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In(k)formation by 5Y5U7F0

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									  In(k)formation


                 Mudit Agrawal
                 Class: Info-centric design of Systems
                        Spring ‘07



3rd April 2007            University of Maryland, College Park   1
       Motivation
            With the digital age, is it possible to revolutionize
             publishing?

            Will paper be still around after 10 years as the chief
             source of ink or printed information?

            If not, how and where will our ink-information be
             stored?

            If yes, will it be any different?


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    Contents

            Information storage media
            Paper Industry
            Electronic Paper
            Digital Paper
            Stylus and Digital Pens
            Applications
            Proposal for digital-exam!


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    Information Storage
      Old Storage media
                simple,
                low capacity
                difficult to duplicate                                           petroglyphs
                difficult to distribute

      Today’s digital environment
                huge storage capacities
                simple distribution.

      Nature’s storage media
                Tree rings - analog representation of the patterns of flood and
                 drought.
                Crystal structures - representing patterns and arrangements of
                 atoms and molecules.
                DNA, digital encoding of information in patterns of genes and
                 proteins.
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    Digital Age
            Data is stored all around you

            On
                 floppy disks,
                 barcodes,
                 identification and bankcards.

            Data can be in many forms:
                 identification numbers,
                 photographs,
                 computer files,
                 audio and videotape,
                 CD-ROMs
                 DVD-ROMs



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    Still!

            A recent estimate of information
             storage estimated 1% is stored in
             recordable media such as disk drives
             and CD-ROM, 4% in photographic
             microfilm and fiche, and 95% on
             paper.



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    Statistics!
            A tree can produce about 80,500 sheets of paper
            It requires about 786 million trees to produce the
             world's annual paper supply




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    Paper!
      Printed Paper is
                Cheap,
                Cheerful,
                Ubiquitous

       It's The Bedrock Of A Billion-Dollar Global Industry

      Why paper still?

      Of course, because paper has entrenched advantages.
                tangibility: pretty much everyone prefers paper to screens.
                You can carry it around;
                it's compact,
                it's convenient
                doesn't break.
                It doesn't need outside power.
                totally reliable.

In other words, it's everything a laptop computer is not.
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    Traditional Paper 

            Inspite of all these added advantages,
             conventional paper lacks
                Fast and efficient search
                Reusability
                Piles!




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                 Tablet PC or Notebook?

                               NO!



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                 Electronic Paper

                                And


                  Digital Paper


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    Electronic Paper

            Mimics appearance of regular ink on
             paper
            Doesn’t use backlight to illuminate
             pixels
            Reflects light like ordinary paper
            Bistable


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    Electronic Paper … (continued)

            Intelligent Paper

            First developed in the 1970s by Nick Sheridon at
             Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center.

            Gyricon – first electronic paper

            Concept from Dot-matrix printer – words and
             pictures can be broken into dots or pixels


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    Electronic Paper … (continued)

            Contained polyethylene spheres between 20 and
             100 micrometres across.

            Each sphere is composed of
                negatively charged black plastic on one side and
                positively charged white plastic on the other
                each bead is thus a dipole.

            The spheres are embedded in a transparent
             silicone sheet, with each sphere suspended in a
             bubble of oil so that they can rotate freely.

3rd April 2007                  University of Maryland, College Park   14
    Electronic Paper … (continued)

            The polarity of the voltage applied to each pair of
             electrodes then determines whether the white or
             black side is face-up, thus giving the pixel a white or
             black appearance.

            Negative charge to electrode  black pixel




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    Applications
            Phillips and Sony developing commercial
             applications.

            Shipped developer kits of 6 inch, 800x600
             resolution electronic paper on November 1,
             2005.

            In February 2006, the Flemish daily De Tijd
             distributed an electronic-ink version of the
             paper

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    Applications … (continued)

            Flexible display cards enable generation of a one-
             time password to reduce online banking and
             transaction fraud.

            Compared with existing key fob tokens, display
             cards offer a flat and thin alternative to existing key
             fob tokens for data security.

            Motorola's new style mobile phone, called the
             Motofone, also uses a monochrome electronic
             paper screen

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                 Are we missing something?




                                                               
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    Digital Paper and Pen

            Motivation: Handwriting!

            Need for an interactive paper

            Precursors:
                Wacom Tablet
                Pegasus Pen

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    Wacom Tablet




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    Wacom Tablet
            cordless, battery-free and pressure-sensitive pens

            uses a patented electromagnetic resonance
             technology

            tablet provides power to the pen through resonant
             coupling

            A grid of wires that transmits a send and receive
             signal


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    Application: GKB




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    Wacom  GKB  Details…




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         Wacom  GKB  Details…



The channel mode of the gesture keyboard.




                                                      In (a), the gestures are of same shape but spaced
                                                      out in different (x,y) coordinates whereas, in (b),
                                                      the gestures occur in same space but separated in
                                                      the shape dimension.
     3rd April 2007                  University of Maryland, College Park                            26
    Pegasus Pen




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    Digital Paper and Pen
            Anoto!

            Paper
                with proprietary patterns of dots printed on it.
                each dot is spaced about 0.3mm apart
                the full pattern consists of 669,845,157,115,773,458,169 dots
                encompasses an area exceeding 4.6 million km²
                this corresponds to 73 trillion sheets of letter-size paper.




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    Pattern




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    Anoto Pen




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    Process
            The digital pen takes digital snapshots of the
             pattern

            A calculation of the exact position of the
             digital pen is made

            Possible to retrieve
                what has been written with the digital pen and
                where on the paper this was written.

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    The system




                                                        Other Pens

                                                        • Logitech IO pen
                                                        • Magicomm G303
                                                        • Maxell digital pen
                                                        • Nokia SU-1B pen

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    Implications!

            Media of storage reversed!

            Pen stores the data, not paper

            Move around with your pen, and dock
             in, to transfer the data wherever you
             want!

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    Applications:
    Paper Presentation Tool




for giving PowerPoint presentations controlled by a paper-based user interface

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    Applications:
    Encyclopedia




        combining printed information with content delivered on a CD-ROM


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    Applications:
    Semi-digital City Map




         providing supplementary digital information about restaurants, cinemas,
         shopping facilities etc


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    Applications:
    Scientific Annotations




                 publication annotation application was designed to support
                 researchers in their annotations, recommendations and
                 cross-referencing of articles



3rd April 2007                     University of Maryland, College Park       37
    Applications:
    Print-n-Link




           Print-n-Link uses technologies for interactive paper to enhance
           the reading process by enabling users to access digital information
           and/or searches for cited documents from a printed version of a
           publication
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    Applications:
    Laboratory Notebooks

            Research lab notebooks are pocket
             books for documenting scientific
             experiments

            Click and search for related field

            Match the results

3rd April 2007           University of Maryland, College Park   39
    Application:
    Handwriting Recognition!
                          Process:
                                 Smoothing
                                 De-hooking
                                 Normalization
                                 Ink vector interpolation in spatial
                                  domain (from temporal)
                                 Training a classifier for simple
                                  generic shapes
                                 Pre-processed ink for recognition




3rd April 2007   University of Maryland, College Park                   40
    Applications:
    Others

            Ambulance

            X-ray annotations

            Doctor e-diagnosis



3rd April 2007           University of Maryland, College Park   41
          Digital-Exam System Proposal

 Prepare the versions
  Of Question paper
                                Associate Patterns with
                                each version
                                                                           Distribute papers to students




Answer matching
Result generation


                                                             Examination      Distribute Pens to students
                        Dock and transfer
                        the ink
      3rd April 2007              University of Maryland, College Park                             42
    Gmail Paper!

            Google Paper is a new feature being
             promoted on the Gmail home page.
             You can request a physical copy of
             any email with the click of a button,
             and Google will deliver paper printouts
             to you in 2-4 days via the mail.

                      1st APRIL 
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    References
            http://invsee.asu.edu/nmodules/ismmod/intro.html
            http://www2.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-
             2003/print.htm
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_paper
            http://www.sipix.com/technology/index.html
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wacom
            http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/5.05/ff_digitalink_pr.html
            http://www.eetindia.com:8088/ARTICLES/2006AUG/C/2006AUG28_I
             NDIADESIGNS_HPLabsIndia.HTM
            Kauranen(o.J.): The ANOTO pen - Why light scattering matters.
             IZMF (2004)
            http://www.globis.ethz.ch/research/paper/applications



3rd April 2007                      University of Maryland, College Park      44

								
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