter to make a
    presentation to a plenary.

 Activity 1.3 – Develop procurement plan
 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 3 at the end of their Participant Book for              Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt

this activity.                                                                                              Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                            Formatted: No bullets or numbering
       1. The first step is to guide participants through the example procurement plan in 4.10              Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
Procurement Plan in their Participant Book. The example plan has been filled in with details                12 pt

about some fictional projects for which a procurement process is needed.                                    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt, Not Bold, Not Italic
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
        2. Allow some time for participants to read through the example procurement plan in their           12 pt
Participant Book and check anything that is unclear.
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt, Highlight
       3. Go through the example with participants and make sure they understand the                        Comment [AKK4]: Yes should be possible –
information that is in the plan,                                                                            leave it in
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
       4. Then explain that we will now practice filling in a procurement plan for our district.            12 pt, Highlight

Each district should have a copy of its annual work plan with them at the training (this needs to           Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt
be provided for participants, is this possible? ).
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt, Bold, Italic
       5. Divide participants into groups according to their districts. Each group should have
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Italic
about 4 or 5 members. There may need to be more than 1 group per district.
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt
        6. Ask participants to look at their plan and try to fill in the details in the plan for 2 of the   Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
projects that appear in their district’s annual work plan.                                                  12 pt
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
      7. Participants will need to use Activity Sheet 3 at the end of their Participant Book to             12 pt
complete the activity.                                                                                      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: 22 pt, Bold
               !
        8. One important hint for participants is that it is helpful to work backwards from the             Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
proposed date of delivery/implementation, because there are certain minimum timeframes that                 12 pt

apply in the procurement process (for example, advertising period).                                         Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                            12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
        9. Where there is no minimum period specified for stages in the bidding process,                    12 pt
participants will have to estimate what is a reasonable time period between steps. For example,
                                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
allow 2 or 3 weeks between the date of bid opening and contract signing.                                    12 pt

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       10. Participants will need to be guided as to where to find relevant information to help   Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                  12 pt
them complete the table, for example:

                                                                                                  Formatted: Normal, Left, Indent: Left: 0",
                                                                                                  Line spacing: single




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                         Trainers’ Handbook: Local Government Procurement                               Formatted: Border: Bottom: (No border)
                                                                                                        Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial, 11 pt
    Column heading in plan         Where is this information located in the Participant Book?
    Procurement Method             Unit 1, Session 4, 5.2 Procurement Methods – this will help          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

                                   participants identify which procurement method is most               Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

                                   appropriate for the project.

    Invitation to bid              Unit 2, Session 3, 9.7.4 Tender Period – participants need to        Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

                                   know the minimum number of days for advertisement of                 Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

                                   tenders to help them set dates in their procurement plan.



11. You will also need to circulate while this activity is going on, to ensure that participants        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                        12 pt
understand what is required of them and are filling in their plans correctly.

12. To finish, invite groups to report back on 1 of the projects they have included in their plan.

    2.5.62.6.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                        Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have            numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you may only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. What document is needed to assist with the development of a district’s procurement            Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"

       plan for the year?
       2. When should the preparation of a district’s procurement plan take place?
       3. Who has the task of compiling the district’s procurement plan?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
1. The district’s Annual Work Plan and Budget
2. Preparation of the Annual Procurement Plan should be commenced at least three months                 Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Line spacing:
                                                                                                        single
before the start of the financial year to allow sufficient time for a realistic and accurately costed
plan to be compiled. (see 4.6 The budget preparation process).                                          Formatted: Font: Italic

3. The Procurement Unit, who must send it to the Tender Committee for review and approval.              Formatted: Font: Italic
(see 4.8 Procurement Unit actions)
                                                                                                        Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                        spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
The facilitator should now ask the participants what they have learnt concerning the procurement
                                                                                                        Formatted: Font: Italic
cycle and planning.                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 16 pt
                                                                                                        Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Line spacing:
                                                                                                        single

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    2.5.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
              How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
              What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    2.5.8 Summary

    The facilitator shouldTo finish, summarise the key issues of the session.


    2.5.9 Evaluation

    The facilitator should then evaluate the training methods used in this session by asking the
    participants to comment on the methods used and to point out what needs to be
    improved/changed.


    2.5.102.6.7          Teaching Materials Aids/References

              Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape
              The Participants’ Handbook
              The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
              A copy of the district Annual Work Plan                                             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

                                                                                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"




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      2.62.7     Session FourThree: Procurement Methods                                              Formatted: Space After: 0 pt




                 DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION THREEFOUR

  No.                                 Activity                                  Time
                                                                              Allocation

 1.
          Introduction and Session Objectives
              Introduce the session topic                                     5 Minutes             Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Bulleted + Level:
                                                                                                     1 + Aligned at: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
              Present the session objectives
                  Energizer - Exercise                                                              Formatted: No bullets or numbering


 2.       Session Objectives
                     The facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                               5 Minutes
 23.      Methods
              Brainstorm question                                                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
                                                                              305 Minutes
              The facilitator gives a lecture on key issues linked to the
               session

 34.      General DiscussionGroup Work
              The whole class discusses the various methods of                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
                                                                             25 30 Minutes
               procurement used, facilitated by the trainer.Activity 1.4 –
               Procurement Methods

 45.      Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                                                                              105 Minutes
              Summarise the kKey issues about the different methods                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Bulleted + Level:
                                                                                                     1 + Aligned at: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
               of procurement and selection methods for consultants
              Ask participants to share something that they have                                    Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
               learned in this session and how they could apply this new
               knowledge to their work situation.

          Total time:                                                         75 minutes             Formatted: Font: Bold

 6.       Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have
                      acquired?                                               10 Minutes
                   What will you do differently when you return to

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                    your job?
 7.       Summary
                                                                           5 Minutes
                   Summarise the main issues




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    2.6.12.7.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts with the short exercise then recaps on previous session and mentions the
    topic for this session.


    2.6.22.7.2 Session Objectives

    To enable the participants to understand the different methods of procurement of goods, non
    consultancy services and works; and selection methods for consultancy services so as to be
    able to apply the relevant method for each particular situation. By the end of the session, the
    participants should be able to:
              Identify the main influences on the procurement method used;
              Understand the various procurement methods;
              Understand the selection methods for employment of consultants;
              Apply the relevant procurement method for each procurement situation.


    2.6.32.7.3 Key Issues

    The main issues to be discussed and explained are:
              Influences on the choice of a procurement method;
              Requirements of the Local Government Procurement Guidelines;
              Procurement methods to be used by Local Government;


    2.6.42.7.4 Method

Start with the following discussion question as an experience sharing opportunity for participants
to get an idea of the procurement methods used in other districts and why some procurement
methods might be used more than others.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt

Questions for Discussion 4:                                                                          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

    Discuss this question in pairs and then feedback to the group.

        What is the main type of procurement usually conducted in your district and what are the
         reasons for using this method?
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 14 pt




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    The facilitator should give a detailed lecture of the various methods of procurement to be
    used in Local Government.
                                                                                                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
5.2 Procurement Methods
5.3 Methods of selection and employment of consultants
5.4 Procurement under public-private partnership (PPP)
5.5 Community participation in procurement


    2.6.52.7.5 General DiscussionGroup Work

    The facilitator should then conduct a general discussion for the whole class centred on the
    procurement methods which are used in the individual Local Government from where the
    participants come. As a guide the facilitator should request the participants to consider the         Comment [AKK5]: Rebecca we will refine this
                                                                                                          further later on. Ilias please review/refine this -
    methods used for procuring the following works, goods and services.                                   guideline is silent on the thresholds for the different
                                                                                                          types of procurement - think it needs to be defined
              Revenue collection from markets, taxis, etc                                                Formatted: Not Highlight

              Construction work in general                                                               Formatted: Not Highlight
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: 11 pt
              Water supply construction
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold
              Periodic and Routine Road Maintenance                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold

              Printing Works                                                                             Formatted: Font: Bold
                                                                                                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
              Materials to Hospitals
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: 14 pt

    Participants should be given an opportunity to comment on the methods used by the various             Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
    Local Governments as described by the different participants.                                         12 pt
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                          12 pt, Not Bold
Input required: please review and adjust anything that is not realistic for the Somali context.           Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                          12 pt, Italic
 Activity 1.4 – Procurement Methods                                                                      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                          12 pt, Bold, Italic
This activity is designed to give participants some familiarity with the different procurement            Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
methods that are available and the circumstances in which different methods are appropriate.              Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" + Tab
                                                                                                          after: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
        Ask participants to study the information about the different procurement methods in 5.2         12 pt

         – Procurement Methods in their Participant Book.                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Line spacing:
                                                                                                          Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
        In groups of 3, participants should discuss and try to answer the questions that follow:         Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" + Tab
                                                                                                          after: 0.5" + Indent at: 0.5"

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                                                                                                       Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

1. A project is approved for a primary school rehabilitation project in Sandy District. The
estimated cost is 200,000,000Ssh.

Which procurement method would you recommend? Why?
Answer: National Competitive Bidding can be used, because the project is within the threshold          Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
amount (need to check whether this project is within the threshold amount) and it is not expected
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
that foreign contractors would be interested in bidding for this project.                              12 pt, Italic, Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
2. Seaside District wants to conduct a tendering process for a road construction project, estimated
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
to cost around USD 50,000, with payment made in USD. It wants to attract a wide range of               12 pt
contractors and believes that the project is unlikely to attract sufficient local competition due to
its large scope.

Which procurement method is best suited to this project? Why?
Answer: International Competitive Bidding, because this is an appropriate bidding method to            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
attract a wider range of competitors and because the project is of a large scope, it is anticipated
that there would be inadequate local competition.                                                      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
3. Friendly District conducted an open competitive tendering process for the supply of some            12 pt, Not Highlight
school and office furniture. The process failed to bring an award of contract, so the Procurement      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
Unit has decided that another procurement method is needed.

Which procurement method can now be used? Why?
Answer: Restricted Bidding can be used, because an open competitive process has failed to bring        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
about the award of a contract.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
4. A flash flood in the west of Somaliland resulted in the collapse of a bridge, which is part of a    Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Not Highlight
main highway linking outlying towns to the main market centre in the district. The District
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
Council has an urgent need for procurement of works in order to repair the bridge as soon as           12 pt
possible.

Which procurement method can be used in such a situation? Why?
Answer: A method such as single source/direct contracting can be used in such a situation of           Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
extreme urgency. (pls confirm whether this is the type of urgent situation in which it is ok to use
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
direct contracting)                                                                                    12 pt, Italic, Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic, Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt, Italic


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    2.6.62.7.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                     Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have         numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you may only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. Can you identify 2 systems often used in the procurement of consultancy services?          Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"

       2. A community based organisation has been delegated the responsibility for the
       implementation of a project. Can you identify who is responsible for what, in terms of the
       procurement process?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
1. The use of merit-point evaluation systems and two-envelope bidding procedures are routine         Formatted: Font: Italic

features in the procurement and selection of consultants (see 5.3 Methods of Selection and           Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
Employment of Consultants).
2. Where a community has been delegated to undertake the implementation of a project, the            Formatted: Font: 12 pt

beneficiary community shall be responsible for the procurement activities under the project          Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic

component. The project authorities shall have the responsibility to provide the necessary training   Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

and simple standardized documents to the community to enable it carry out the procurement
function in a manner acceptable to the MOILG. Further, the district shall include in the bidding
documents provisions on how to monitor compliance with the requirements and sanctions for non
compliance. (see 5.5 Community Participation in Procurement).                                        Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic

The facilitator should ask the participants what they have learnt concerning the various methods     Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
that can be used to procure Local Government requirements.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Not Bold

    2.6.7 Application                                                                                Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li


    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
              How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
              What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    2.6.8 Summary

    The facilitator shouldTo finish, summarise the key issues of the session.




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    2.6.92.7.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References

              Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape
              The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
              The District Planning and Budgeting Guidelines
              The Participant’s Handbook




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    3 MODULE UNIT TWO: PROCUREMENT OF GOODS,
      SERVICES AND WORKS
    3.1 Introduction to Module Unit Two

    This module deals with the activities and processes undertaken in order to procure goods,
    services and works. It includes how to analyse markets and produce a list of suppliers and
    contractors, how to write specifications, what bidding involves, evaluation of bids and
    selection, orders and contracts and negotiation.


    3.2 Aim of Module Unit Two

    To equip the participants with the necessary skills and knowledge to be able to procure goods,
    services and works in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations.


    3.3 Objectives of Module Unit Two

    By the end of this moduleUnit, the participants should be able to:
              Understand market analysis;
              Understand and explain specifications;
              Understand and explain tender evaluation process;
              Explain procurement standards;
              Understand negotiation.




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    3.4 Session One: Supply Market Analysis




                        DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION ONE

  No.                                  Activity                                Time
                                                                             Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                  Self introductions
                                                                                            Formatted: Left
                  ExpectationsIntroduce topic for the session
                                                                              5 Minutes
                  Presentation and discussion of objectives
                                                                                           Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                            numbering
   2.     Session Objectives
                    Presentation and discussion of objectives
                                                                              5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                    Questions for discussion
                                                                             340 Minutes
                    Lecture on supply market analysis

  34.     Group Exercise
                    Exercise Four: Your Current Supplier Appraisal
                                                                             325 Minutes
                     ProcessActivity 2.1 – Supplier/Contractor Appraisal

  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                                                                             105 Minutes
                    Summarise the kKey issues about market analysis
                    Ask participants to share something that they have                     Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                            0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
                     learned in this session and how they could apply this
                     new knowledge to their work situation. .

   6.     Application

          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have           5 Minutes
                      acquired?
                   What will you do differently when you return to your
                      job?
   7.     Total Time:                                                        80 minutes     Formatted: Font: Bold
          Summary                                                            5 Minutes      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold
                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Bold
                    Summarise the main issues


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    3.4.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts by welcoming the participants back from the previous session.
    Thereafter, a short exercise (oral) to make the participants lively is administered, followed by
    a recap on the previous session. The facilitator then introduces the topic for this session.


    3.4.2 Session Objectives

    To identify good sources of supply and maintain the required lists of suppliers and
    contractors. By the end of the session, participants should be able to:
        Define a market;
        Describe the benefits of undertaking a market analysis;
        Identify sources of market information;
        Compile and maintain a list of approved suppliers and contractors.


    3.4.3 Key Issues

    The main issues to discuss are:
        Meaning of a Market and Market Analysis;
        Sources of Market information;
        Market Research;
        Supplier appraisal;
        Relationships with suppliers;
        Rating suppliers;
        The approved list of suppliers/contractors.


    3.4.4 Methods

Firstly, draw participants’ attention to 7.4 Reasons for Market Analysis in their Participant Book.    Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

The information here explains that it is important to conduct a market analysis to generate a list     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

of suppliers/contractors that the District believes is suitable for the award of contracts.



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Then lead into the discussion questions below.


Questions for Discussion 5:                                                                              Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
    Discuss this question in 3s and then feedback to the group.

    1. Why do you think it is important to generate a list of suitable suppliers/contractors for          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                          Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
       District projects?                                                                                 3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
    2. Which procurement principles are relevant here?                                                    at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Key ideas to draw out:
                                                                                                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
   Question 1: The aim of this question is to get an idea of participants’ ideas about the
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Italic
   importance of having a list of suitable suppliers/contractors to work with. Some of these
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
   reasons include:
    Ensuring that any suppliers/contractors that the district uses will meet a minimum                   Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                          Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" +
       standard of quality and reliability.                                                               Indent at: 0.5"
    Sharing information with other LGAs on which suppliers/contractors are good quality.
    Ensuring that the district always has up to date information about which
       suppliers/contractors can be used for district projects.
    To avoid problems of suppliers/contractors who are likely to leave a job unfinished or
       even engage in corrupt practices such as embezzlement.
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                          spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    Question 2: The purpose of this question is to help participants link the procurement
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Italic
    principles to real life situations. In this case, having a list of suppliers/contractors relates to
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    the following principles:
     transparency, because there is a clear set of criteria, that suppliers/contractors must meet        Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                          Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" +
        in order to be considered for district contracts.                                                 Indent at: 0.5"
     accountability, because it is the job of the District Tender Committee to maintain the list
        and remove defunct suppliers/contractors where required. If a contract goes to someone
        who is not on the list, then the tender committee can be held accountable for this.
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold

    The facilitator gives a lecture defining a market, and explaining why it is necessary to carry
    out a market analysis. He takes participants through the sources of market information, where
    to buy, the process of supplier appraisal, possible relationships with suppliers, and the basic
    mode for assessing suppliers, the process of weighing the capability criteria, rating suppliers’
    capabilities, and combining capability and motivation.




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                                                                                                       Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
7.4 Reasons for market analysis                                                                        Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

7.5 Sources of market information                                                                      Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

7.6 The process of supplier appraisal                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

7.7 List of approved suppliers and contractors                                                         Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

7.8 Categories of registration                                                                         Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

7.9 Supplier performance monitoring                                                                    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal
    3.4.5 Group Exercise                                                                               Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
    The facilitator divides the class into four or five groups and requests each group to go through   12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 14 pt
    Exercises four. Each group selects a representative to make a presentation to the plenary.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal

 Activity 2.1 –Supplier/Contractor Appraisal                                                          Formatted: Normal, Numbered + Level: 1 +
                                                                                                       Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
                                                                                                       Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0" + Indent at:
                                                                                                       0.25"
This activity gives participants an opportunity to review their current process of generating and
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Indent: Left: 0.5"
maintaining their list of approved suppliers and contractors for district projects.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Line spacing: single,
                                                                                                       Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
It aims to help participants identify any gaps in their current practice and areas for improvement.    3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
                                                                                                       at: 0" + Indent at: 0.25"


 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 4 at the end of their Participant Book for         Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: single

this activity.                                                                                         Formatted: Left, Line spacing: single,
                                                                                                       Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
                                                                                                       3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
1. Ask participants to work in their district groups (with approximately 4 or 5 people per group).     at: 0" + Indent at: 0.25"
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: single
2. Ask participants to look at the checklist in Activity Sheet 4 at the end of their Participant
   Book.                                                                                               Formatted: Left, Line spacing: single,
                                                                                                       Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
                                                                                                       3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
3. Each group should go through each item in the checklist and see how it applies to current           at: 0" + Indent at: 0.25"
   practices in their district.                                                                        Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: single

4. Where a group answers ‘NO’ to any of the items in the checklist, groups should try to identify      Formatted: Left, Line spacing: single,
                                                                                                       Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
   some areas for improvement. There are some examples given in the checklist to help with             3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
   generating ideas.                                                                                   at: 0" + Indent at: 0.25"
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: single
5. Give groups about 15 minutes to work on their checklist. When they have finished, ask each
   group to report back briefly in plenary.                                                            Formatted: Left, Line spacing: single,
                                                                                                       Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
                                                                                                       3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
6. Finish by explaining that it will be helpful for participants to put these ideas into practice      at: 0" + Indent at: 0.25"
   when conducting this process for real back in their district.                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.25", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: single

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    3.4.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                         Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have             numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. What are some possible sources for gathering market information?                               Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"

       2. Who is responsible for developing the list of approved suppliers and contractors?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
        1. Information about the possible sources of supply include the press, trade catalogues,         Formatted: Font: Italic

trade statistics from bodies such as the Chamber of Commerce, information from the data bank             Formatted: Body Text 2, Line spacing:
                                                                                                         Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets or numbering
of the MOILG, information from other districts, information within the district own records
concerning earlier procurements. (see 7.5 Sources of Market Information)
2. This is the responsibility of the Procurement Unit, while it is the responsibility of the Executive
Secretary to maintain it and the Tender Committee to review it annually.
    The facilitator asks the participants what they have learnt from the session.


    3.4.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
        How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
        What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    3.4.8 Summary

    The facilitator shouldTo finish, summarise the key issues of the session.


    3.4.93.4.7 Teaching Materials Aids/References

        Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape
        The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
        The Participant’s Handbook

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EXERCISE FOUR: YOUR CURRENT SUPPLIER APPRAISAL PROCESS

List the steps your Local Government currently (or one that you know well) follows in
appraising its suppliers, highlighting any differences with those steps you have learnt.
Briefly state the reasons for these differences, and whether you think they should be
maintained.

   Steps in your current process




   Differences with the steps outlined, and if these will be maintained.
                                                                                               Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                               0" + Tab after: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.25"




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    3.5 Session Two: Specifications



                          DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION TWO

    No.                                     Activity                                   Time
                                                                                     Allocation
     1.        Introduction and Session Objectives
                         Introduce the session topic
                         Comments on running of the course
                                                                                    105 Minutes
                         Present session objectives                                               Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                   0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
                           Participants expectations
                                                                                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                   numbering
     2.        Session Objectives
                                                                                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75"
                  Facilitator presents the objectives
                                                                                     5 Minutes
    23.        Methods
                         Facilitator explains to the participants the importance
                                                                                    340 Minutes
                          of specifications, the different types of product
                          specifications, their advantages and disadvantages,
                          and how to develop specifications.

    34.        Group Exercise
                        Activity 2.2: Technical specifications                                    Formatted: Not Highlight
                                                                                    3025 Minutes
                          Exercise Five: Delivery Arrangements                                    Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
    45.        Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary                                             numbering


                         Summarise the kKey issues about the need for the
                                                                                    105 Minutes
                          development of specifications, checklist for
                          specifications
                         Ask participants to share something that they have                       Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                   0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
                          learned in this session and how they could apply this
                          new knowledge to their work situation. .
                                                                                                  Formatted: No bullets or numbering
               Total time:                                                          80 minutes     Formatted: Font: Bold

     6.        Application
               Questions about the relevance of the information to each
               participant’s job and responsibility:
                        How can you apply the information that you have
                           acquired?                                                 5 Minutes
                        What will you do differently when you return to your
                           job?


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     7.        Summary
                                                                             5 Minutes
                        Summarise the main issues




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    3.5.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts by asking the participants to stand and stretch themselves. The
    participants then air out their views on the conduct of the course so far. The facilitator then
    introduces the topic for this session.


    3.5.2 Session Objectives

    To learn how to write good specifications. By the end of the session, the participants will be
    able to:
        Explain the meaning of specifications;
        Describe the different types of product specifications ;
        Describe the concept of standardization and its benefits;
        Identify what to include in a procurement specification.


    3.5.3 Key Issues

    The main issues for discussion are:
        Definition of a specification ;
        Issues addressed by specifications;
        What can be specified;
        Types of specifications;
        Standards;
        Development of specifications;
        Bid documents.


    3.5.4 Method

Present the information in 8.2 Introduction, then take 5-10 minutes to allow for experience           Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

sharing with participants, as follows:
                                                                                                      Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Questions for Discussion 6:
Share your experience with the rest of the group



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   Can you recall any instances of a district project where proper specifications
    (goods/works/services) were not determined? What was the reason for this and what was the
    outcome?

Key ideas to draw out:                                                                                   Formatted: Font: Italic

 One of the main purposes for experience sharing is for districts to benefit from each others’          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

   experience and to learn from each others’ mistakes and successes.
                                                                                                         Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                         Multiple 1.15 li
The facilitatorThen move on to gives a lecture clearly explaining what a specification is, the
                                                                                                         Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
different types of product specifications, giving examples of the type of specification for a            spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
particular product, how a specifications checklist is developed, and what other relevant
information should be included among specifications.
                                                                                                         Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                         Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:                                                                                                 Formatted: Font: Not Bold

8.3 Types of Specifications                                                                              Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

8.4 Standards                                                                                            Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red

8.5 Checklist for Specifications                                                                         Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red

8.6 Specification of requirements                                                                        Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red

8.7 Qualify                                                                                              Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red
                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red
8.8 Approval of Specifications
                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red
Example Bill of Quantities and Technical Drawing for Community Centre
                                                                                                         Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Red


    3.5.5 Group Exercise

 Activity 2.2 – Technical Specifications
The aim of this activity is to familiarise participants with a set of technical specifications, in the   Formatted: Not Highlight

form of a Bill of Quantities and technical drawing for a typical district project.                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                         spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Participants will be asked to look at the Bill of Quantities and work in pairs to answer 3 simple
questions.
                                                                                                         Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

1. Ask participants to work in pairs and ask them to refer to Activity Sheet 5 – Technical               Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic, Not Highlight

Specifications at the end of their Participant Book. They should already be familiar with the            Formatted: Not Highlight

example given in the main section of their Participant Book.

2. In their pairs, participants should identify the 3 questions they need to answer about the Bill of
Quantities.

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3. Explain that the information they need to help them answer their questions can be found in the
Bill of Quantities itself.

4. Give pairs about 10 minutes to answer their questions, which they can record in their
Participant Book. Circulate during this time to ensure that participants are clear on what they are
expected to do.

5. Then discuss the answers as a whole group, as given below.

Answers:                                                                                              Formatted: Font: Italic

Question 1: Can you fill in these dimensions? Answer:……22 x 18………………………                               Formatted: Font: Italic, Not Highlight
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
These dimensions refer to the clearing of the site as per item no 1.1. The description of works
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
identifies the area to be cleared as 22m x 18m.                                                       Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                      Formatted: Line spacing: 1.5 lines
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Not Bold
Question 2. What should be the total cost of this item? Answer:……$780…..
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
The total cost is found by multiplying the unit cost by the quantity, in this case it is 260 x 3.     Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
3. What unit should be used here? Answer:……Pcs…..
The unit used for the quantity of windows (item no. 5.12) is the same that is used for the quantity
of doors (item no 5.11), this being ‘Pieces’, abbreviated as Pcs.
    The facilitator divides the class into three or four groups and asks them to go through
    Exercise Five. Each group should nominate one member to report back to the plenary on their
    assignment.


    The expected responses may vary from group to group but may include:
    Goods
     The precise delivery point – full physical address.
        The contact person at the delivery address, and his/her telephone number.
        Times when deliveries cannot be accepted.
        Restrictions on the size and weight of delivery vehicles that can be accommodated at
         the place of delivery.
        Restrictions on the size and weight of packages that can be accommodated.


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    Services

    Many of these must be performed at the purchaser’s own premises, such as catering,
    security, training and computer maintenance. In this case, a number of aspects need to be
    incorporated into the specification that may be unnecessary in a product specification.


    These can include:
        Access to premises, including security requirements;
        Provision of facilities for the supplier’s personnel;
        Supervision requirements;
        Confidentiality requirements.


    3.5.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have          numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. What information should specifications generally contain?                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5"

       2. What things should the Terms of Reference for a consultancy include?
       3. Who is responsible for approving specifications?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
       1. Specifications should contain the following: what exactly is required (in terms of          Formatted: Font: Italic

   quality, type, size, performance.), how much is required, delivery schedules, transportation,      Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Indent: Left:
                                                                                                      0.25", Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets
   inspection and testing, any other relevant information e.g. packaging/labeling. (see 8.2           or numbering
   Introduction)
       2. Terms of Reference for a consultancy should include the following - describe the            Formatted: Font: Italic

   background to the assignment, state the objectives of the assignment including scope,
   duration, duties, input days where required, detail the required outputs, set time periods for
   deliverables, specify what will be provided by the district. (see 8.6.1 Terms of Reference for
   Consultancy Service)

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    3. The District Tender Committee (see 8.8 Approval of Specifications)                               Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    To get a feel of what the participants have learnt, the facilitator then asks the following         Formatted: Font: Italic

    questions based on what has been covered:
        What are specifications?
        List the different types of product specifications.
        Describe what a brand name is and give examples.
        What are the limitations of technical specifications?
        What are the major clauses in a specification document?
        Who participates in the specifications process?


    3.5.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
        How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
        What will you do differently when you return to your job/organization?


    This can be done at either the individual or group level, depending on the origin of the
    participants. Participants coming from the same Local Government department can be
    grouped together to make a combined action plan specifying the responsibility centres and
    target dates. The action plan can also be phased into what will be put into practice in the short
    term, the medium term and the long term.


    3.5.8 Summary

    The facilitator should re-cap the process andTo finish, summarise the content covered during
    the session.


    3.5.93.5.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

        Flip charts/boards, Markers/chalk
        The Local Governments Procurement Guidelines
        The Participant’s Handbook

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    3.6 Session Three:     The Tendering (Bidding) Process

    3.6                                                                                          Formatted: Heading 2, Space After: 12 pt,
                                                                                                 Line spacing: single, Outline numbered + Level:
                                                                                                 2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
                                                                                                 Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent
                                                                                                 at: 0.5"
                    DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION THREE

  No.                               Activity                                  Time
                                                                            Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                    Energizer – True or FalseIntroduce session
                     topic
                                                                            10 Minutes
                    Facilitator presents the session
                     objectivesParticipants expectations

   2.     Session Objectives
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                            5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                    Facilitator explains to participants the need for
                                                                         3025 Minutes
                     tendering, which type/method of invitation to
                     use when tendering, the contents of a tender
                     invitation package and how it is put forward,
                     and the procedures to follow when receiving
                     bids.

  34.     Group Work
                    Case Study One: Gardo DistrictActivity 2.3:
                                                                         70 30 Minutes
                     Invitation to Bid
                    Activity 2.4: Bid Opening
                                                                                                Formatted: No bullets or numbering
  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                    Summarise kKey issues about the bidding
                                                                            10 Minutes
                     process
                    Ask participants to share something that they
                     have learned in this session and how they could
                     apply this new knowledge to their work
                     situation.
                                                                                                Formatted: No bullets or numbering



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          Total time:                                                   120 minutes             Formatted: Font: Bold

   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you
                      have acquired?                                        5 Minutes
                   What will you do differently when you return to
                      your job?

   7.     Summary
                                                                            5 Minutes
                    Summarise the main issues




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    3.6.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts with the true/false energizer. The participants are asked to write on a     Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Left
    card three things about themselves. Two of them should be true and one of them should be
    false. Each participant reads out the card and the plenary tries to identify which of the things
    on the card are true and which are false. The facilitator then recaps on the previous session
    and mentions the topic for this session.Have taken out some of the energisers from the
    training – suggest just having 1 or 2 per day, following morning break &/or lunch, for             Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
    example. Otherwise too much time is taken up with them and they will lose their impact.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                       Comment [AKK6]: OK, agree

    3.6.2 Session objective                                                                            Formatted: Highlight


    To enable the participants understand the bidding process, to know the process of inviting for
    tenders and quotations, as well as the contents of bid documents. By the end of the session,
    the participants will be able to:
              Understand the meaning and need for tendering;
              Know when to apply the process of tendering;
              Know which type/method of invitation to use when tendering;
              Prepare a tender invitation package;
              Know the procedure to follow when receiving bids.


    3.6.3 Key issues

    The main issues for discussion are:
              Definition of tendering and its purpose and application;
              Invitation to tender and quotations;
              Bid documents;
              Clarifications;
              Submission and opening;
              Cancellation of bids;
              Bid validity.



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    3.6.4 Method                                                                                       Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
    The facilitator gives a lecture clearly explaining the need for tendering, its application, the    Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
    types/methods of tendering invitations, the tender invitation package and what to include in it,
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
    how bids are submitted and the mode of receiving them.                                             Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
lecture:                                                                                               Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
9.3 Tendering – go through the definition of tendering with participants and ensure they               Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
understand it.                                                                                         Formatted: Font: 12 pt
9.4 Need for tendering and its application                                                             Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
9.5 Tendering Procedures – outline the 5 stages of tendering                                           Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
9.6 Preparation Stage – refer participants to their set of Bidding Documents to familiarise            Formatted: Font: 11 pt
themselves with which forms should be used.                                                            Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic

9.7 Invitation to Tender and Advertising Stage                                                         Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic


 Conduct Activity 2.3: Invitation to Bid, after presenting this part of the lecture.                  Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt

9.8 Cancellation of Bidding Process                                                                    Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic

9.9 Response Management Stage                                                                          Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
 Conduct Activity 2.4: Bid Opening, after presenting this part of the lecture.                        Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt

    3.6.5 Group Work                                                                                   Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
        There are 2 activities for this session. The first activity should come following the          Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
presentation of information relating to 9.7 Invitation to Tender and Advertising Stage (see            Formatted: Font: 12 pt
above).
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
3.6.5                                                                                                  No bullets or numbering

 Activity 2.3: Invitation to Bid                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt

This activity relates to 9.7 Invitation to Tender and Advertising Stage in the Participant Book.       Formatted: Normal
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
The purpose of this activity is to give participants an opportunity to practice completing an          Formatted: Normal, Left, Indent: Left: 0",
Invitation to Bid, based on one of their District’s projects in their annual work plan.                Line spacing: single
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt

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 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 6 at the end of their Participant Book for            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                          12 pt

this activity.                                                                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                          12 pt

    1. Ask participants to work in their district groups.                                                 Formatted: Font: 11 pt
                                                                                                          Formatted: Normal, Left, Indent: Left: 0",
                                                                                                          Line spacing: single
    2. Participants should look at Activity Sheet 6 at the end of their Participant Book. This            Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
       Activity Sheet is a form for an Invitation to Bid.                                                 Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
                                                                                                          3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
                                                                                                          at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
    3. In their groups, participants should choose 1 project from their district’s annual work plan       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                          spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
       and if possible, choose a project that they included in Activity 1.3 - Procurement
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
       Planning exercise.
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
    4. Participants should use the detail they have about the project to try and fill in the              Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
       ‘Invitation to Bid’.                                                                               3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
                                                                                                          at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
    5. Give participants about 15 minutes to complete the form. Circulate while this is                   spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
       happening, making sure that participants understand important aspects of the form, for             Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                          Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
       example:                                                                                           3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
        There needs to be at least 30 days between the date of advertisement and the date                at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
           identified for bid closing.
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
        The closing of bids needs to specify a date and a time for bid closing.                          spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
        The date and time of the bid closing is also the date and time that bids will be opened.         Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                          Numbered + Level: 1 + Numbering Style: 1, 2,
                                                                                                          3, … + Start at: 1 + Alignment: Left + Aligned
    6. When all groups have finished, allow a few minutes for comments and feedback on how                at: 0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"

       easy or difficult it was to complete the form and where the areas of difficulty are, if any.       Formatted                                     ...
                                                                                                          Formatted                                     ...
The second activity should come at the end of the lecture, after presenting content relating to 9.9       Formatted                                     ...
Response Management Stage.                                                                                Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                          Formatted                                     ...
                                                                                                          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
I have included this second activity, which is a simulation of a bid opening process. This activity
                                                                                                          Formatted                                     ...
has worked very well in other countries. However, there may not be enough time in the session to          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                          Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"
do this activity. It also depends on the level of familiarity that the trainers have of the content and
                                                                                                          Formatted: Highlight
their confidence to run such an activity. Therefore it can be included or omitted as appropriate.         Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0"


 Activity 2.4: Bid Opening                                                                               Comment [AKK7]: Strongly fee it should be
                                                                                                          Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                                                                        ...


This activity is a fun way of practicing a bid opening process. Note that it is a simplified version      Formatted: Highlight
of what would happen in real life.                                                                        Formatted                                     ...
                                                                                                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li


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You will need to prepare the following for this activity:                                             Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.03", Line spacing:
                                                                                                      Multiple 1.15 li
 Prepare ‘bids’ – copy and cut out 1 bid per group, see Trainer Activity Sheet 1 at the end of
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
   this Trainer Book.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
 ‘Tender Box’ – find a box that can be used to put the bid envelopes into.                           Italic
 6 Envelopes – put each ‘bid’ into its own separate envelope after you have cut them out.            Formatted: Font: Not Bold
 Whiteboard and markers – for recording the results of the bidding process.                          Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt


 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 7 at the end of their Participant Book for        Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
this activity.                                                                                        Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                      12 pt

    1. Divide participants into 7 groups. 6 of these groups will be ‘bidders’ and the remaining       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                      12 pt
    group will act as members of the Procurement Unit and Bid Opening Committee.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
    2. Hand out an envelope to each of the bidder groups. They need to follow the instructions        Multiple 1.15 li
    given in their Participant Book.                                                                  Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li


    3. The bidder groups will need some time to look at their bids and submit them to the tender
    box. In the meantime, the Procurement Unit and Bid Opening Committee need to be
    following their own set of instructions (steps 1-3 in their Participant Book).

    4. Once all bids have been put into the Tender Box, the Procurement Unit and Bid Opening
    Committee can follow their instructions from steps 4-8 in their Participant Book.

    5. Bidder groups should follow the process of the bid opening and record the results in
    Activity Sheet 6 at the end of their Participant Book.                                            Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic



    6. For the purposes of this activity, the winning bidder will be ‘Hard Working Builders’ with
    a bid price of 85,000,000 Ssh.
    The facilitator uses the counting method to divide the participants into groups of five or six
    persons and requests them to consider Case Study One: Gardo District. Each group should
    identify one person to make a presentation to the plenary.


    3.6.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have          numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                      numbering

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       To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their         Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
                                                                                                       numbering
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
              1. Why is there a need to tender?                                                        Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", No
                                                                                                       bullets or numbering
                   2. What documents should be included in a tender package?
                   3. Why is it necessary to open bids shortly after the time of bid closing and in    Formatted: Normal, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: 1.5 lines, No bullets or numbering,
         public?                                                                                       Tab stops: Not at 4.51"
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: No bullets or numbering
        Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
    1. Tendering is necessary to ensure an open competitive process which is the procurement           Formatted: Font: Italic

    method most likely to bring about the best value for money for a contract, using a process         Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    which is transparent and accountable.
    2. Refer to table in Participant Book.                                                             Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    3. This is to avoid the tampering with bids and to ensure transparency and accountability in       Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    the bidding process.
    To get a feel of what the participants have learnt, the facilitator then asks the following        Formatted: Left

    questions based on what has been covered.
                  Why is there need to tender?                                                        Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                       0.75" + Indent at: 1"
                  Explain the required documentation to be included in a tender package.
                  Give reasons why you should resist accepting late revisions to tenders.


    3.6.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
              How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
              What will you do differently when you return to your job/organization?


    3.6.8 Summary

    The facilitator shouldTo finish, briefly re-cap the process and content covered during the
    session.


    3.6.93.6.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

              Flip charts/boards, Markers/projector


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              The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
              Bidding documents and bid opening and evaluation documents                                        Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

          
              The Participant’s Handbook
                                                                                                                 Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                                 0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
          

 CASE STUDY ONE: GARDO DISTRICT

 Attached is a solicitation advertisement for bids as advertised in the press by Gardo
 District for the provision of Goods, Services and Works in the District for the Financial
 Year 2010.


 You are required to study the document carefully and answer the following questions.
     What is the method of invitation used?
     Which types of goods, services and works will be subjected to pre-qualification and
      why?
     Comment about the completeness of the Tender Notice.


GARDO DISTRICT                                                                                                   Formatted: Left


                                  DISTRICT TENDER COMMITTEE

                                        INVITATION FOR BIDS

                                    TENDER NUMBER: O1 OF 2010

1. Gardo District has set aside funds for the operations of the district during the Financial year 2010. It is
intended that part of the funds will be applied to eligible payments under the contract for the supply of
various Goods and Services.

2. The District Tender Committee now invites sealed bids from eligible bidders to bid for the following:

Lot No.                                   Description                                 Quantity
   1.          Supply of Office Stationeries                                       Various
   2.          Supply of Computers                                                 20
   3.          Supply of Computer Accessories                                      Various
   4.          Supply of Medical Equipment to District Hospital and Health         Various
               Centres

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    5.         Rehabilitation of District Office Buildings                Various
    6.         Printing of Various Documents                              Various
    7.         Supply of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles                   15
    8.         Supply, Installation and Commissioning of Standby Electric 2
               Generator
    9.         Routine Road Maintenance                                   Various
   10.         Supply of Office and School Furniture                      Various
   11.         Drilling of Deep Borehole                                  Various
   12.         Supply of Hospital Supplies                                Various
   13.         Supply of Fuel and Lubricants                              Various
   14.         Collection and Management of Revenue from Markets          6
   15.         Running of Staff Canteen                                   2
   16.         Supply of Hospital Staff Uniforms                          Various
   17.         Supply of Vehicle Spare Parts and Tyres                    Various
   18.         Servicing and Repair of Computers                          30
   19.         Servicing and Repair of Air Conditioner                    25
   20.         Construction of Bridges                                    2
   21          Construction of Primary Schools                            4

   Bidders may bid for a single lot or more than one lot but must quote for all items and quantities
specified in each lot. Bidder not quoting for all items and quantities in a lot shall be rejected as non-
responsive.

3. Interested eligible bidders may obtain further information from and inspect the Bidding Documents
at the Office of the Secretary, District Tender Committee, Gardo District, P.O. Box 9, Gardo.

4. A complete set of the Bidding Documents may be purchased by interested bidders on submission of a
written application to address given under paragraph 3 above and upon payment of Sshs. 5,000/=.

5. All bids in one original plus two copies, properly filled in and enclosed in plain envelopes must be
properly addressed to the Secretary, Gardo District Tender Committee. All bids must either be delivered
by hand or sent by registered post or courier so that to reach the Secretary, District Tender Committee,
before the deadline for submission of bids.


6. Electronic, Telegraphic, Telex and late submissions will not be accepted. Bids not received and not
opened at the public opening ceremony shall not be accepted for evaluation irrespective of the
circumstances.




                                               Secretary
                                       District Tender Committee
                                             Gardo District




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    3.7 Session Four: Supplier Tender Evaluation and Selection                                    Formatted: Highlight


    3.7                                                                                           Comment [AKK8]: Suggest we use Tender
                                                                                                  evaluation
                                                                                                  Formatted: Heading 2, Space After: 12 pt,
                                                                                                  Line spacing: single, Outline numbered + Level:
                                                                                                  2 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
                        DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION FOUR                                       Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent
                                                                                                  at: 0.5"

  No.                                    Activity                                     Time
                                                                                    Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                  Energizer – short exercise
                  Recap on previous sessionIntroduce the session topic
                                                                                    55 Minutes
                  Present the session objectives
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
   2.     Session Objectives
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                    5 Minutes
 23.      Methods                                                                                 Formatted: Left

                    Brainstorm questions ing
                                                                                   340 Minutes
                    Facilitator takes participants through the process of
                     evaluating tenders, selecting the recommended winning
                     bidder.
                                                                                                 Formatted: No bullets or numbering
  34.     General DiscussionGroup Work
                 Discussion of state of supplier evaluations in Local                             Formatted: Heading 5, No bullets or
                                                                                   7520 Minutes   numbering
          Governments.
                   Activity 2.5: Eligibility to Bid Form
                   Activity 2.6: Bosaso District Role Play
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                    Summarise kKey issues to be considered when evaluating
                                                                                    10 Minutes
                     tenders
                    Ask participants to share something that they have learned
                     in this session and how they could apply this new
                     knowledge to their work situation. .
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
          Total time:                                                              120 minutes
                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold
   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each participant’s


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          job and responsibility:
                  How can you apply the information that you have
                     acquired?                                              5 Minutes
                  What will you do differently when you return to your
                     job/Local Government?
   7.     Summary
                                                                            5 Minutes
                    Summarise the main issues




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    3.7.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts with a short exercise (oral) to bring the participants to his attention,
    followed by a recap on the previous session. The facilitator then introduces the topic for this
    session.


    3.7.2 Session Objectives

    To evaluate bids properly. By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:
        Understand the functions of the Evaluation Committee;
        Know the main stages in evaluation;
        Identify the key elements to consider when selecting a bid winner;
        Know the contents of the report of the Evaluation Committee.


    3.7.3 Key Issues

    The key points to be discussed are:
        The Evaluation Committee;
        How to evaluate bids;
        Selection of suppliers;
        Evaluation Committee recommendations to the Tender Committee.


    3.7.4 Method

    Start by asking a couple of brainstorm questions regarding the evaluation of tenders.             Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li



Questions for Discussion 7:                                                                          Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt


Based on your district’s experience, discuss the following questions:
    How does tender evaluation usually take place in your district?
    What problems do Local Governments face when evaluating tenders?


    The facilitator starts by asking the participants what key issues they will consider in
    evaluating bids and what considerations they will make in selecting a supplier. Then


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    facilitator then explains the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers up to the award
    stage.



! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
10.2 Introduction – refer participants to their set of ‘Somaliland District Bid Opening and          Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
Evaluation Documents’
10.3 Tender Evaluation Committee/Team                                                                Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                     Multiple 1.15 li
10.4 Evaluation of Tenders
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

 Conduct Activity 2.5 after presenting this part of the lecture.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.5 Selection of Suppliers                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.6 Comparison and Ranking of Bids                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.7 Post Qualification of Bids                                                                      Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.8 Evaluation Report and recommendation                                                            Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.9 Tender Committee Approval of Recommendation for Contract Award                                  Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

10.10 Rejection of all bids                                                                          Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
                                                                                                     Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li


 Conduct Activity 2.6 after presenting this part of the lecture.                                    Formatted: Heading 2, Space After: 12 pt,
                                                                                                     Line spacing: single, Outline numbered + Level:
                                                                                                     3 + Numbering Style: 1, 2, 3, … + Start at: 1 +
    3.7.5 General DiscussionGroup work                                                               Alignment: Left + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent
                                                                                                     at: 0.75"
    3.7.5                                                                                            Formatted: No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt

          Activity 2.5: Complete Bid Eligibility Form                                               Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: Left, No bullets or numbering
       In this activity participants will practise filling in the details on Form E.1 – Bid
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Evaluation, 1. Eligibility for a fictional project, ‘Construction of Primary School Staff Quarters
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Italic
in Friendly Village’.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: No bullets or numbering

              Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 8 at the end of their Participant   Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Book.                                                                                                Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: Normal, Indent: Left: 0", Line
1. Ask participants to work in pairs and to study the id information given in Activity Sheet 8.      spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Not Bold
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic

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2. Then, participants should use the information to try and fill in the Eligibility to Bid table in
Activity Sheet 8.                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold, Italic



3. Once participants have done this, they should be able to answer the following question:
Is Akber Constructions eligible to bid and therefore able to have a Technical Evaluation?              Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Left, Indent: Left: 0",
                                                                                                       Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
4. The answer to the question is ‘YES’, because Akber Construction should have received a
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal
‘pass’ for each criterion in the table. Explain that this is important because it means that the bid
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Not Bold, Not Italic
can go on to have a Technical Evaluation.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt
                                                                                                       Formatted: Normal, Indent: Left: 0", Line

Activity 2.6: Bosaso District Role Play                                                               spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold
This activity is designed to give participants some practice in the roles of a District Tender         Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Bold
Committee and Tender Evaluation Committee and how to make recommendations on the award                 Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                       spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
of tenders.


 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 9 at the end of their Participant Book for         Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
this activity.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                       12 pt
1. Divide participants into 3 groups as follows:                                                       Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
Group 1 – District Tender Committee (5 members)                                                        spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Group 2 – Tender Evaluation Committee (5 members)
Group 3 – Observers (rest of participants)

2. Ask all participants to read through Activity Sheet 9: Bosaso District Role Play.                   Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic



3. Give each group 5 minutes to prepare for the role play. While participants are preparing,
organise some chairs so that each committee is seated at the front of the room.

4. Then guide the proceedings as outlined in Activity Sheet 9, starting with the District Tender       Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

Committee (approx 20 minutes)

5. Allow Group 3 some time to give their views on the issue presented (approx 10 minutes).

6. Spend 5 minutes at the end of the activity to wrap up. Emphasise that participants may find
themselves in a similar situation in reality when conducting their roles and it is important when
evaluating tenders to be clear about their reasons for recommending a contract award and to
follow the procurement guidelines at all times.


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    The facilitator should conduct a general discussion involving all participants about how
    evaluations are actually made within the Local Government. To help in the discussion ask the
    following questions:
        What is the composition of the Evaluation Committee in your Districts?
        On average about how many times does the Evaluation Committee sit per month?
        Who among the class has been a member of the Evaluation Committee?
        What work have you been involved in?
        How did you carry out bid evaluation and how did you identify a recommended winner?
        What problems do Local Governments face in evaluating bids?


    3.7.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have          numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. How many members are on a Tender Evaluation Committee and who appoints them?
       2. How many points must a bid receive in order to pass its Technical Evaluation?
       3. True or False? The District Tender Committee receives a recommendation from the
       Tender Evaluation Committee, and makes a decision to approve or reject the
       recommendation.

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
   1. 3-5 members, appointed by the Executive Secretary                                               Formatted: Font: Italic

   2. At least 60 points                                                                              Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

   3. TrueTo get a feel of what the participants have learnt, the facilitator then asks the           Formatted: Font: Italic

   participants to explain the main stages of evaluation and selection of suppliers/contractors.      Formatted: Font: Italic



    3.7.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
        How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
        What will you do differently when you return to your job/organization?


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    3.7.8 Summary

    The facilitator should re-cap the process and content covered during the session.




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    3.7.93.7.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

        Flip charts/boards, Markers/projector
        Local Government Procurement Guidelines
        Somaliland District Bidding Ddocuments and Somaliland District Bid Opening and      Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                             Formatted: Left
         Evaluation bid opening and evaluation dDocuments
                                                                                             Formatted: Font: Italic
        The Participant’s Hand book                                                         Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering




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    3.8 Session Five: Negotiation



                  DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION FIVESIX

  No.                                Activity                                 Time
                                                                            Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                  Recap previous sessionIntroduce the session topic
                                                                             5 Minutes
                  Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
   2.     Session Objectives
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                             5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                 Lecture on key issues concerning procurement
                                                                            25 Minutes
                  negotiations
                 Brainstorming on meaning, necessity and timing of
                  negotiations
                 Lecture on key issues concerning procurement
                  negotiations
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
  34.     Group Work
                    Role Play:Activity 2.7: Baran District.
                                                                            40 Minutes
                    Negotiations between the Tender Committee and a
                     prospective supplier
                                                                                                 Formatted: No bullets or numbering
  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                   Summarise kKey issues about negotiation of
                                                                            105 Minutes
                    supply contracts.
                  Ask participants to share something that they have                             Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                  0.5" + Indent at: 0.75"
                    learned in this session and how they could apply
                    this new knowledge to their work situation.
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
          Total time:                                                       80 minutes
   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have

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                    acquired?                                              5 Minutes
                   What will you do differently when you return to
                    your job?
   7.     Summary
                                                                           5 Minutes
                   Summarise the main issues




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    3.8.1 Introduction

    The facilitator recaps on the previous session and mentions the topic for this session.


    3.8.2 Session Objective

    To negotiate good contracts for the supply of works, goods and services to the Local
    Government. By the end of the session, the participants will be able to:
              Define negotiation;
              Determine when it is necessary;
              Identify the influences on negotiation;
              Identify the different stages of negotiation;
              Perform good bargaining and negotiations.


    3.8.3 Key Issues

    The main points for discussion are:
              Definition of negotiations and when to negotiate;
              Stages in negotiation;
              Influences on negotiation.


    3.8.4 Method

         Questions for Discussion 8:                                                                 Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: No bullets or numbering
         Based on your district’s experience, discuss the following question:

        Under which circumstances is it appropriate to negotiate with a supplier, contractor or      Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at:
                                                                                                      0.25" + Indent at: 0.5"
         consultant?

         The facilitator givesThen give a lecture defining negotiation, explaining when it is         Formatted: Body Text 2, Indent: Left: 0.25",
                                                                                                      No bullets or numbering
    necessary, when it should be applied and how it fits into the procurement process.

! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:                                                                                              Formatted: Body Text 2, Line spacing:
                                                                                                      Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets or numbering
        11.3 Definition
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic
        11.4 When to negotiate
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

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       11.5 The Negotiators                                                                           Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

11.6 The Negotiation processTo enrich the lecture, ask some questions such as:                        Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

      What is to negotiate?                                                                          Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                      Multiple 1.15 li
      Why is negotiation necessary?
                                                                                                      Formatted: Body Text 2, Line spacing:
      When should negotiations be carried out in procurement?                                        Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets or numbering



    3.8.5 Group Work

         Activity 2.7: Baran District Role Play                                                      Formatted: No bullets or numbering



This activity is designed to give participants some practice in the negotiation process between a     Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                      spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
District Tender Committee and a potential supplier.


 Participants will need to refer to Activity Sheet 10 at the end of their Participant Book for       Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                      12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
this activity.                                                                                        12 pt
                                                                                                      Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
1. Divide participants into 3 groups as follows:                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
Group 1 – District Tender Committee (5 people)                                                        Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
Group 2 – Baran Design Delegation (5 people)                                                          spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Group 3 – Observers (rest of the participants)
Try to make sure that the groups are not the same as for the previous session’s activity, Activity    Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

2.5. That is, people who were in the role of Group 3 (Observers) in Activity 2.6 should try to have   Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

a role in Group 1 or Group 2 in this activity.

2. Ask participants to read through Activity Sheet 10 at the end of their Participant Book.           Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

Participants also need to refer to the specific tasks identified for their own group.

3. Give groups 5-10 minutes to prepare for the negotiations. While they are preparing, ask
members of Group 3 to set up chairs in an appropriate way for a negotiation to take place.

4. Quickly read out the scenario about Baran District to make sure everyone understands. A
negotiation process should be followed, according to the instructions given in Activity Sheet 10.     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

Group 3 should be given an opportunity to comment on the negotiation process and outcome.
Allow about 20 minutes for this part of the activity.

5. You may need to act in a facilitation role if the negotiations get out of hand. Intervention may
be needed to keep the negotiations focused on the main issue and to calm any participants who
may get carried away in their role!


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6. When the activity is finished, emphasise that participants could find themselves in a similar
situation in reality when conducting their roles. It is therefore important when conducting
negotiations to be clear about what you want and have an understanding on your own side what
terms you are prepared to accept, before entering the negotiation.
    The facilitator divides the participants into three groups to represent the Tender Committee,
    officials from Baran Designers and Outfitters Ltd., and the observers. The facilitator instructs
    the groups to consider Role Play: Baran District. Each group should be given its tasks
    individually but not the tasks of the other two groups.


    The groups should be allowed 10 minutes to prepare, 25 minutes for the role play and 5
    minutes for the observer group to comment.


    3.8.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                       Formatted: No bullets or numbering
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have
left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of the
key points and move on to the next session.
                                                                                                       Formatted: Indent: Left: 0"

        To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their        Formatted: No bullets or numbering
understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
            1. The facilitator asks the participants the following questions regarding the session:    Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", Line spacing:
                                                                                                       Multiple 1.15 li
             What are the stages of a negotiation?
                                                                                                       Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.75", Line spacing:
             2. What are some of the features that characterize a good negotiation team?              Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets or numbering
        List two things to consider when deciding on the location of the negotiation.                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                       bullets or numbering
Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
        1. Pre-negotiation, Actual negotiation – opening stage, proposal stage, bargaining stage,      Formatted: Font: Italic

agreement stage, post-negotiation.                                                                     Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                        No bullets or numbering
       2. Principled – focusing on district interests and not positions, have objective – reach
understanding based on standards, be open to reason – yield to principle not pressure, able to
control emotions, good communicator – without communication there is no negotiation, able to
listen actively, able to make a decision.                                                              Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                                       Formatted: Font: Italic, Font color: Black

    3.8.7 Application:                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: First line: 0", Space After:
                                                                                                       0 pt, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:

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              How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
              What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    3.8.8 Summary

    The facilitator should re-cap the process and content covered during the session.


    3.8.93.8.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

              Flip charts/boards, masking tape, Markers/chalk, projector
              The Participant’s Handbook




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ROLE PLAY: BARAN DISTRICT

Baran District is a Local Government with a population of approximately 50,000 people.
Currently, the district is in process of acquiring uniform and protective clothing for staff (who
include law enforcement officers, medical workers, messengers, and other relevant staff).

The tender was advertised nationally on a competitive basis. The Evaluation Committee has
already carried out bid evaluations and recommended the award of the tender to Messrs Baran
Designers and Outfitters Ltd. as the lowest bidder.

On receipt of the report of the Evaluation Committee, the Tender Committee members are in
agreement with the report and are especially happy since Baran Designers and Outfitters is
owned by a local resident within the district. However the members have some reservations as
follows:

   The price quotations per uniform appear to be on the high side (irrespective of Baran
    Designers being the lowest bidder). A member informs the Committee that the uniforms
    could be got at Sshs. 10,000/= lower than the price quoted by Baran Designers for each
    uniform. She informs the Committee that Baran Designers had actually supplied similar
    uniform the previous month to the District and therefore there is no reason to overcharge the
    district.

   Baran Designers promises to deliver the consignment in four months time from now.
    Although the bid documents did not put a limitation on the time of delivery, the Committee
    members have been informed by the management of the municipality about the sorry state of
    uniforms for staff. An earlier delivery would therefore be welcome. The Tender Committee
    agree that a quicker delivery is necessary.
After a long discussion, the Tender Committee decided that it will call in representatives of Baran
Designers and Outfitters for negotiation on the above issues.


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Group 1 Task
You are the Tender Committee members who are going to negotiate with Baran Designers and
Outfitters. Elect a chairperson and assign roles to the other members. Decide on the key issues
you are going to present to the officials of Baran Designers (you must have your facts). You will
then carry out actual negotiations with the Baran Designers delegation. The Tender Committee
wants delivery to be made in one and a half months.


Group 2 Tasks
You are members of the Baran Designer delegation led consisting of the Managing Director,
Sales Director, Production Director, Finance Director, Cost Accountant and other sales staff. The
cost accountant informs you that to make a reasonable profit you need to stick to the bid price but
in case the Tender Committee refuses you could reduce to Sshs. 15,000 per uniform piece in
which case you would just break-even. The Managing Director thinks you have to make some
profit anyway on the deal. The Production Director informs you that for a thorough job, four
months is the appropriate delivery time, but you could switch other staff to this job and be able to
deliver in 2 months and no less.


Required
Elect a Managing Director and some other characters within the role play. You are to present
your case to the Tender Committee. Decide what to do in the negotiation after which you will
carry out the actual negotiation.


Group 3 Tasks
You are the observers of the negotiation role-play. Carefully observe the negotiators, note the
weak and strong points and get ready to comment on the performance of the individuals at the
end of the role-play.




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    3.9 Session Six: Orders and Contracts

      Suggest moving this session from here to become the first session of Unit 3: Contract       Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Highlight
Management                                                                                        Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Highlight
      3.9                                                                                         Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Highlight
                                                                                                  Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
                                                                                                  No bullets or numbering
                  DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION SIXFIVE
                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: 16 pt
                                                                                                  Formatted: Normal, Left, Indent: Left: 0.5",
  No.                                Activity                                 Time                Space After: 0 pt, No bullets or numbering
                                                                            Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                  Energizer: The Procurement Methods List
                  Recap previous session
                                                                             5 Minutes
                  MentionIntroduce topic for this session
                  Facilitator presents the session objectives
   2.     Session Objectives
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                             5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                    Lecture on key issues concerning orders and
                                                                            25 Minutes
                     contracts. Differentiate the formal contract and an
                     LPO
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
  34.     Group Work
                    Case Study Two: Sanag District.Activity 2.8:
                                                                            40 Minutes
                     Sandy Desert District Council Contract
                                                                                                 Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                  numbering
  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                    Summarise kKey issues about orders and contracts
                                                                            105 Minutes
                    Ask participants to share something that they have
                     learned in this session and how they could apply
                     this new knowledge to their work situation. .
                                                                                                 Formatted: No bullets or numbering
          Total time:                                                       80 minutes            Formatted: Font: Bold

   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have
                      acquired?                                              5 Minutes
                   What will you do differently when you return to

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                    your job?
   7.     Summary
                                                                           5 Minutes
                   Summarise the main issues




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    3.9.1 Introduction

    As a way of helping the participants to remember what they have done previously, the
    facilitator asks the participants to name and list the various procurement methods used in
    Local Government. The facilitator then goes on to recap the previous session and mention the
    topic for this session.


    3.9.2 Session Objectives

    To enable the participants identify the major types and contents of good contracts so as to
    prepare contracts and award them properly. By the end of the session, the participants will be
    able to:
        Explain the importance of a contract;
        List the key obligations of the buyer and the seller;
        Describe the major issues relating to preparing a procurement contract;
        Outline the problems frequently encountered in procurement contracts;
        Know which type of contract to use.


    3.9.3 Key Issues

    The main issues to be discussed are:
        Definition and importance of a contract;
        The obligations of the Local Government and suppliers/contractors;
        Major issues and problems in preparation of contracts;
        Types of contracts;
        Awarding of contracts;
        LPOs;
        Notification to successful and unsuccessful bidders.


    3.9.4 Methods

    The facilitator leads the participants through a discussion of the process of placing an order or
    contract, the different things to take into account when drafting contract clauses and the kinds


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    of problems that may be encountered. He highlights the different types of contracts, stressing
    the clauses that are applicable for each and how they relate to each other, the process of
    informing and debriefing unsuccessful bidders and the key issues to consider while doing so.



! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
12.3 Definition of a contract                                                                        Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

12.4 Supplier/Provider’s Obligations                                                                 Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

12.5 Local Government’s Obligations
12.6 Preparation of contracts
12.7 Tender Committee Approval of Contracts
12.8 Types of Contracts
                                                                                                     Formatted: Normal, Left, Space After: 0 pt,
12.9 Types of Contract Agreements for the employment of Consultants                                  No bullets or numbering
                                                                                                     Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No
                                                                                                     bullets or numbering
    3.9.5 Group Work
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight

3.9.5                                                                                                Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

         Activity 2.8: Sandy Desert District Council Contract                                       Formatted: Highlight
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight
This activity based on original activity, but have replaced existing contract form with that from
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight
the Somaliland District Bidding Documents.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Italic
This activity is designed to familiarise participants with the content of a typical contract for a
                                                                                                     Formatted: Highlight
district project and what needs to be included.
                                                                                                     Formatted: English (Australia)
                                                                                                     Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:

 Participants will need to refer to the example contract provided in Activity Sheet 10 at the       Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
end of their Participant Book for this activity.                                                     12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                     12 pt
 Explain that contract documents can also be found in the Somaliland District Bidding               Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                     Multiple 1.15 li
Documents as:
                                                                                                     Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
    Form C1 – Form of Agreement                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

    Form C2 – Conditions of Particular Application                                                  Formatted: Font: Italic

    Form C3 – Statement of Works                                                                    Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                     Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" +
                                                                                                     Indent at: 0.5"
1. Ask participants to work in groups of 4 and study the contract and payment schedule in            Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                     Multiple 1.15 li
Activity Sheet 11.
                                                                                                     Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                     spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

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2. Before they begin the activity, make sure participants understand how the contract number is
determined, as follows:
          [S/L] / [code for region] / [code for district] / [code for Village/Tuulo] / [year last two digits] /   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Line spacing:
         [project number (three digits)]                                                                          Multiple 1.15 li

Therefore, in this example, the project is in Region 12, District 1, Village 24, in the year 2010                 Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman

and it is the 6th project for the year.                                                                           Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                                  12 pt
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
3. Then give participants about 20 minutes to work in their groups to study the contract and
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
answer the questions in their Participant Book (also below), with their reasons why.                              12 pt, Superscript
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman,
                                                                                                                  12 pt
         1. Has the contract number been completed correctly? Y/N (If no, explain the error)
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: 11 pt
         NO, the year should be identified as ‘10’ but has been written as ‘11’ in the contract
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Line spacing:
         number.                                                                                                  Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
         2. Has the correct person from the District signed the contract? Y/N (If no, explain the                 Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
         error) (Note: you may need to refer to the table of roles and responsibilities given in 3.8              Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
         Roles and Responsibilities, in order to answer this question)                                            Formatted: Font: (Default) Times New Roman
         YES, according to the table in 3.8 Roles and Responsibilities, the Executive Secretary is                Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", Line spacing:
                                                                                                                  Multiple 1.15 li
         responsible for ‘Signing contracts and LPOs for procurement activities on behalf of the
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold
         district’. Pls confirm that this is correct.
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
         3. Are the progress payments correctly calculated? Y/N (If no, explain the error)
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.49", Line spacing:
         NO, the total amount in the contract should be USD 50,000 but the total amount as per                    Multiple 1.15 li
         progress payments comes to USD 60,000. Therefore, payments 3 and 4 should be USD                         Formatted: Font: Bold
         5,000 each.                                                                                              Formatted: Font: Not Italic
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

4. To finish, bring everyone back to plenary and discuss the answers. Emphasise the importance                    Formatted: Font: Italic

of attention to detail when preparing contract documents, as they are legal documents to which                    Formatted: Font: Italic

the district can be held accountable once they are signed.                                                        Formatted: Highlight

    The facilitator divides the participants into three groups and requests them to consider Case                 Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.49", Line spacing:
    Study Two: Sanaag District. Each group should nominate one member to report back to the                       Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Bold
    plenary on the assignment.
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    As a guide the facilitator should ask the groups to look at the issues included and decide                    Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0", Line
                                                                                                                  spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    whether they are sufficient.
        Are there any important issues that are missing?
        Are any of the clauses vague?

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        Who do you think signed the contract?


    Note:       The group work exercise should also be used to illustrate how a contract looks.


    3.9.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have          numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Line spacing:
                                                                                                      Multiple 1.15 li
    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
                                                                                                      Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. When does a procurement contract enter into force?
       2. Who is responsible for preparing the contract documents?                                    Formatted: Font: Not Italic
       3. Who signs contracts on behalf of the District?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

1. When it is signed by the supplier, contractor or service provider and by the Local Government.     Formatted: Font: 12 pt, Italic

2. The Procurement Unit                                                                               Formatted: Font: Italic

3. The authorized signatory, who is usually the Executive Secretary? Or the Mayor? Which is           Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Italic
correct?
                                                                                                      Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0"
    The facilitator should then ask the participants the question: ‘What have you learnt from this    Formatted: Highlight

    session?”


    3.9.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
        How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
        What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    3.9.8 Summary

    The facilitator shouldTo finish, re-cap the process and content covered during the session.




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    3.9.93.9.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

               Flip charts/boards, Markers/chalk
               The Local Government Procurement Guidelines
               The Participant’s Hand book


                                                                                           Have    Formatted: Font: Not Bold, Highlight

CASE STUDY TWO: SANAAG DISTRICT                                                            remo    Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

                                                                                           ved
Presented below is a contract agreement for the construction of a Primary School Staff this
                                                                                           exam    Formatted: Font: Not Bold
Quarters signed between Sanaag District and a contractor – Akber Construction
                                                                                           ple
Company.                                                                                   contr   Formatted: Font: Not Bold, Highlight

                                                                                           act
                                                                                           and
In your group, study the contract and then criticize it.
                                                                                           repla
ced with an example that matches the contract format found in the Somaliland District Bidding      Formatted: Font: Italic

Documents. This can be found in Activity Sheet 10 in the Participant Book.                         Formatted: Font: Not Bold, Highlight
                                                                                                   Formatted: Font: Not Bold
                                                                                                   Formatted: Font: Not Bold, Highlight
                                                                                                   Formatted: Font: Not Bold




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NAME OF PROJECT:            PRIMARY SCHOOL STAFF QUARTERS


                   CONTRACT AGREEMENT FOR REQUIRED WORKS

PROJECT No:           01/08EDF/’03
DATE:                 8TH JUNE 2003
CONTRACTOR:           AKBER CONSTRUCTION


                                   CONTRACT AGREEMENT

1. This Contract Agreement is made this day the (date) 8 th-06-2009 on which the contract
    becomes effective, between SANAAG DISTRICT hereinafter referred to as the Client on the
    one hand and AKBER CONSTRUCTION (hereinafter referred to as the Contractor) on the
    other hand for the purpose of executing the job described herein.


2. The Client would like to have the above mentioned work executed as per specifications and
    other contract documents attached hereto. The Contractor hereby agrees to execute the said
    works in a manner that shall not contravene any clause of this contract, unless otherwise
    especially mentioned by a special written instruction from the Client or his/her agent.
    Reference shall be made at all times to the building code and the relevant standards acceptable
    in Puntland throughout the contract.


3. Having studied all the relevant contract documents, both parties hereby mutually agree to
    execute the contract as per clause listed below.


CLAUSE 1 - WORK
Work on the project shall be executed as per provision and specification contained in the bill of
quantities and any other document as relevant to and/or related to the project, such as plans,
construction drawings and supporting details/clarifications.


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1.1     Commencement of Work
        Work on the project shall commence on (date) 9th – 06 – 2009.


1.2     Work Schedule
        The Contractor shall furnish the Client with details of his/her work before commencement
        of work. These shall include:
        a)      Projected completion time for each project activity;
        b)      Weekly activities at the site e.g. supply of materials, setting out, excavation, etc.


1.3     Work Supervision and Manpower
        The contractor shall furnish the client with the list of his/her workers as follows:
        a)      Names and technical qualifications of supervision staff
        b)      Names of craftsmen (women) and other labourers who shall be employed at work
                site.


        The client shall reject and cause withdrawal of the contractor’s supervisor or worker if in
        the opinion of the client the supervisor or worker has shown incompetence, lack of
        technical know-how and/or bad behavour at the place of work.


1.3(a) Clients Supervision


        The District Engineer is in-charge of supervising the activities on the work site. Any change
        or modifications of the bill of quantities, including variation of the prices and quantities of
        work, have to be endorsed by the District Engineer in advance.


1.4     Volume of the Work
        The Client may increase or decrease the volume of the work awarded to the Contractor
        without assigning any reasons for so doing. This shall result in a corresponding adjustment
        to the Contractor’s compensation. The Contractor shall, however, be informed in writing of


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        the decision so taken to increase or reduce the volume of work.


1.5     Quality of Work
        All work shall be executed in accordance with the specifications and code of construction
        practice, by ensuring maintenance of good workmanship and proper choice of construction
        materials to be used on the project.


        Any sub-standard work originating from poor workmanship and/or the use of inferior
        construction materials shall be rejected by the client and the contractor shall dismantle the
        structure and cart away the debris from the site at his own costs. The contractor shall be
        required to make good any damages that may have been caused in the course of such
        demolitions.


1.6     Completion Period
        The contractor shall hand over completed work to the Project Committee on or before the
        completion date.


1.7     Extension of Completion Period
        The contractor may extend the completion date of the project provided that:
        a)      The Contractor shall inform the client in writing, detailing all the circumstances that
                would necessitate such extensions to the satisfaction of the Client.
        b)      There is occurrence of unforeseen circumstances such as war and civil disorder
                which may contribute to the delay in the execution of the work.
        c)      If there has been delay reasonably caused by the client or his agent.


1.8     Delay and Non-Completion of the Work
        In the event that the contractor fails to hand over completed work to the client as per clause
        1.6 of this agreement and that clause 1.7 has not been applied, a penalty of Sshs.20,000/=
        (Twenty thousand shillings only) which is the maximum, shall be charged on the contractor
        for every day of delay in delivering the completed work to the Project Committee.


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CLAUSE 2 – DETERMINATION OF THE CONTRACT

2.1     Arbitration
        The client shall determine the contract in case there develops misunderstanding on the
        mode of execution of the project. Where necessary, a neutral arbitrator acceptable to both
        the client and the contractor shall mediate between the two.


2.2     Termination of Contract
        i)      The Contract shall be terminated upon:
                (a)     Failure of the contractor to show progress, or if it is established that the
                        contractor has abandoned the work for a period of over seven consecutive
                        days without informing the client in writing.
                (b)     Failure to follow construction drawings, specifications, poor workmanship
                        and lack of co-ordination including failure to discipline subordinate staff.


        ii)     On termination of the contract, measures shall be taken jointly by the client and the
                contractor to determine what is due to the contractor before payments can be
                effected to the contractor. In event of disagreement between the client and the
                Contractor, the arbitrator’s ruling shall be final.


CLAUSE 3 - PAYMENTS FOR CONTRACTED WORK
Payments for contracted work shall be made to the contractor on production of invoices which
shall be accompanied by an acceptable technical report and a certificate signed by a technical
supervisor appointed by the client, confirming that the contractor deserves the amount of payment
equivalent to the work already done, including materials which may have been delivered on site by
the contractor for the purpose of the works.




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3.1     Advance Payments
        An advance payment of 25% of the total amount may be made to the contractor on
        commencement of the work, when deemed necessary. A retention of 15% will be deducted
        from every payment as reimbursement of advance payment.


3.2     Payment of the 1st Interim Certificate
        Payment of the first interim certificate shall be made to the contractor after a month from
        commencement of the work based on the percentage of the work done. Further payments
        shall be made on a monthly basis on the same conditions. An amount of 10% of each
        payment shall be withheld by the client as Retention Fees as per Clause 3.5.


3.3     Payment of other Interim Certificates
        The client shall honour and make payments for all other interim certificates which may be
        submitted from time to time against specified quantity of work certified by the technical
        supervisor and counter-signed by the client’s authorised agent, provided 10% of the total
        payment shall be kept by the client as contribution towards Retention fees in accordance
        with Clause 3.5. This shall apply only after the first interim certificate as per Clause 3.2.


3.4     Payment of the Final Certificate
        The final certificate shall be paid to the contractor after 100% practical completion of the
        work, less 10% of the contract sum to be retained by the client as contribution towards
        retention fees for a specified maintenance period as per Clause 3.5.


3.5     Retention Fees
        a)      The 10% of the total contract sum shall be held for a period not exceeding four (4)
                months after 100% practical completion of the work. The above amount of money
                retained shall be paid to the contractors after the expiry of the prescribed retention
                period as per Clause 8, provided that the client’s technical supervisor (agent) has
                certified that no defects have occurred to the completed work during the specified
                period as a result of poor workmanship or use of inferior materials or failure to


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                follow specifications for the job.


        b)      Should any defect develop during the retention period, the contractor shall be liable
                to repair such defects at his/her cost, or alternatively the client shall recommend the
                use of the retention money to make good these defects. Any balance left after the
                said repairs shall be paid to the contractor. Any deficiency shall be made good by
                the contractor.


3.6     Inflation
        Payment to the contractor shall be adjusted in accordance with Puntland official inflation
        figures within the authorized contract period, if such a period exceeds 365 working days
        excluding delays.


CLAUSE 4 - TAXES
Taxes shall be paid by each party concerned as per the existing Tax Laws and Regulations at the
time of signing the Contract.


CLAUSE 5 – WAGES
The contractor shall be responsible for paying all his/her employees’ dues.


CLAUSE 6 – INSPECTION OF WORK
The contractor shall ensure that every stage of work is inspected and approved by the client’s
authorised agent, provided that such inspection is agreed upon between the contractor and the
client’s technical agent and that such inspection shall not be accepted as a reason for the delay of
the contract or for poor workmanship.


CLAUSE 7 – OTHERS
All other Clauses on which this agreement is silent should be considered to be the same as those
provided for in the laws of the Puntland State of Somalia to which reference shall be made from
time to time in the course of executing this contract.




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TOTAL PERIOD OF CONTRACT:                  96 DAYS
TOTAL CONTRACT SUM: SSHS. 105,000,000
RETENTION PERIOD: 90 DAYS


Contract documents provided by the Client and received by the Contractor:
1. Approved Construction Drawings;
2. Bills of Quantities;
3. Specifications;
4. Details of payment;
5. Others (specify).


We hereby certify that we have carefully read the contents of this Contract Agreement contained in
6 pages and have fully understood its implications and we therefore, hereby endorse it.


FIRST CLIENT SIGNATURE: …………………………………………………………..
                          DATE:……………………………………………………………


SECOND CLIENT SIGNATURE:…………………………………………………………
                          DATE:…………………………………………………………….


CONTRACTOR SIGNATURE:……………………………………………………………


ON BEHALF OF:……………………………………………………………………………


DATE: ……………………………………………………………………………………….




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    4 MODULE UNIT THREE: CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    4.1 Introduction to Module Unit Three

    This is the last module in this course. It deals with the day to day management issues required
    to make the contract a success. Contracts have to be supervised and controlled to ensure that
    the supplier/tenderer performs according to the contract and that delivery schedules are met.
    Ineffective supervision of contracts may lead to serious losses for the local government.


    4.2 Over All Aim of Module Unit Three

    To enable the participants recognize and apply the basic procedures necessary for the
    successful implementation of contracts.


    4.3 Objectives of Module Unit Three

    By the end of this module, the participants will be able to:
               Monitor and supervise projects;
               Produce supervision and monitoring reports;
               Understand and explain ethical and integrity issues in procurement.




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    4.4 Session One: Contract Administration



                        DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION ONE

  No.                                  Activity                                    Time
                                                                                 Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                    ExpectationsIntroduce the topic
                                                                                 105 Minutes
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                               Formatted: No bullets or numbering
   2.     Session Objectives
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                                  5 Minutes
  23.     Methods
                    Facilitator presents a lecture on key players in Contract
                                                                                 235 Minutes
                     Administration
                    Contract Management documents

  34.     Group Work
                 Activity 3.1: Dispute Resolution Role Play
                                                                                 425 Minutes
                      Short Case: Corruption                                                   Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or
                                                                                                numbering
  45.     Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary
                    Summarise kKey issues about Contract Administration.
                                                                                 10 Minutes
                    Ask participants to share something that they have
                     learned in this session and how they could apply this
                     new knowledge to their work situation.
                                                                                               Formatted: No bullets or numbering
          Total time:                                                            90 minutes     Formatted: Font: Bold

   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:
                   How can you apply the information that you have
                      acquired?                                                   5 Minutes
                   What will you do differently when you return to your
                      job?
   7.     Summary
                                                                                  5 Minutes
                    Summarise the main issues




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Suggestion: there is a lot of content to be covered in this session. Perhaps for future versions of this
training we could divide it up into 2 or 3 separate sessions, for example, 1. Contract Administration and
Supervision, 2. Reporting and Payments.




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    4.4.1 Introduction

    Briefly introduce the topic for the session. The participants are asked to introduce themselves
    by stating their names, their organizations and the reason(s) why they signed up for the
    training.


    The facilitator may then ask one of the participants to lead a discussion identifying what the
    participants expect to learn from this module. The expectations should then be noted on a flip
    chart and hanged up on the board or wall.


    4.4.2 Session Objective

    To understand the main administrative issues concerning procurement contracts. By the end
    of the session, the participants should be able to:
               Identify council roles in the control of the performance of contracts;
               Explain the contents of a contract file;
               Know the management structure for a contract;
               Explain the key requirements in making contract payments.


    4.4.3 Key Issues

    The key issues to be discussed are:
               Responsibilities of the district;
               The Contract file;
               The Contract supervisor;
               Contract registers;
               Payments to suppliers;
               Contract amendments.


    4.4.4 Method

    The facilitator presents a lecture on the general contract administration process by identifying
    the key players in contract administration and their roles as well as the procedures for
    payments to contractors and the required documents.


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                                                                                                      Formatted: Body Text 2, Indent: Left: 0.25"


! You will need to refer to the following content in the Participant Book to assist you with this
lecture:
14.3 Contract Effectiveness                                                                           Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

14.4 Contract Supervision and Administration – goods                                                  Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

14.5 Contract Supervision and Administration – works
14.6 Contract Supervision and Administration – services
14.7 Contract Performance
14.8 Procurement Reporting
14.9 Procurement Monitoring and Evaluation


    4.4.5 Group Work                                                                                  Formatted: Space After: 0 pt, Line spacing:
                                                                                                      Multiple 1.15 li
                                                                                                      Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

Activity 3.1: Dispute Resolution Role Play
This activity is designed to give participants practice in resolving the kinds of disputes that can   Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

arise during the contract management phase of district projects.

As a lead in to the activity, ask participants to brainstorm the following questions (see 14.7.4 in   Formatted: Font: Bold, Italic

the Participant Book). Participants may be able to share some of their own experiences of dispute
resolution.
     What are the possible sources of conflicts during the contract management process?              Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li

     What should be considered in developing a conflict resolution mechanism that is quick,          Formatted: Left, Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li,
                                                                                                      Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" +
        fair, transparent and simple?                                                                 Indent at: 0.5"
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: 12 pt
1. Ask participants to work in groups of 4, preferably in a mix of districts.                         Formatted: Font: Times New Roman
                                                                                                      Formatted: Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
2. Each group should prepare a brief scenario of a dispute that may arise during the                  Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
implementation of a contract. For example - A contractor wants to be paid more money                  Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
                                                                                                      Italic
even though a contract has been signed. The contractor refuses to work until he gets more
money.                                                                                                Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt



3. The scenario can be based on a real situation that has happened in the past if relevant.

4. Groups should try to include as much relevant information about the circumstances in
their scenario as possible. For example, if a contractor wants to be paid more money, what
are the reasons why?




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5. Each group should briefly present their scenario. Then choose 1 of the scenarios to use
as the basis for a dispute resolution role play.

6. Choose 1 person from the group to act as the contractor and 1 person to act as the
Project Manager. 1 person should also be the Executive Secretary.

7. We will assume that initial discussions between the contractor and Project Manager
have failed. The Executive Secretary has been brought in to try and bring about a
resolution.

8. The contractor should present his side of the story, followed by the Project Manager.

9. The Executive Secretary should make a decision on who is correct in the scenario.

                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 20 pt
! Note: it may be helpful to refer to Form C2 – Conditions of Particular Application in              Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
the set of Somaliland District Bidding Documents, to assist with resolving the dispute,              Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt,
particularly if the issue is labour related.                                                         Bold, Italic
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt

10. The decision should be presented to the whole group along with reasons why.                      Formatted: Font: Italic
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
                                                                                                     Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Questions for Discussion:                                                                           Formatted: Font: Times New Roman, 12 pt
Discuss these questions as a whole group:

        What did you think of the decision of the Executive Secretary? Why?
        Do you think both parties were happy with the outcome of the dispute resolution?
         Why/Why not?
        What alternative responses could the Executive Secretary have chosen for this
         situation?

    The facilitator uses the counting method to divide the participants into three or four groups
    and instructs them to discuss different ways in which corruption is perpetrated in
    procurement and actions that can be taken to fight corruption in procurement.
    Each group should identify one person to make a presentation to the plenary.




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    4.4.6 Lessons Learnt, Application and Summary

                                                                                                      Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.25", No bullets or
         ! Note: the amount of time you can spend here will depend on how much time you have          numbering

    left in the session. If time is short you might only be able to present a very brief summary of
    the key points and move on to the next session.


    To help participants reflect on what they have learnt in the session and to gauge their
    understanding of the content, ask 1 or more of the following questions:
       1. Can you identify some of the duties of a technical supervisor?
       2. Under what circumstances might a contract amendment be necessary?
       3. Who is responsible for procurement monitoring and evaluation?

Answers: (note that these can all be found in the Participant Book):
       1. These include discuss technical matters with the contractor, ensure that the contractor     Formatted: Font: Italic

   understands the technical design and specification, inspect the works and advise the               Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Indent: Left:
                                                                                                      0.25", Line spacing: Multiple 1.15 li, No bullets
   contractor and district management if there is any deviation from the technical design and         or numbering
   specification, help to solve problems that arise during implementation of the contract,
   prepare progress reports, issue certificate of payment detailing the quantity of work
   performed by the contractor against each item in the priced BOQs and the valuation of work
   completed.
   2. Contract amendment may become necessary as a result of the application of price                 Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Indent: Left:
                                                                                                      0.25", Line spacing: single
   variations specified in the contract, the resolution of disputes, additional or reduced
   requirements by the district, agreements to extend the time schedule, or from accepted             Formatted: Font: Italic

   increases or decreases in prices.
       3. Districts and MOI have responsibilities for district procurement monitoring and             Formatted: Left, Indent: Left: 0.5", Line
                                                                                                      spacing: Multiple 1.15 li
       evaluation.The facilitator asks the participants what they have learnt from the session.
                                                                                                      Formatted: Font: Italic
       You may ask questions like:
    What are the duties of a contract supervisor?                                                    Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Indent: Left:
                                                                                                      0.25", Line spacing: single, No bullets or
    What are the contents of a contract file?                                                        numbering
                                                                                                      Formatted: Body Text 2, Left, Indent: Left:
                                                                                                      0.25", Line spacing: single

    4.4.7 Application:

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
               How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
               What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    4.4.8 Summary

    The facilitator should re-cap the process and content covered during the session.

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    4.4.94.4.7 Teaching Materials/Aids/References

               Flip charts/boards, Markers/chalk, masking tape
               Local Government Procurement Guidelines
               The Participant’s Hand book
                                                                                       Formatted: Outline numbered + Level: 1 +
                                                                                       Numbering Style: Bullet + Aligned at: 0.5" +
                                                                                      Tab after: 0.75" + Indent at: 0.75"




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    4.5 Session Two: Ethical and Integrity Issues in Procurement




                         DESIGN AND DURATION OF SESSION FIVE

  No.                                   Activity                               Time
                                                                             Allocation
   1.     Introduction
                  Energizer - True or False
                                                                             5 Minutes
                  Mention topic
   2.     Session Objectives
                    The facilitator presents the session objectives
                                                                             5 Minutes
   3.     Methods
                 Brainstorming on key issues
                                                                             35 Minutes
                 Lecture filling in the gaps
   4.     Group Work
                    Exercise Three: Unethical Conduct.
                                                                             25 Minutes
   5.     Lessons Learnt
                                                                             5 Minutes
                   Key issues about ethics
   6.     Application
          Questions about the relevance of the information to each
          participant’s job and responsibility:

                    How can you apply the information that you have         10 Minutes
                     acquired?
                    What will you do differently when you return to your
                     job?
   7.     Summary
                                                                             5 Minutes
                    Summarise the main issues




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    4.5.1 Introduction

    The facilitator starts with the “True or False” Energizer (see below). The facilitator then
    recaps on the previous session and mentions the topic for this session.


      True or False
          The Tender Committee opens the tender bids (True)
                The Secretary of the Tender Committee negotiates with the winning bidder
                 (False)
                The Secretary of the Tender Committee awards contracts of a low value
                 (False)
                The Secretary of the Tender Committee advertises and receives the bids
                 (True)
                The Evaluation Committee awards tenders (False)
                The Executive Secretary signs all contracts (True)
                The Tender Committee approves the Contract document (True)
                The Evaluation Committee ranks the bids (True)
                The Secretary of the Tender Committee approves tender invitation documents
                 (False)
                The Tender Committee blacklists bad tenderers (True)
                The Tender Committee determines the tender process (True)


    4.5.2 Session Objectives

    To explain the major ethical issues in procurement and apply them. By the end of this session
    the participants should be able to:
               Define ethics and integrity;
               Explain the importance of ethics in public procurement;
               Perform procurement activities transparently;
               Understand the ethical code of conduct;
               Identify the major forms, reasons and measures for preventing corruption in the
                procurement system.



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    4.5.3 Key Issues

    The main issues for discussion are:
               Definition of Ethics and Integrity;
               Transparency;
               The Code of Ethics;
               Corruption.


    4.5.4 Method

    The facilitator starts with brainstorming on the key issues. He/she asks ask the participants the
    following questions:
               What do you understand by the term ethics?
               What is integrity?
               Why do you think those engaged in procurement should act ethically?
               What are the causes of corruption in Local Government procurement?
               How can we prevent corruption within the procurement system in Local Government?


    The facilitator then goes on to give a lecture around the key issues and to fill in the gaps in
    the participants’ responses.


    4.5.5 Group Work

    The facilitator divides the participants into three or four groups and requests them to attempt
    Exercise Three: Unethical Conduct Exercise. Each group elects a representative to make a
    presentation to the plenary. Groups should put their “list” on a flip chart.


      Responses might include:
                    Councillors being suppliers;
                    Kick backs to officers of the district/municipality or
                     District Tender Committee;
                    Rigging the tender receiving process.




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    4.5.6 Lessons Learnt

    Ask the participants what they have learnt in this session.


    4.5.7 Application

    To help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained, the
    facilitator should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions:
               How can you apply the information that you have acquired?
               What will you do differently when you return to your job?


    4.5.8 Summary

    The facilitator should summarise the key issues of the session.


    4.5.9 Teaching Materials Aids/References

               Flip Charts/Boards, Markers/Chalk, Masking tape, projector
               The Code of Conduct for Government Employees/Local Government Staff?
               The Participant’s Handbook




   THE UNETHICAL CONDUCT LIST EXERCISE
   Each member of your group should note down on a piece of paper, two instances of unethical
   conduct, which you have experienced in procurement in your district/municipality. The group
   members should then convene and discuss each member’s submissions and agree on a common
   position.


   Each group should then formulate a list of unethical behaviour in districts/municipalities and put
   it on a flip chart ready for presentation to the plenary. One member of the group will make the
   presentation.




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    4.5 Evaluation Session



                    DESIGN AND DURATION OF EVALUATION SESSION

  No.                                  Activity                                Time
                                                                             Allocation
   1.     Introduction and Session Objectives
                    Introduce the topic
                                                                             5 Minutes
                    Facilitator presents the session objectives

   2.     Methods
                    Conduct Evaluation process using information given in
                                                                             25 Minutes
                     Annex 1.

          Total time:                                                        30 minutes




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    5    ANNEX 1: COURSE EVALUATION FORMS

    Set out in the following pages is a set of evaluation forms, which the trainer should use in
    evaluating the training intervention.


    The evaluation is in two major parts:
               Evaluation forms for the trainer;
               Evaluation forms for the participants.


    There are three kinds of information which, you as a trainer need:
               Information about learning – have participants learned?
               Information about training – Was the training effective?
               Information about organisation of the course e.g. room layout, reading materials etc.


     As a trainer you will evaluate the course at three levels.
               Pre-programme evaluation
               In-programme evaluation
               Post programme evaluation


    The participant’s evaluation form is for use at the end of the course or module.




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    Trainer’s Pre-Programme Evaluation form


    Generally, do all aspects of the content and running of the programme appear appropriate for
    the identified needs (circle “Y” for Yes or “N” for No).
               Have the appropriate LGA personnel been consulted about the course need? Y N
               Have the aims and objectives been agreed upon with the beneficiaries? Y N
               Are the programme aims and objectives relevant to the identified need? Y N
               Is the design of the programme considering daily content, place and training methods
                suitable for the expected participants? Y N
               Have the participants been identified, selected and informed? Y N
               Is the training venue appropriate? Y N
               Are the training materials ready? Y N
               Have the facilitators been identified and informed? Y N
               Do the selected facilitators have the right knowledge, skills and time? Y N
               Are all the facilities (including equipment, visual aids, discussion rooms, etc)
                available? Y N
               Are the facilities, training methods, etc appropriate for the objectives of the
                participants? Y N
               Have all the in-programme and post-programme validation and evaluation
                arrangements been agreed upon and established? Y N
               Have all the administrative procedures been set up? Y N


    Note: The trainer should qualify his/her responses in the evaluation report where appropriate.




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    Trainers In-Programme Evaluation (Circle “Y” for Yes or “N” for No)
               Are the participants enjoying the programme? Y N
               Are there indications of participants’ dissatisfaction with the programme (e.g. constant
                moving out of the room)? Y N
               Have the participants learned what they needed to learn? Y N
               Are they achieving the objectives? Y N
               Do the participants find the topics relevant? Y N
               Do the participants find the training methods relevant, effective and enjoyable? Y N
               Are they satisfied with the training equipment, facilities and administrative
                arrangements? Y N
               What difficulties are they facing?
               Was the tea/coffee, refreshments and food served okay? Y N
               Did the facilitators show up at the right time? Y N
               Did every participant take part in discussions or did the trainer do all the talking? Y N
               Are the participants satisfied with the trainers/facilitators? Y N
               Do the assessment tasks reveal the learning that is taking place? Y N
               Are there any alterations that are necessary? Y N


    Note: To answer most of the above questions the trainer will have to observe the participants
    and ask them relevant evaluation questions as the course progresses. For example
               What did you think of the course?
               Comment on the running of the course so far.
               How was today’s lunch?
               Did you manage to follow the handouts given out yesterday? Where they good?
               What did you learn from the session? etc

    Let the participants “do” what they came to learn, according to the objectives of the course
    e.g. describe, list, show, identify.




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    Trainer’s Post-Programme Evaluation form


    Post-Programme evaluation should be scheduled approximately 3 months after the training.


    Learning Performance


    Did the participants meet the objectives of the programme? Y N
    Did all aspects of the design and implementation of the programme work as intended? Y N


    Did the participants:
               Find the objectives relevant? Y N
               Find the content generally appropriate? Y N
               Find the performance of facilitators appropriate? Y N
               Find that their expectations had been met? Y N
               Consider any part of the programme particularly relevant/not relevant/useful/not
                useful? Y N
               Consider that some elements of the programme should be omitted? Y N
               Think that some topics should be added to the course? Y N
               Like or dislike any part of the training programme and training methods? Y N
               Like the meals and refreshments? Y N
               Like the composition of the group? Y N
               Consider the facilities adequate? Y N
               Consider the administrative support adequate? Y N


               What important changes did the participants recommend to any of the elements noted
                above?
                _____________________________________________________________________
                _____________________________________________________________________
                _____________________________________________________________________
                __________________


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               What changes would you as a trainer recommend to the organising, running, and
                subject matter of the course?
                ___________________________________________________________________________________
                ___________________________________________________________________________________
                ___________________________________________________________________________________



    Job performance


               Have the supervisors of the participants recognised any improvement in the
                performance of the participants? Y N


               What    parts     of   the   programme    have   the   participants   put   in   practice?
                _____________________________________________________________________
                _____________________________________________________________________
                _____________________________________________________________________


               Did the participants find the course helpful when they returned to their jobs? Y N
               Have the participants been given feedback on their performance? Y N
               Do the participants require further training? Y N
               On the whole what difference did the training course make to the trainees’ jobs?




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                         Trainers’ Handbook: Local Government Procurement

    Participants’ Evaluation Form

    The purpose of this evaluation exercise is to give the organisers and facilitators of this course
    a feedback on the effectiveness and administrative efficiency of the course. Your views and
    responses will help in improving similar training interventions in the future. Kindly answer
    the following questions truthfully and as objectively as possible.

    A.      Course Effectiveness

    Given below are rankings for course content, performance of facilitators and relevance of the
    session to your job. By referring to the learning objectives which where given at the
    beginning of each session, please rate the degree to which the session subject matter helped
    you to understand the subject (circle).

    Note:              1 = Poor               2 = Fair
                       3 = Good               4 = Very good

                       5 = Excellent

    Subject                            Content        Performance            Relevance
1. The Procurement Framework           12345          12345                  12345
2. The Procurement Cycle and
    Planning                           12345          12345                  12345
3. Methods of Procurement              12345          12345                  12345
4. Supply Market Analysis              12345          12345                  12345
5. Specifications                      12345          12345                  12345
6. The Bidding process                 12345          12345                  12345
7. Supplier Evaluation and
    Selection                          12345          12345                  12345


8. Negotiation                         12345          12345                  12345
9. Orders and Contracts                12345          12345                  12345
10. Contract Administration            12345          12345                  12345


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11. Monitoring
    Contract Performance              12345          12345                 12345
12. Ethical and Integrity Issues      12345          12345                 12345



    B. Additional Information (Rate)


1. Training methods used                             12345
2. Participants’ involvement                         12345
3. Handouts/Training materials                       12345
4. Time Allocations                                  12345
5. Sequencing of sessions                            12345
6. Meeting of your expectations                      12345
7. Selection/composition of participants             12345
8. Length/duration of the course                     12345
9. Meals and refreshments                            12345
10. Facilities/seating arrangements                  12345


11. What topics should be added?
    ___________________________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________________________


12. What topics should be removed?
    ___________________________________________________________________________
    ___________________________________________________________________________


13. Did you dislike any of the training methods (state)?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________


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14. What parts of the course and training methods did you consider particularly useful (state)?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________


15. What changes would you recommend to any of the elements noted in B(1-10) above?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
16. General comments
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________


                     Thank you for taking time to complete this evaluation.




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                      Trainers’ Handbook: Local Government Procurement

Trainer Activity Sheet 1 – Bids



 Name of Contractor:                             Name of Contractor:
 ………… Working Together                           ………… Hard Working
 Constructions …………………..                         Builders………………….

 Bid Price:                                      Bid Price:
 ………100,000,000                                  ………85,000,000
 Ssh……………………                                     Ssh……………………




 Name of Contractor:                             Name of Contractor:
 …………Slow and Steady                             …………Quick Job Builders
 Constructions ………………….                          ………………….

 Bid Price:                                      Bid Price:
 ………120,000,000                                  ………90,000,000 Ssh……………………
 Ssh……………………




 Name of Contractor:                             Name of Contractor:
 …………Must Win Constructions                      …………Desert Sky Builders
 ………………….                                        ………………….

 Bid Price:                                      Bid Price:
 ………90,000,000 Ssh……………………                       ………125,000,000
                                                 Ssh……………………




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